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Electric Railway 



' ^ 4 So 

July to December, 1913 

McGraw Publishing Company, Inc. 
239 West 39th Street 
New York 




July 5 pages i to 52 

July 12 " 53 to 90 

July 19 " 91 to 126 

July 26 " 127 to 166 

Aug. 2 " 167 to 208 

Aug. 9 " 209 to 248 

Aug. 16 " 249 to 288 

Aug. 23 " 289 to 324 

Aug. 30 " 325 to 362 

Sept. 6 " 363 to 406 

Sept. 13 " 407 to 446 

Sept. 20 " 447 to 484 

Sept. 27 " 485 to 524 

Oct. 4 " 525 to 670 

Oct. 11 " 671 to 714 

Oct. 14 " 715 to 750 

Oct. 15 " 7Si to 792 

Oct. 16 " 793 to 834 

Oct. 17 " 83s to 874 

Oct. 18 " 875 to 916 

Oct. 25 " 917 to 956 

Nov. 1 " 957 to 1006 

Nov. 8 " 1007 to 1044 

Nov. 15 " 1045 to 1082 

Nov. 22 '• 1083 to 1 128 

Nov. 29 " 1 129 to 1 164 

Dec. 6 " 1165 to 1218 

Dec. 13 " 1219 to 1266 

Dec. 20 " 1267 to 1314 

Dec. 27 " 1315 to 1360 


Accident claim department: 

Assessed damages in accident cases should 

be proportioned according to a recog- 
nized scale, 4 

Damaged clothing, Little Rock Railway & 

Electric Co., 181 

Human element and accident claims 

[Schneider], 22; Discussion, 17; 
Comment, 2 

Index bureaus: 

Practical value of [Boynton], 105 
Value of, in dealing with fraudulent 
claims [Bishop], 105 

International Ry., Buffalo, Plans, 261 

Prevention of accidents: 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., Acci- 
dent lectures and moving pic- 
tures, 950, *1222; Comment, 1220 
Chicago City Ry., 120 
Cleveland, Automobile menace, 942 
Co-operation with automobilists, San 

Jose, Cal., 401 
Detroit United Ry., Safety first cam- 
paign, 1122, 1261, 1356 
[Drown], 780 

Free movies in Texas, 1123 

How to prevent accidents [Rockwell], 
463; Comment, 447 

Jackson, Miss., Campaign, 665 

Lexington, Ky., 1356 

Making attractive, 957 

Memphis, Tenn., Reports on near- 
accidents, 144 

Oregon-Washington Railroad & Navi- 
gation Co., Safety committee 
[Smith], 104 

Portland, Oregon, Prize for best paper 
on elimination of accidents, 1076 

Rochester, N. Y., Results, 951 

Safety committees, Value of [Carson], 
778; Discussion [Macdougall, 
Bennett], 779 

Safety first exhibit, Pennsylvania 
R. R., *934 

Seattle, Safety Committee meetings, 

Toronto, Can., 480, 519, 660, 1039 
Washington Water Power Co., Safety 
committee [Aston], 103 
— — Problems [White], 24 

Trial of personal injury cases: 

Commission proposed [Falknor], 137 
Court procedure [Allen], 139 
Legislation changing court procedure 
[Winders], 137 

Unreported accident or "blind case" 

[Handlon], [Young], 106 


Automobile, Detroit, Mich., Railway men 

in, 275 

Boiler explosion, Richmond Light & Rail- 
road Co., 945, 1023; Comment, 1008 

Chicago, Harding Avenue substation, 

Short-circuit accident, 1106 

Accidents: (Continued) 

Chicago near-side car accident record, 46 

Interstate electric railways, for three 

months, 356 

Long Island R. R., near College Point 

station, 520 

Los Angeles, Pacific Electric Ry., 121, 666 

Milwaukee Northern Ry., 319 

Ogden Rapid Transit Co., 85 

San Francisco, Napa & Calistoga R. R., 55, 

519, 919 

Trespassing problem, 960 

Accountants' Association: 


Education, Report, 769 

Engineering Accounting, Report, 852; 

Discussion, 840 
Fares and transfers, Report, 811; Dis- 
cussion, 798 
Interline accounting, Report, 894 
Overhead charges, Report, 895: Dis- 
cussion, 900 
Standard classification of accounts. 
Meeting, 72; Report, 768; Discus 
sion, 761 

Statistical unit for car operation, Re- 
port, 824 

Variable rates of fare, Memorandum, 


Committees lor 1913-1914, 1196 

Convention sessions, 761, 798, 840, 900 

Delegates to convention of National Asso- 
ciation of Railway Commissioners, 
Report [Duffy and Ham], 767 

Papers at convention, 765, 815, 863, 864, 


President M. W. Glover, *902 

President's address [Neal], 759 

(See also Central Electric Railway Ac- 
countant's Association.) 

American Electric Railway Accountants' 

Association meeting, 72; Reports, 768, 

852; Discussions, 761, 840 
American Electric Railway Engineering 

Association, Report, 852; Discussion, 


Counting nickels by weight [Martin] 

c 1198 

Engineering [Davies], 864 

Essentials for public service accounting 

[Elkins], 1276; Comment, 1267 

Fare accounting. Letters from various rail- 
ways, 582 

Interline, Report of Accountants' Associa- 
tion, 894 

Interstate Commerce Commission, Meeting 

with Accountants' Association, 72 

National Association of Railway Commis- 
sioners, Report, 1013 

Passenger accounts, Report of committee 

of Central Electric Railway Account- 
ants' Association, 25 

Perpetual inventory, 1168 

Questions and answers under uniform sys- 
tem of accounts, 43, 239, 398, 705 

Separation of operating expenses ordered 

by Interstate Commerce Commission, 

Sinking funds [Forse], 863; Discussion, 


Statistical unit for car operation. Report 

of Accountants' Association, 824 

Statistical units used in electric railway 

accounts [Emery], 815; Discussion, 

Storeroom, New Bedford, Mass., Union 

Street Ry., 295 

Unit cost work order system [Kalweit], 

765; Discussion, 762 

Voucher indexing simplified [Ford]; Dis- 
cussion, 19 

Accounting department, Conferences between 
auditor and employees [Lasher], 895; 
Discussion^ $QA 

Accumulator cars»«; {See Storage battery 
cars.) * • *• •• 

Advertising: • * ' ! 

■ Car advertising,. Jsew York State Rys., 71 

Illegible car notices, 325 

Moving pictures for traffic promotion, 364 

Air brakes. (See Brakes, Air.) 
Akron, Ohio, Municipal ownership ordinance, 

Akron, Ohio, Northern Ohio Traction & Light 


— —Air brakes. Order of Ohio Public Service 
<;{ Commission, 1031 

Catenary construction on cut-off, *983 

Cut-off line, New, 152. *983 

Extensions in Akron, 513, 701, 1251 

Gorge power station, *336 

■ Kenmore shops [Lathrop], *878 

Security issues, 475 

Substation, Portable [Shear], *261 

Alabama Light and Traction Association, An- 
nual meeting, 1195 

Albany, N. Y., Union Traction Co., School 
fares and tickets, 318, 480 

Alberta, Canada, Light railway act, 1256 
Allegheny Valley Ry. (See Tarentum, Pa.) 
Allentown, Pa., Lehigh Valley Transit Co.: 

Stevens, R. P., Tribute to, 313 

Welfare program, 85 

Amalgamated Association of Street and Elec- 
tric Railway Employees, Salt Lake 
convention, Comment, 327 
American Cities Co. (See New York) 
American Electric Railway Accountants' Asso- 
ciation. (See Accountants' Associa- 

American Electric Railway Association: 


Advertising in, 1165 
Advisory committee, Meeting, 1106; 
Report, 827 
— ■ — Bureau of Fare Research, 893 

Committees : 

Aera advisory, Report, 827 

Changes in constitution and by-laws, 

Report, 820 
Company sections, Report, 866; Meet- 
ing, 1294 

Compensation for carrying United 
States mail. Report, 867; Letter to 
Congress, 1337 
Education, Report, 780 
Federal relations, Report, 872 
Insurance, Report, 803 
Joint use of poles, Report, *855; Dis- 
cussion, 844; Comment, 836 
Passenger transportation service, Re- 
port on cost, 865 
Public relations, Report, 829 
Taxation matters. Report, 846 
Welfare of employees, Report, 812; 
Comment, 793 

Committees for 1914, 1247 

Company sections, Report, 866 

Constitution and by-laws, Report on 

changes, 820 

Convention : 

Advance registration, 407 
Badges and badge privileges, 720 
Entertainments, 685, 715, 718, 720, 

754, 755, 796, 838 
Exhibits, 715, 735-744, 785, 786 
Exhibits, Significance of, 876 
Man who stays at home, Message for, 

Papers, 770, 781, 806, 813, 814, 821, 
822, 825, 850, 853, 858, 861. 868 

Plans and program, 363, 388, 671, 692, 

President Harries' call to executives to 
attend, 192; Comment, 169 

President's address [Harries], 756; 
Comment, 751 

Railroad rates, 192 

Reception, 719 

Sessions, 760, 803, 844 

Special trains, 721 

Success of, 875 

Trolley trip from New England, 447, 

459, 658, *728, *784 
Vital problems to be considered, 671 

Convention locations, Suggestion, 830 

Monthly reports showing earnings, and ex- 
penses of the electric railway industry. 
Plans for, 109 

Opinions of purchasing agents regarding 

formation of an association, 1108 

President Charles M. Black, *839 

— — Publicity and a campaign of education, 671 

Secretaries H. C. Donecker and E. B. Bur- 

ritt, *719 

Secretary II. C. Donecker, Dinner to, 692 

Secretary-treasurer, Report [Donecker], 


Sheets for newspaper use sent to member 

companies, 1 

American Electric Railway Claim Agents' Asso- 
ciation. (See Claims Association.) 

American Electric Railway Engineering Asso- 

Committee work for 1914, 1092, 1248 

Committees : 

Block signals. Report, 774; Discussion, 

763; Comment, 752 
Building and structures, Report, 805; 

Discussion, 800 
Education, Report, 890 
Electrolysis, Report, 818 
Engineering Accounting, Report, 852; 

Discussion, 840 
Equipment, Report, 891 ; Discussion, 


Heavy electric traction. Report, 806 

Life of railway physical property, Re- 
port. 870; Discussion, 841 

Power distribution, Report, 730; Dis- 
cussion, 726 

Power generation. Report, 809; Dis- 
cussion, 802; Comment, 794 

Resolutions, Report, 891 

Standards : 

Innovations and worth of, 835 
Report, 735; Comment, 716 

(Abbreviations: Mllustrated. cCorrespondence.) 

July-December, 1913. 1 



American Electric Railway Engineering Asso- 

Committees: (Continued) 

Train operation for city service, Re- 
port, 775; Discussion, 764; Com- 
ment, 751 

Train operation for interurban service, 
Report, 782; Comment, 775 

Way matters, Report, *851; Discussion, 

_ Convention sessions, 726, 800, 840, 845, 


Engineering Manual, 769 

Joint meeting with Transportation and 

Traffic Association, 763 

President J. H. Hanna, *902 

President's address [ Schreiber], 722 

Secretary-treasurer, Report [Donecker], 


Specifications for overhead trolley con- 
struction, *883 

— — Subjects assigned to committees, Limiting 
number of, 1129 

American Electric Railway Manufacturers' As- 
sociation : 

— —Election of officers, 829, 854 

Executive committee meeting, Annual, 1274 

Exhibit hall plans, 98 

Golf tournament, 728 

President C. S. Hawley, *903 

American Electric Railway Transportation and 
Traffic Association: 

— ■ — Committee meetings, December, 1243 

Committees : 

Block signals, Report, 774; Discussion, 

763; Comment, 752 
Executive, Meeting, 1294 
Express and freight traffic. Report, 
807; Discussion, 799; Comment, 

Fares and transfers, Report, 811; Dis- 
cussion, 798 

Individual membership, Report, 721 

Passenger traffic, Report, 849; Discus- 
sion, 843 

Rules, Report, 729 

Schedules and timetables, Report, 847; 
Discussion, 842 

To develop uniform definitions, Re- 
port, 897 

Train operation for city service, Re- 
port, 775; Discussion, 764; Com- 
ment, 751 

Train operation for interurban service. 

Report, 782; Comment, 775 
Training transportation employees. Re- 
port, 854; Discussion, 842; Com- 
ment, 835 

~ommittees for 1914, 1249 

"invention sessions, 725, 798, 842 

j 'nt meeting with Engineering Associa- 
tion, 763 

1 sident D. A. Hegarty, *902 

President's address [Stevens], 723 

Revision of rules, Action on proposed, 


Secretary-treasurer, Report [Donecker], 


American Public Utilities Co. (See Grand 

Rapids, Mich.) 
American Railway Association: 

November meeting in Chicago. 1096 

Organization of, 497 

American Railway Tool Foreman's Association, 
Convention, 147 

American Rys. (See Philadelphia) 

American Society for Testing Materials, An- 
nual meeting, 32 

American Water Works & Guarantee Co. (See 

Anderson, Ind., Union Traction Co., All-steel 
interurban cars, *498 \ 

Anglo-American Exposition in London, 1914, 

Appraisal of railway property: 

Depreciation and its relation to fare value 

[Weber], 979 

Elements of appreciation [Henshaw], 978 

Interstate Commerce Commission, Organ- 
isation plans, 1137. 1350 

Life of phvsical property, Report of Amer- 
ican Flectric Railway Engineering As- 
sociation, 870: Discussion, 841 

Other elements of value than franchise 

values [Rosecrantz], 822 

Overhead charges. Report of Accountants' 

Association, 895- Discussion. 900 

Physical and intangible valuation as cov- 
ered bv recent legislation [Rifenber- 
ick], Discussion, 17 

Policv of American Electric Railway Asso- 
ciation, Opportunity to define, 671 

Principles used by New York Public Serv- 
ice Commission [Whitten], 980 

Report of Railway Commissioners, 977 

Suggestions for, issued by Thomas W. 

Hulme, 658 

Tacoma Railway & Power Co., 515 

Teaching of, University of Missouri. Sug- 
gestion of Tohn A Atkinson, 365 

Toronto, 33, 904 

Report of B. J. Arnold and J. W. 
Moyes regarding franchises and 
other assets, 1053; Comment, 1047 

Arbitration. (See Employees) 

Arkansas City, Kan., Midland Valley R. R., 
Gas-electric motor car, *429 

Association of Railway Electrical Engineers, 

Convention 888, 982 
Atlantic City (N. J.) ill Shore Ry., Near-side 

cars, *940 

Augusta, Ga., Change in railway holdings, 1074 
Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R. R. (See Chicago) 
Australia, Melbourne Tramway & Omnibus Co., 

Annual report, 516 
Austria, Vienna Municipal Rys.: 
Annual report, 398 

Cars, Single-deck and double-deck prepay- 
ment, *182 
Automobile menace, Cleveland, 942 
Automobile ordinance, Kansas City, 1001 
Automobiles (See Commercial vehicles; Motor 

Auto-trucks. (See Service wagons) 
Axles : 

-Failures on interurban cars, Study of, by 

R. A. Dyer, 143 

Nashville Railway S: Light Co., 184 

Specifications for American Society for 

Testing Materials, 32 

Bagdad, New electric railways, 227, 463 

Ballast and ballasting, General American 
practice, *528 

Baltimore, United Railways & Electric Co.: 

Car diversion, Is it justified? 202 

Paving suit, 277 

Rowdyism, Dealing with, 281 

Bangor (Me.) Railway &• Electric Co., Experi- 
mental farm, 1204 

Batavia, N. Y., Efforts to buy Buffalo & Wil- 
liamsville Electric Ry, 1071 

Bay State Street Ry. (See Boston) 

Bearings, Test of ball and roller, Rochester 
Lines of New York State Rys., 376 

Beaumont, Texas: 

Beaumont Traction Co., Receivership, 316 

Eastern Texas Electric Co., Note issue, 44 

Beebe syndicate (See Syracuse, N. Y.) 

Bell signals between motorman and conductor, 

Proposed changes, 729 
Benefit plans. (See Employees; 
Berkshire Street Ry. (See Pittsfield, Mass.) 
Berlin, Germany: 
Elevated & Underground Ry. : 

Auto-bus lines proposed, 647 

Extension, 224 
Grosse Berliner Strassenbabn : 

Annual report, 398 

Carhouses, *644; Comment, 635 
Locomotives, Electric with old steam trail- 
ers instead of motor cars. Opinion of 

E. C. Zehme, 379 

Rapid transit development, *377, 1016 

— Stadtbahn electrification, 31 

Birmingham, Ala.: 

Birmingham Railway, Light & Power Co., 

Wage increase, 243 
— — Birmingham-Tuscaloosa Railway & Utilities 

Co., Bond issue, 280 
Blanks and forms. (See Record forms) 
Block signals. (See Signals) 
Boiler plants, rating, capacity and operation, 

542, 544, 545 


Chemistry in the boiler room, 1168 

Design of, 486 

Explosion, Richmond Light & Railroad Co., 

945, 1023; Comment, 1008 
— —Higher ratings for. Example of the In- 

terborough Rapid Transit Co., 1165 
Bolted-up construction, Permanent security of 

[Seymour], 1104 
Bonds. (See Financial) 

Boone, Iowa. Fort Dodge, Des Moines & 
Southern Ry., Foreclosure sale, 663, 

Boring attachment for lathe (Day), *462 

Boston, Mass.: 

Bay State Street Ry. : 

Car lighting tests, *504 
Car used for convention trip, 728, *784 
Express cars, Light-weight. Special 
heaters. Compression bumper and 
drawhead, *491; Comment, 487 
Fares. Hearing on, 708 
Freight station, *260 
Investigation of service, 1296 

Boston Elevated Ry. : 

Annual report, 516, 1034 
Arbitration with emplovees, 80, 115, 
197, 312, 349, 409, 434, 470, 511, 
700, 993, 1030, 1066, 1114, 1300 
Cost of structures, 813 
Dispatching trains by telephone, 148 
Foot valve for emergency brake, *970 
Hours of labor agreement. 1254 
Investigation of service, 1296 
Lost articles. Caring for [Dana], *68 
Service requirements, How ascertained 

TDanal, *340 
Traffic handling at football game, 
Cambridge, * 1 1 96 

Boston & Maine R. R., Annual report. 908 

Boston & Worcester Electric Co's., Finan- 
cial statement, 662 

Boston & Worcester Street Ry., Wage 

agreement, 282 

Fast Boston tunnel, Subsidizing of, 53 

■ Massachusetts Electric Companies, Annual 

statement, 1305 

South Boston service improvement, 114 

(Abbreviations: 'Illustrated, correspondence.) 

Boston, Mass.: (Continued) 

Subway program, 393, 514 

Bowling Green (Ky.) Ry., Receivership, 1074, 

Brakes, Air: . . 
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., Commission 

order upheld, 110 

Collisions and brakes [ Westinghouse] , 232 

—Connecticut Public Utilities Commission 

order, 320 

Emergency foot valve for articulated cars, 

Boston, *970 

Influence on hot journals, 2 

• Maintenance, Use of special appliances and 

improvements [Kaylor], 463 
New York City, Order of Public Service 

Commission upheld by the Supreme 

Court. G. L. Fowler disagrees with 

court's conclusions [Dodd], 414, c468; 

416 , , 
Ohio Public Service Commission order for 

Northern Ohio Traction & Light Co., 


Brakes, Geared, (National), with special re- 
lease feature, * 1027 

Hearing before New York Public Service 

Commission, 944, 1061, 1351 
Pressures and hot journals. Discussion at 

Master Car Builders' Convention, 2 
Revision of standards, Report of American 

Electric Railwav Engineering Associa- 
tion, 891 ; "Discussion, 889 
Bridge loading, Methods of Connecticut Co., 



Berkshire Street Rv.. * 1 272 

Connecticut Co., *252 

Approximate methods of determining 

loading, *638; Comment, 635 
Inspection methods, 640 

Financial aspects in the construction of 

viaducts [Sergeant], 813; Comment, 

Kansas City, Clay County & St. Joseph 

Ry., *214 

Measuring currents in [Hering], *682 

Newark-Trenton high-speed line, *455 

Southwest Missouri R. R., *423 

Waterloo, Cedar Falls & Northern Ry., 

Unit prices of concrete structures, 99 
Bristol County Street Ry. (See Taunton, 


Bristol & Plainville (Conn.) Tramway, Finan- 
cial matters, 1208 

British Columbia Electric Ry. (See Vancouver, 
B. C.) 

Brooklyn. Furthering rapid transit construc- 
tion, 1350 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co.: 

Accident prevention, Children's safety cru- 
sade. Moving pictures and trained 
lecturers, 950. *1222; Comment. 1220 

Annual report, 237 

■ Brake tests and the order of the Public 

Service Commission, 110; G. L. Fow- 
ler disagrees with Supreme Court's 
decision [Dodd], 414, c468 

Carhouse maintenance organization [In- 

goldsby], 1234 

Discipline code, Changes, 938 

Extensions, 1300 

Fender and wheeletiard order, 1115 

Insures abroad, 1341 

■ Locomotives, Electric, Specifications, 1181 

Medical inspection bureau, 83, 448 

Open-door policy, 1123 

Public Safety Committee, 1160 

Rail corrugation [Gidanski], "4322; Com- 
ment, 1316 

Rail joint practice of curves and tangents 

with cast-weld joints. Record of fail- 
ures and cost of installation, *920 

■ Recording wear of gears and pinions 

[Johnson], *1021 

Sanding device. Vacuum, * 1063 

Smoking prohibited, 666 

Stepless car, 1262 

Subway car. Proposed, *503 

Testing trolley insulators in place [McKel- 

wav], 1342 

■ Ties, Steel, Experimental type, installed 

on a large scale, *923 

Transfer system, 666, 1210 

Welfare work [Bullock], 825 

Broom, All-steel switch (Worcester), 429 
Buckevemobile, Combined engine and boiler, 

*697, 1297 
Buenos Aires, Subway in, 1274 
Buffalo, N. Y.: 

■ Buffalo & Lake Erie Traction Co.: 

Purchased power question, 1035 
Reorganization plan, 156, 199, 276, 
353, 399, 476, 516, 947, 948, 997 

Buffalo Southern Ry. : 

Receivership, 663 

Stage line proposed, 313 

International Ry. : 

Accident claim department plans, 261 
Arbitration, 1 14. 153, 234, 275, 312 
Bond issue, 1157 

Complaint regarding unloading of 

near-side cars, 1038 
Coupler suit, 1069 
Fare collecting and recording, 342 
Labor-saving devices, *924 



[Vol. XLII. 

Buffalo, N. Y.: 

International Ry.: (Continued) 

Niagara power purchased, *420; Com- 
ment, 409 
Poles, Combination light and trolley, 

Reorganization matters, 116 

School for trainmen, 1236 

Strike damages, 1115 

Through routes, 282 

Timetable making, 504 

Track rehabilitation, Special plans for 
handling large quantities of sup- 
plies, *263 

Two-car trains, 1077 
Building moved over street cars in operation, 

San Francisco, * 1 1 9 5 
Bulletins of company in publicity work, 1315 
Bumper, Steel car, with wood-block backing, 

Montreal, *1 134 
Bureau of Fare Research, American Electric 

Railway Association, 893 
Bureau of Standards, Relation to state com- 
missions [Rosa], 976 
Busbars, Measuring currents in [Hering], *682 
Butte, Mont.: 

Butte, Anaconda & Pacific Ry., Electric 

traction satisfactcry [Gallwey], c938 

Butte Electric Ry., Center-entrance cars, 



Cab signals (See Signals) 

Cable connector, Quick detachable (North 
Western), *507 


Conference of Joint Committee on Rubber 

Insulation, 931 

Report of American Electric Railway En- 
gineering Association, 731 

— Rubber covered, Specifications, 731 

Calculagraph in shops of Indianapolis Traction 
& Terminal Co., *464 

Calgary (Can.) Municipal Street Ry., Finan- 
cial statement, 279 

California Railroad Commission: 

Drinking cup order, 950, 1159 

Report of committee on inductive inter- 
ference, 690 

Southern Pacific suburban fares, Hearing 

on, 1269 

Canadian Northern Ry., Electrification of 

Montreal tunnel, *676 
Canadian Pacific Ry., Electrification plans, 994 
Cape Breton Electric Co., Annual report, 908 
Cape Electric Tramways (See South Africa) 
Capitalization (See Financial) 
Car building by the small company, 53 
Car design: 

Doors, General practice, 568 

Express car, Bay State Street Ry., *492 

Light-weight storage battery car, Billings, 


Montreal Tramways, Constructional fea- 
tures, *1132 

Paris rehabilitation, *649 

Platforms, General practice, *566 

Prepayment car platform arrangement, 

Rhode Island Co., *57 
Private car, Public Service Ry., Newark, 

N. J., M318 

Profitable limit of capacity, 91 

Railings, General practice, *564 

Review of development in American cities, 


Roofs, Development of, * 563 

Side girder construction, *563 

— — Standardization of car bodies, 129 

Steel interurban cars, Union Traction 

Company of Indiana, *498 

General practice, *564 

Opinion of. New Jersey Public Utility 
Commission, 1037 

Twin City Rapid Transit Co., 675 

Car framing of convertible steel car [Tones], 


Car lighting (See Lighting of cars) 

Car weights, Increase, in passenger equip- 
ment [Jones], cl07 

Car wiring, Report of American Electric Rail- 
way Engineering Association, 892 

Carhouses : 

Apartments for employees, 325 

Berkshire Street Ry., "1270 

Berlin, Germany, G'rosse Berliner Stras- 

senbahn, *644; Comment, 635 
■ — —Dayton, Ohio, Oakwood Street Ry., *450 

Inexpensive. Columbia Electric Ry., *1338 

Land for future needs, 485 

Maintenance organization, Brooklyn Rapid 

Transit Co. [ Iniroldsby] , 1234 
Muskogee, Okla., *1010 

:New Bedford, Mass., Union Street Ry., 


Northern Ohio Traction & Light Co., Ken- 
more [Lathrop], *878 

Pit construction: 

Dayton, Ohio, Oakwood Street, Ry., 

Muskogee, Okla., *1012 
Rochester, N. Y., *232 
Safetv device, Hudson & Manhattan 
R. R., *1097 

Report on construction by American Elec- 
tric Railway Engineering Association, 
805: Discussion, 800 

Rhine river interurban railways, *965 

Carhouses: (Continued) 

Special work under cover, *450, 957; 

LCaum], cll08 


Accumulator (See Storage battery cars) 

Articulated, Richmond, Va., * 145 

California type, United R. R., *225 

Center-entrance : 

Butte, Mont., *274 

Laconia truckless and single-truck, 

St. Louis, United Rys., *1062 

Santa Barbara & Suburban Ry., *31 

Chicago City Ry., Double-end, inclosed- 

vestibule, M281 

Chicago Rys., Design of new cars, *230 

Comparative statistics, I Iamburg- Blanken- 

ese, Hamburg subway and Berlin 

subway, 180 
— — Convertible, with steel underframe 

[Jones], *694 
Converting prepayment to non-bulkhead 

type, Third Avenue Ry., *' 1 148 

Derrick (See Work cars) 

Development of special types in American 

cities, *561, *569 

Double-deck, Vienna Municipal Rys., * 182 

Dump (See Dump cars) 

Freight and express: 

Bay State Street Ry., Light-weight cars, 
*491; Comment, 487 

Nashville-Gallatin Interurban Ry., 

Hamburg Elevated & Subway Ry., * 1 77 

Montreal two-car train, *939 

Nashville-Gallatin Interurban Rv., * 1 7 5 

■ — —Near-side, Atlantic City & Shore Ry., *940 
One-man prepayment: 

Detroit United Ry., *1335 

Development, *567 

Hendersonville, N. C, *507 

Paris tramway rehabilitation, *648 

Parlor car. Northwestern Pennsylvania 

Ry., *695 

Private, Public Service Rv., Newark, N. J., 


Profitable size of, 91 

■ -Rhode Island Co., Prepayment, '57 

Safety exhibit, New York Central R. R., 


Smoker and baggage car combined. North- 
western Pennsylvania Ry., *695 

Specifications for new, 250 

Steel. Report of National Association of 

Railway Commissioners, 1013 

Stepless center-entrance, Santa Barbara & 

Suburban Ry., *31 

Storage battery (See Storage battery cars) 

Union Traction Company of Indiana, *498 

Vienna Municipal Rys., * 1 82 

Catch basin for track drain, Montreal, *970 

Catenary construction: 

Beebe lines, 70 

■ Kansas City, Clav County & St. Toseph 

Ry., 220 
Mittenwald Ry., *34 

Northern Ohio & Traction Light Co., *983 

Norway, Rjukan Ry., *646 

Waterloo, Cedar Falls & Northern Ry., 


Cattle guards, Newark-Trenton high-speed 
line, 458 

Cedar Raoids (la.) & Iowa City Railway & 

Licht Co., Controller, operated from 

either side of cab, *338 
Cedarburg, Wis., Milwaukee Northern Ry., 

Accident, 319 
Census of electric railways, 901 
Center-entrance cars (See Cars) 
Central California Traction Co. (See San 


Central Electric Railway Accountants' Asso- 

Annual meetimr, 19 

Brown Book issued, 71 

Committees : 

Freight, Report, 28 
Passenger accounts, Report, 25 

Central Electric Railway Association: 

Annual meeting, Cleveland, 1275 

■ Brown Book issued, 71 

Committee on standardization. Report, *29 

Tune meeting on the Great Lakes, 17 

November meeting at Indianapolis, *1098, 

Paner, 1240 

Chain hoist assembly, 6 ton [Wrightl, *468 
Chemist, Relation of, to the electric railway 

[Woods], 1142 
Chemistry in the boiler room, 1168 

Chicago : 

'\ecident record reduced, 46 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R. R.: 

Annual report, 1257 

Fxcurs'on record, 319 

Wage agreement, 299 

Watch inspection, * 501 
— Board of Supervising Engineers, Report 

concerning improvements in service, 

operation and equipment of surface 

companies, 127, 265 
Central station energy for surface and 

elevated lines. Terms of contracts, 

1138: Comment, 1129 
Chicago City Ry. : 

Accident campaign, 120 

Cars, Double-end, inclosed-vestibule, 

Power contract, 1179 
(Abbreviations: 'Illustrated. cCorrespondence.) 

Chicago: (Continued) 

Chicago Elevated Rys.: 

Annual report, 1119 

Rerouting of trains, 1077 

Through route operation, 158, 1001, 

Chicago & Milwaukee Electric R. R., 

Watch inspection methods, 501 

■ -Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Ry., Elec- 
trification of main line, 1142, 1341 

Chicago & Oak Park Elevated R. R., 

Through routes and transfer inter- 
change, 471 

— — Chicago Rys. : 

Annual meeting, 998 
Cars, Design of new, *230 
Fare accounting [Smith], 583 
Moving picture instruction for pub- 
lic and employees, 441 
Protest against payment of dividends, 

Unified operation with other lines, 

Yerkes' bond issue worthless, 1, 44 
Commonwealth Edison Co., Short-circuit 

substation accident, 1106 

County Traction Co., Strike, 77, 150 

Crossing streets: 

Law, 441 

Proposed investigation, 479 
Electrolysis ordinance, Proposed modifi- 
cation, 966, 990 

Headlight ordinance, 243 

Heating of cars, Legal decision, 1069 

Loop improvements, 158, 167 

Merger problem, 439 

Ordinance passed, 1069 
Proposed changes in ordinance, Let- 
ter by B. L Arnold to the City 
Council, 189 
Proposed plan of surface railways, 698 

Substance of ordinance, 1112 
Traction situation [Blair], 275 

Sanitation in street cars, Report by com- 
missioner of health [Young], 119 

Suburban lines, Resumption of service 

ordered, 113 

Subway plans, 40, 432, 660, 1302 

Advertisement for proposals to con- 
struct, equip and operate, 1066 
Recommendation in loop district, 1031 

Terminal matters, 76, 151, 396 

Arnold and Wallace agree on recom- 
mendations, 1205 
Recommendations by J. F. Wallace, 

Report of B. J. Arnold, 1153 

Underground trolley ordinance, 113 

Union Station Co., Organization, 79 

Chico, Cal., Northern Electric Ry., Financing, 

353, 439 

China, First electric railway in Shanghai, 946, 

Choctaw Railway & Lighting Co. (See Mc- 
Alester, Okla.) 

Cincinnati, Ohio: 

Cincinnati Traction Co.: 

Arbitrators submit terms of agree- 
ment, 113 
Rail grinders, Portable, *427 
Track construction. Standard forms 
and standard methods result in 
cost reduction, * 1 086 

Columbus, Delaware & Marion Ry., An- 
nual report, 1072 

Columbus, Delaware & Maryland Ry., 

Conscience money letter, 1037 

Interurban Railway & Terminal Co., 

Losses 44 1 

Loop, Proposed, 1252, 1349 

Ohio Electric Ry. : 

Flood damage repairs, 151 
Lease of Cincinnati, Dayton & To- 
ledo Traction Co., 44 

— : — Transfer conference, 161 

Circuit-breakers, Testing apparatus, Montreal, 

Claim department (See Accident claim de- 
Claims Association: 

Committees for 1914, 1249 

Convention sessions, 726, 761, 828 

Papers at convention, 778, 780 

President W. F. Weh, *902 

President's address [Avant], 722 

Cleaning of cars, Twin City Rapid Transit Co., 

Cleveland, Ohio: 

Cleveland, Painesville & Eastern R. R. 

(See Willoughby, Ohio) 
Cleveland Ry.: 

Automobile menace, 942 

Damage claims, 1300 

Deficits, 76, 1253 

Economics of the situation as devel- 
oped in the 1913 arbitration de- 
cision [Duffy], 770 

Fire protection of car yard, *1233 

Franchise, Criticisms by Mr. Duffy 
of the arbitration board, 918 

Illumination of cars, Tests and re- 
sults, *180 

Operating fund for May, 41 

Power contract, 1179 

Stock increase proposed, 1349 

Transfer charge. 1069 
Freight problem, 961 

July-December, 1913.] 



Cleveland, Ohio: (Continued) 

Hours of employees, 658 

Right-of-way plan. Private, opposed, 150 

Coal and coal handling: 

Analysis of coal, Government bulletin, 824 

Bunkers under main line trestle, Cleve- 
land, Painesville & Eastern R. R., "94 

Illinois Traction System at St. Louis, 


Limitations of low-grade fuels, 1 

Review of American practice, *546 

Sampling coal deliveries [SmithJ, * 1 242 

Submerged storage in concrete pit, In- 
dianapolis, *391 
Cologne municipal radways, Statistics, 935 
Colon (See Panama) 

Colorado Electric Light, Power & Railway 

Association, Convention, 681 
Colorado Springs (Col.) Rapid Transit Co., 

Repair shop board for recording cars 

available, * 1245 
Columbus, Ind., Indianapolis, Columbus & 

Southern Traction Co., Fare increase 

proposed, 318 
Columbus, Ohio: 

Columbus, Delaware & Maryland Ry. (See 


Columbus Railway & Light Co.: 

Courtesy movement, 356 
Reorganization, 1208 

Columbus, Urbana & Western Electric 

Ry., Sale, 1075 

Consolidation of companies, 517, 1352 

Scioto Valley Traction Co., Stock for em- 
ployees, 912 

Commerce court, Abolishing of, 435, 703 

Commercial vehicles, Pole haulage with auto- 
mobile, *190 

Commutator slotters (See Repair shop equip- 

Compensation laws (See Workmen's compen- 

Complaint department, New York State Rys., 

176; Comment, 168 
Concrete mixer, for paving work, Memphis 

Street Ry., *534 
'Condensers, Development of, 550 
Congestion (See Traffic) 
Connecticut Co. (See New Haven, Conn.) 
Connecticut Public Utilities Commission: 
Air brake order, 320 

Running board order, Modification re- 
fused, 1261 

■Connecticut Street Ry. (See Greenfield, Mass.) 
Construction department, Work of, Connecti- 
cut Co., 328 
■Contracts for purchased power. Typical forms 
of agreements between electric rail- 
ways and power companies compared, 

— —Field control [Wynne], *20 

Griptite crank [Lord], *939 

Operation from either side of cab for 

switching service, Cedar Rapids, la., 


PK equipment [Wynne], 20 


Connection in Cascade, Hamburg, 8 

Repairing collector rings [Palmer], *307 

Rotary converter speed and capacity, 558 

Co-operation in the electrical industry (See 
Society for Electrical Development) 
Co-operative stores (See Employees, Co-oper- 
ative stores) 
Cornell electric railway dinner, 839 
Corona Rapid Transit Line (See New York 
City) . . 

Corporations (See Public service corporations) 
Corrosion of iron. (See Electrolysis) 
Cost of living. (See Employees) 
County Traction Co. (See Chicago) 
Couplers : 

Buffalo suit, 1069 

Radial, and draft rigging (National) *344 

Signal and lighting attachments, United 

Rys. of St. Louis, *270 

Simplex automatic (Putnam), *940 

Cranes, Cast-steel truck for single I-beam 

(Brown), 1199 
Creosoting. (See Timber preservation) 
'Cross-arm washer, Adapter (Electric Service 

Supplies), *468 
Cross-ties. (See Ties) 
Crossing signals. (See Signals) 
Crossing streets, Chicago, 441, 479 
Crossings, Overhead: 
■ England, 274 _ 

Illinois Commission revises rules, 470 

-Crossings, Track, Manganese steel, Pacific Elec- 
tric Ry., »273 
Currents in underground structures, Measur- 
ing [Hering], *682 
'Curtains in cars, Color of, 1267 


Dallas, Texas: 

Southern Traction Co., Multiple-unit trains 

on 120-mile interurban line, *938 

Texas Traction Co. : 

Coal as fuel, change from oil, 102 
Courtesy pamphlet, 1122 

Dalrvmple, James: 

His impressions of American electric rail- 
ways, 932; Comment, 919 

Dalrymple, James: (Continued) 

San Francisco Public Ownership Associ- 
ation's resolutions to prevent his visit, 

Dayton, Ohio: 

Merger of street railways, 157 

Oakwood Street Railway Co., Carhouse 

and shops. Unique pit construction, 


Decorated cars, Portland Railway, Light & 
Power Co., *188 

Definition, Transportation department, Report 
of American Electric Railway Trans- 
portation and Traffic Association, 897 

Deisel engines, Mcintosh Si Seymour Corpo- 
ration as builders, 1147 

Delays, Information for passengers, 167 

Denver, Colo.: 

Denver City Tramway Co. : 

Retrieving oil and waste, 62 
Safety League, 401 

Denver & Interurban Ry.: 

Repair shop kinks, 503 

Single-phase motor maintenance, * 108 

Denver & Northwestern Ry., Dividend re- 
duction, 948 

Derrick cars. (See Work cars) 

Des Moines City Ry., Tentative franchise, 
659, 943 

Dessau-Bitterfeld Ry., Changes on, 224 
Detroit, Mich.: 

-Charter adopted by commission and re- 
vised, 944, 1032 

-Detroit United Ry. : 

Arbitration proceedings, 346, 904, 1028 
Depot extension, 1201 
Differences with the city, 150, 233 
Dogs on cars, 1356 

Emergency gasoline motor trucks, *72 
Fare, Results with low, 659 
Free transportation curtailed, 401 
Near-side, 47, 520 
One-man cars, *1335 
Ordinance, Statement of company, 
110, 193 

Publicity work [Van Zandt], 806 
Safety first campaign, 1122, 1261,1356 
Track improvements on interurban 
lines, 268 

Wage dispute, 311, 702; [Brooks], 942 
Washing of cars versus paint preser- 
vation. Chemical investigation 
showing effects of poor soap on 
paint and varnish [Smith], 228; 
Comment, 209 

Ordinance matters, 38, 77, 110, 193 

Directors, Responsibility of, Decision of New 

York Supreme Court, 167 
Discipline (See Employees) 
Dispatching of trains: 

Dictaphone, Use of, Southwest Missouri 

R. R., *74 

Tnterurban railways, Necessity for care, 55 

— 1 — Telephone system, Boston Elevated Ry, 148 
District of Columbia: 

Municipal ownership bill, 435 

Public utility act, 151 

District of Columbia Public Service Commis- 
sion, Methods of procedure, 1203 

Dogs on cars, Detroit LTnited Ry., 1356 

Dominion Power & Transmission Co. (See 
Hamilton, Ont.) 

Door operating device, Montreal Tramways, 

Double-deck cars. (See Cars, Double-deck) 
Draft rigging (National) *344 
Drain box for track switch, *63 
Drinking cups in California. Order of Rail- 
road Commission, 950, 1159 
Dublin, Ireland, Labor situation, 433, 511, 905 
Dubuque, la., Union Electric Co., Wage in- 
crease, 120 
Duluth (Minn.) Street Ry.: 
Commutator slotting machine. Home- 
made, 1186 

Folding steps and shear plate, *1197 

Repair shop car wheel truck, * 1 1 47 

Dump cars, Multiple, Connecticut Co., *344 
Durham (N. C.) Traction Co., Ice making, 


Earnings. (See Financial) 
East India Tramways, Gasoline cars, 1343 
East St. Louis & Suburban Co., Readjustment, 

Eastern Pennsylvania Rys. (See Pottsville, 

Eastern Texas Electric Co. (See Beaumont, 

Easton (Pa.) Consolidated Electric Co., An- 
nual report, 397 

Economizers for steam boilers: 

Care of, 69 

Development of, 545 

Education. (See Employees) 

Egypt. Gas electric train for the Khedive, *656 

Electric lamps. (See Lamps, Electric; Lighting 
of cars) 

Electric Properties Co., Readjustment, 316 
Electric Railway Journal: 

Convention issue, 653 

Semi-annual index. Value of, 1315 

Electric railways of the United States, Dal- 

rymple's impressions, 932; Comment, 


Electric vehicles. (See Commercial vehicles; 

Motorbuses; Tower wagons; Service 

Electrical industry [Insull], 654 
(See also Society for Electrical Develop- 
ment ) 

Electrified steam railroads. (See Heavy elec- 
tric traction) 
Electrolysis : 

Chicago ordinance, Proposed modifications, 

966, 990 

Errors in interpretation of tests for 

[Hering], 1135; [Herrick], C1343 

Iron in soils, Corrosion of, Tests by 

Bureau of Standards, Washington, 
D. C, 422 

Measuring stray currents [Hering], *682 

Report of American Electric Railway En- 
gineering Association, 818 
Emergency cars. (See Tower cars; Work Cars) 
Emergency wagons. (See Service wagons) 
Empire United Rys. (See Syracuse, N. Y.) 
Employees : 

Accounting department, Conferences with 

auditor [Lasher], 895; Discussion, 900 

Apartments in railway service buildings, 



Boston Elevated Ry., 115, 197, 312, 
349, 409, 434, 470, 511, 700, 993. 
1030, 1066, 1114, 1300 
Buffalo, International Ry., 114, 153, 

234, 275, 312 
Compulsory for strikes, 364 
Detroit United Ry., 346 
Industrial [Murphy], 1240 

Arbitration board. Larger, proposed for 

Erdman act, 3, 114 

Benefit associations: 

Kansas City, Clay County & St. 

Joseph Ry., 1038 
Montreal, 160; Economic aspect, 1330 

Conductors, Consideration for, 127 

Conserving day labor supply, 249 

Co-operative stores: 

New York City, »65 
Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co., 85, 

Courtesy, 364 

Columbus, Ohio, 356 

Texas Traction Co., 1122 

Discipline. Merit and demerit systems, 135 

Discipline code, Brooklyn Rapid Transit 

Co., 938 

Disciplining trainmen and recording turn- 
ins, Muskogee, Okla., *1332 

Distributing time by machine. Indian- 
apolis Traction & Terminal Co., *464 

Education : 

Report of Accountants' Association, 

Report of American Electric Railwav 
Association, 780 

(See also below, Training) 
Hours of labor: 

Boston Elevated Ry., 1254 

Cleveland, 658 

Springfield. Mass., 203 

Inspection shop bonus system [See], 1326 

Insurance : 

Colorado Springs & Interurban Ry.. 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co., 911 

San Francisco, 1212 

Third Avenue Rv., 160, 317; Comment 


Labor union activity in the courts, 54 

— — Length of service, Analyzing, 408 

Medical inspection bureau, Brooklyn, 93, 


Outings for. Grand Rapids, Mich., 407 

Pensions, Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co., 


Piecework, Problem of, 1166 

Premium plans for wage payments, De- 
velopment of, 575 

■ Profit-sharing plan, Washington Railwav 

& Electric Co. [Ham], 814 

Protection of workmen in shops, Southern 

Pacific Ry., *1144 

Psychological tests of motormen, by Hugo 

Munsterberg, 66 

Relief association. Virginia Railway & 

Power Co., 1213 

Repair shop association, Portland, Ore., 


Rules for platform men, Proposed British, 


Safety, New York, New Haven & Hart- 
ford R. R. : 
Hearing, 459 

Indifference to order of Public Serv- 
ice Commission, 436 

Safety committees: 

Oregon-Washington Railroad & Navi- 
gation Co. [Smith], 104 
Value of [Carson], 778; Discussion 

[Macdougall, Bennett], 779 
Washington Water Power Co., Work 
of [Aston], 103 

Safety first exhibit, Pennsylvania R. R., 

New York Terminal, *934 

Safety first meetings, New Albany, Ind., 


Stock in railwav company, Scioto Valley 

Traction Co., 912 

(Abbreviations: "Illustrated, correspondence.) 



[Vol. XLII. 

Employees: (Continued) 


Buffalo, International Ry., 1236 
Houston Electric Co., *488 
New Bedford, Mass., Union Street 
Ry., *292 

Report of American Electric Railway 
Transportation and Traffic Asso- 
ciation, 854; Discussion, 842; 
Comment, 835 

Rochester lines, New York State Rys., 
1336; Comment, 1315 
Trainmen's quarters: 

New Bedford, Mass., Union Street 
Ry., *296 

Muskogee, Okla., *1012 

Westchester Electric Ry., 971 

Wages. (See Wages) 

Welfare work: 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co. [Bul- 
lock], 825 

Lehigh Valley Transit Co., 85 

Manila, P. I., 341 

Report of American Electric Railway 
Association, 812; Comment, 793 
Twin City Rapid Transit Co., *467 

Engine and boiler combined, the Buckeye- 
mobile, *697 


As executives, 366 

Members of public service commissions, 


England. (See Great Britain) 
Evanston, 111., County Traction Co., Reor- 
ganization, 436 
Exhibition of Pittsburgh Rys., *692 
Express. (See Freight and express) 


Fare box, Registering (International), *149 
Fare collection: 

Platform, Advantages and disadvantages 

[Flint], 689 

-Rooke system, Rhode Island Co., 57 

Fare registers, Dayton, use by International 

Railway Co., Buffalo, 342 
Fare research bureau proposed, 835 

Accounting side of rate-making [Bemis], 


Albany, Union Traction Co., Reduction 

for school children in Troy, N. Y., 
318, 480 

American cities, Philadelphia report, 224 

Berlin zone system, 378 

British Columbia Electric Ry., Changes, 


-Cost of carrying a passenger, and proposed 

work of the Bureau of Fare Research 
[Gruhl], 893 

Counting nickels by weight [Martin], cll98 

— — Estimated value of prepayment, in Eng- 
land, 1236 

Increasing fares, Necessity for, 1071 

Indianapolis, Columbus & Southern Trac- 
tion Co., Increase proposed, 318 

Kansas City, Clay County & St. Joseph 

Ry., Reduction, 318 

Los Angeles decision, 478, 910 

Motor bus, in London and Paris, 1094 

Newark-Trenton line, 159 

Pacific Electric Ry., 318 

Peninsula Railway, San Jose, Cal., Com- 
plaint dismissed, 519 

Portland Railway Light & Power Co., Re- 
duction considered, 1033 

Report of American Electric Railway 

Transportation & Traffic Association 
and Accountants)* Association, 811; 
Discussion, 798 

Schenectady Ry., 84 

■ Scientific basis for public utility rates 

[Thelem], 977 

Summer reduction, Newburg, N. Y., 160 

Three-cent fare ordinance in Toledo, 1201 

Three classes, Hamburg Elevated & Sub- 
way Ry., 178 

Toronto, Newspaper comment, 276 

Unprofitable lines, 836 

Variable rates, Memorandum from Com- 
mittee of Accountants' Association, 

Zone system [Mortimer], 756 

(See also Tickets) 

Farm of Bangor Railway & Electric Co., 1204 
Fayetteville (N. C.) Street Railway & Power 

Co., Receivership, 1075, 1353 
Feed-water heaters, Development of, 545 
Feeders (See Power distribution) 
Fenders and wheelguards: 

Brooklyn, Order of Public Service Com- 
mission, 1115 

(Herr) fender, New Orleans Rys., *74 

Spring-tooth wheelguard [Root], *506 

— — Tests, Vancouver, B. C, 347 

Tables giving results with different 
types of apparatus, 968 

Washington-Virginia Ry. resists order of 

Public Utilities Commission, 1070 

Financial : 

Bonds as collateral in New Jersey, 998 

Bonds as investments [Hill], 1032 

Capitalization of railways in United States 

and Europe, 1033 

Financial: (Continued) 

Capitalization of railways, Report of Rail- 
way Commissioners, 974 

Capitalization, revenues and operating 

costs of a number of railway com- 
panies. Tables showing comparisons 
on various bases, 925 

Cleveland, Ry., Economics as developed 

in the 1913 arbitration decision 
[Duffy], 770 

Comparison of electric interurban and 

steam railway revenues [Fischer], 305 

Connecticut Co., Analysis of operating re- 
sults, 252 

Cost of additional service in Milwaukee, 


Cost of carrying a passenger and proposed 

work of the Bureau of Fare Re- 
search [Gruhl], 893 

Cost of passenger transportation service, 


Cost of construction and operation, Geary 

Street Municipal Ry., San Francisco, 


Earnings of various city railways on dif- 
ferent unit bases, 928 

Federal regulation of stock and bond is- 
sues proposed in Tennessee, 1204 

Hypothecation of unissued bonds, Warn- 
ing of New Jersey Public Utility Com- 
missioners, 1008 

Investigation of earnings of Milwaukee 

lines by Commission, 1185 

Insurance abroad, Brooklyn Rapid Transit, 


Investment in rapid transit systems in 

America, 224 

Maintenance cost of old and new type 

motors based upon figures taken from 
six roads [Thirlwall], 495 

Merit and demerit systems applied to man- 
agements of railways, 135 

Motor buses, Costs of operation, deprecia- 
tion and maintenance, 1094 

— i — New South Wales electric railways, 1108 

—Operating expense and cost of construc- 
tion, Estimating [Fischer], 380 

-Operating revenue, Determination of prob- 
able. Analytical study of a proposed 
interurban railway based upon an ex- 
amination of results obtained from 
typical existing lines [Fischer], 301; 
Comment, 291 

Prepayment, Estimated value of, in Eng- 
land, 1236 

Principles governing operating revenue, 

operating expense and cost of con- 
struction of interurban railways 
[Fischer], 460 Comment, 448 

Receivers' certificates, Use of, 128 

Revenues, Comparative, for various city 

railways, 925 

"Saturation of the dollar" [Insull], 1068; 

Comment, 1083 

Securities of electric railways [Harris], 

861; 960; [Insull], 1068; Comment, 

Subsidizing transportation facilities, Bos- 
ton, 53 

Subway and viaduct construction cost 

[Sergeant], 813; Comment, 794 

Valuation of railway property in Wash- 
ington, 909 

Valuation of Toronto public utilities, 1053; 

Comment, 1047 

Yerkes worthless bond issue, 1 

Fire protection and insurance: 

Berkshire Street Ry., 1270 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., Insures 

abroad, 1341 
— — Cleveland car yard, * 1 233 
New Bedford, Mass., Union Street Ry., 


Nozzle, Improved, Cleveland, * 1233 

Report of American Electric Railway As- 
sociation, 803 
Report of American Electric Railway En- 
gineering Association, 805; Comment, 

Sawdust for extinguishing oil fires, 1195 

Seattle, Wash., Car storage yards [Kemp- 

ster], *1140 

Shops of Northern Ohio Traction & Light 

Co. [Lathrop], 882 
Turbo-alternators, 1249 

Firemen, Free transportation, Perth Amboy, 
N. J., 85 

Fire at Hot Springs, Ark., 432, *652 
Florida East Coast Ry. (See St. Augustine, 

Fort Dodge, Des Moines & Southern R. R. 
(See Boone, la.) 

Fort Wayne, Ind., Fort Wayne & Northern 
Indiana Traction Co., Passing of 
double-deck station, 412 

Fort Worth, Tex., Northern Texas Traction 
Co., Substation of 3000-KW. Ar- 
rangement, wiring and building design, 


Cleveland, Criticism, 918 

Franchise values [Wherry], 781 

Other elements of value than franchise 

values [Rosecrantz] , 822 
Report of committee of National Municipal 

League [Wilcox], 1107 

Free transportation: 

■ Indiana ruling, 472 

Missouri ruling, 158 

Freight and express: 

Central Electric Railways Accountants* 

Association report, 28 

Cleveland problem, 961 

Demurrage and switching charges, 606 

-Desirable commodities, 606 

Electric service to Chase Rolling Mills, 

Waterbury, Conn., * 1 109 
Handling of in-bound freight, overs, 

shorts and damaged shipments, 604 

Handling shipments in the warehouse, *600 

Leasing right of way, 598 

Live stock shipments, 601 

Marking requirements, 603 

Massachusetts Electric Companies, 1356 

Mexico Tramways, 940 

I Milk shipments, 159, *602 

■ Organizing freight traffic department, 593 

Perishable freight, 601 

Progress in transportation, 637 

Receipt and delivery at cross roads, 606 

Relation of traffic department with com- 
pany [Starkey], 1100 
Report of American Electric Railway 

Traffic Association, 807; Discussion, 

799; Comment, 793 
Revenue derived from, Average per cent 

of, 606 

Review of general American practice, *588 

Settling claims, 605 

Stimulating traffic, 599 

Through cars and interline freight, 603 

Wagon pick-up and delivery, 599 

-Waupaca, Wis., 1261 

Freight rates, Possibility of increasing in- 
terurban, 590, 592 
F'reight stations: 

— —Bay State Street Ry., Boston, *260 
Development of, *596 

-Kansas City, Clay County & St. Joseph 

Ry., *216 

FYeight traffic department, Organization of, 593 
F'rench State Rys., D. C. motor cars for, *1 192 
Fuel. (See Coal; Oil) 

F'urnaces, Design of, as independent units, 486 


Galveston^ Tex., Galveston-Houston Electric 

Co., Stock increase, 948 
Gary (Ind.) & Interurban Ry., Receivership, 


Gasoline cars: 

Diesel, in Sweden, 187 

Drake gas-electric cars, *623 

East India Tramways, 1343 

Egypt, Gas-electric train for the Khedive, 


General Electric Co., 624, 625 

London County Council Tramways, *36; 

Comment, 3 

McKeen steel cars, *622 

Midland Valley R. R., *429 

One-man, Hendersonville, N. C, *507 

Operating data, 624, 626 

Progress in development, 637 

Report by Edinburgh committee, 152 

■ Review of developments in American 

practice, *622 

■ Versus storage-battery cars, 3 

Gears : 

Gear ratio, Choice of [Echegary], c*270 

— —Memphis record, 1299 

Recording wear and mileage, Brooklyn 

Rapid Transit System [Johnson], 

Geary Street Municipal R. R. (See San 

General Electric Co., Strike, 1153, 1204 
Generators. (See Turbo-generators) 
German Street & Interurban Railway Asso- 
ciation, Biennial meeting, 903 
Germany : 

Berlin : 

Auto-bus lines proposed by Elevated 

& Underground Ry., 647 
Carhouses of Grosse Berliner Strass- 

enbahn, *644; Comment, 635 
Grosse Berliner Strassenbahn, An- . 

nual report, 398 
Locomotives, Electric, with old steam 
trailers instead of motor cars. 
Opinion of E. C. Zehme, 379 
Monograph on rapid transit system, 

Rapid transit development, *377 
Stadtbahn electrification, 31 

Cologne municipal railways, Statistics, 935 

Dessau-Bitterfeld Ry., Changes, 224 

Hamburg Elevated & Subway Ry. : 

Car, schedules, rates of fare and the 

growth of traffic, *177 
Power station, sub-stations and trans- 
mission line, *6 
Mittenwald Ry., Power stations, trans- 
mission line and locomotives, *33 
Railway statistics, 69 ■ 

Rhine river interurban railways, High- 
tension direct-current, *962 

Storage battery and other self-propelled 

cars, *633 

(Abbreviations: 'Illustrated, correspondence.) 

July-December, 19 i 3. ] 



Glasgow Corporation Tramways: 

Development plans, 394 

Manager James Dalrymple's impressions 

of his visit in America, 932; Com- 
ment, 919 

Notes, 347 

Glover, M. W., President of the Accountants' 

Association, *902 
Goldsboro (N. C.) Traction Co., Receivership, 

82, 354 
Government ownership: 

Mellen's predictions, 1035 

■ Report of National Civic Federation 

[Low], 1239 
Grand Rapids, Mich.: 

American Public Utilities, Financial state- 
ment, 662 

Grand Rapids, Holland & Chicago Ry. 

(See Holland, Mich.) 

Grand Rapids Street Ry., Outings for 

employees, 407 

■ United Light & Railways Co., Annual Re- 
port, 154 

W age increase, 46 

Graphite, Metallized, for bearings and col- 
lector brushes (Graphite Metallizing 
Corporation), 986 

Great Britain: 

Crossings, Overhead, 274 

Electrification in the United Stales 

studied by English officials, 1186 
Lancashire & Yorkshire Ry., Direct-cur- 
rent high-tension system [Kapp], 425 
Leeds & Bradford Tramways, Double-deck 

car blown over, *180 
London County Council Tramways: 

Annual report, 777 

Gas-electric cars, *36; Comment, 3 
London & Southwestern Ry., Suburban 

electrification progress, 1246 
Motor buses in England, 306; [Hamilton], 

689; [McCollum], 1903; Comment, 


Municipal Tramways Association, Con- 
vention, 689 

Pavement charges, Plea for lower, 1139 

Prepayment operation in England, Esti- 
mated value of, 1236 

■ Railway statistics, 1911-1912, 67, 651 

Rules for platform men proposed by Tram- 
ways & Light Railways Association, 4 

Sheffield Corporation Tramways, Annual 

Report, 909 

Trackless trolleys in England, *653 

■ Unsuccessful municipal tramways, 171 

Greenfield, Mass., Connecticut Street Ry. 

F'are accounting [Abercrombie], 586 
Grinder, Car wheel, *1099 
Grinder, Rail. (See Rail grinders) 
Guards. (See Cattle guards) 
Guides for city riders, 1007 


Hamburg F.levated & Subway Ry. : 

Car, schedules, rates of fare and the 

growth of traffic, *177 

Power station, substations and transmis- 
sion line, *6 

Hamilton, Out., Dominion Power & Trans- 
mission Co., Rules governing conduct 
of passengers, 46 

Handrails, Wrapping rusty, Texas, 71 

Hanna, J. H., President, American Electric 
Railway Engineering Association, *902 

Havana, Cuba: 

Elevated railway franchise, 1154 

Havana Electric Railway, Light & Power 

Co. Annual report, 278 

Hawdey, C. S., President of the American 
Electric Railway Manufacturers' As- 
sociation, *903 

Headlight ordinance, Chicago, 243 

Pleating of cars: 

Chicago decision, 1069 

Electric thermostat control (Railway Util- 
ity Co.), *149 
Heavy electric traction : 

Butte, Anaconda & Pacific Ry., Satisfac- 
tory experience [Gallweyj, c938 

Canadian Northern Ry., Montreal tunnel, 


Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Ry., Main 

line electrification, 1142, 1341 

Choice of electrification for a concrete case 

[Murray], 1290, *1327, cl343 

Determination of power required, 1166 

Engineering problem of electrification. 

Lists of high-tension a. c. and d. c. 
roads. Comparative data to prove 
superiority of d. c. systems [Arm- 
strong], *1284: Discussion [Vaughan, 
Gibbs, Murray], 1290, *1327, cl343; 
Comment, 1268 

English railroad officials investigating con- 
ditions in United States, 1186 

Europe, Development in and present situ- 
ation, 1169 

Italian State Railway, Overhead equip- 
ment of the Turin-Modane section, 

Locomotives. (See Locomotives) 

Loetschberg Ry., 262; [Bell], *374; *1048, 


— i — London & Port Stanley Ry., 666 
Report by Adam Beck, 505 

Heavy electric traction: (Continued) 

London & Southwestern Uv., Progress, 


Norfolk & Western Ry., Split-phase 

adopted, 189, "650 

Norway, between Christiana and Dram- 
men, 69 

Pennsylvania KK., Broad Street Station 

to' Chestnut Hill, "500 

Progress | Kapp J. 425: 1267 

Report of American Electric Railway En- 
gineering Association, 806 

Simplon Tunnel Ry., 1244 

Southern Pacific Ry., Mountain lines 

I Babcock], 424 
— Split-phase motors, Norfolk & Western 
Ry., 299 

Stadtbahn electrification, 31 

Valencia Economic Tramway & Railroad 

Co., Spain, 42 

I legarly, D. A., President of the American 

Electric Railway Transportation and 
Traffic Association, *902 

I I endersonville (N. C.) Traction Co., Gasoline 

one-man cars, *507 
High-tension direct-current railways: 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Ry., 1142, 


Holland, between Maastricht and Aachen, 


Kalamazoo-Grand Rapids Line, Progress, 


Lancashire &- Yorkshire Rys., England 

[Kapp], 425 
Nashville-Gallatin Interurban Ry. System 

described. 1200-volt line, * 1 72 

Pittsburgh & Butler Street Ry., 1032 

Rhine river interurban railways, *962 

■ Third-rail shoe, Renewable plate for, *506 

Highland Park & Lake Buiren Ry. (See 

Seattle, Wash.) 
Holland, High-tension direct-current railway 

between Maastricht and Aachen, *373 
Holland, Mich., Grand Rapids, Holland & Chi- 
cago Ry., Passenger cars, *428 
Hot Springs, Ark., Power plant destroyed bv 

fire, 432, *652 
Hours of labor. (See Employees, Hours) 
House of substation operator, Twin City 

Rapid Transit Co., *500 
Houston (Tex.) Electric Co.: 

Girder rail in San Antonio, 107 

Instruction of trainmen, *488 

Hudson River & Eastern Traction Co. (See 

Ossining, N. Y.) 
Huntington, W. Va., Ohio Valley Electric Ry: 

Employees, Adjustment of differences, 111 

Prepayment cars, 243 

Hydroelectric plants, Development of, for elec- 
tric railways, 553 


Ice making at Durham, N. C 1226 
Illinois Electric Railways Association, Sep- 
tember meeting, 497 
Illinois Public Service Commission, Engineer 

for, proposed, 1255 
Illinois public utility law, 42, 75, 92 
Illinois Traction System. (See Peoria, 111.) 
Illumination of cars. (See Lighting of cars) 
Incandescent lamps. (See Lamps, Electric) 
Income tax law, 762; [Cavanaugh], 1277; 

[Hixson], 1278; Comment, 1268 
Index bureaus. (See Accident claim depart- 

Index to Electric Railway Tournal, Comment, 

Indexing, Segregating technical data. 54 
Indexing of patterns, Indianapolis Traction & 

Terminal Co., *1334 
Indiana, Interurban lines, Union agitation on. 


Indiana Public Service Commission: 

Conference on standards, 40 

( Hiestions sent to companies, 41 

Indianapolis, Ind. : 

Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction Co., 

Operating rules with cab signals, 349 

Indianapolis, Columbus & Southern Trac- 
tion Co. (See Columbus, Ind.) 

Indianapolis Light & Heat Co., Sub- 
merged coal storage in concrete pit, 

Indianapolis-Louisville freight case. De- 
cision of Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission, 1 18 

Indianapolis Traction & Terminal Co.: 

Indexing of patterns, * 1 3 34 

Shop time distribution bv machine, 


Enforcement of the law by Mayor 
Walace, 1221 

Revised list of grievances, 1114 

Settlement, Arbitration by Indian- 
apolis Public Service Commis- 
sion. Te'xt of agreement be- 
tween employees and com- 
pany, 1059; Comment, 1045, 
1149, 1254, 1302 

Statement of President R. I. Todd 
on causes of outbreak, * 1 1 8 ; 
Statement by Mayor Shank, 

Indianapolis, Ind.: (Continued) 

Indianapolis Traction & Terminal Co.: 

Strike: (Continued) 

Statement to the public signed by 

employees, 1202 
Thorpe, J. J., His testimony. 1348 

Strike on interurban lines, 346, 395 

Inductive interferences. (See Transmission 

Inspection of cars: 

Memphis Street Ry., 9 

Standardized methods [Ingoldsby], -1234 

Inspection shop bonus system [See], 1326 
Instruction of trainmen. See Employees) 
Insulating materials: 

Formica (Electric Service Co.), 1065 

Miearta ( Westinghouse), *73 

Rubber, Conference of manufacturers and 

users. Preliminary report, 931 
I nsulators: 

— — Section (Ohio Brass), *308 

Trolley, Testing, in place, Brooklyn, 1342 

(Westinghouse) porcelain strain, "1298 

insurance. (See Eire protection and insur- 
ance ) 

Inter-departmental work, Real cost of, 958 
Interlocking plants. (See Signals; 
International Exposition of Safety and Ventila- 
tion, 1321 

International Railway. (See Buffalo) 
International Travel Club, Traffic and public 

safety committee, 447 
Interstate Commerce Commission: 
Accidents on interstate railways, Report 

on, 356 

Accounting order for electric railways, 


Accounting system, questions and answers, 

43, 239, 398, 705 

Indianapolis-Louisville freight case. De- 
cision, 118 

Jurisdiction of, over interurban railways, 


Meeting with American Electric Railway 

Accountants' Association, 72 
New Haven commutation rates, Decision, 


Report on transportation in New England, 

78; Comment, 55 
Separation of operating expenses ordered, 


Valuation of railways, Organization plans, 

1 137, 1350 
Interswitching charges, Ontario, 1356 
Interurban railways: 

Comparison with steam railways as to 

operating revenue and expense 
[Fischer], 305 

Operating expense and cost of construc- 
tion, Estimating [Fischer], 380 

Operating revenue, Determination of prob- 
able. Analytical study of a proposed 
line based upon an examination f re- 
sults obtained from typical existing- 
lines [Fischer], 301; Comment, 291 

Relation of, to the development of the 

territory they serve [Shoup], 821 

Theoretical application of the principles 

governing the operating revenue, op- 
erating expense and cost f construc- 
tion of proposed railways [Fischer], 
460; Comment, 448 

Train dispatching, necessity for care, 55 

— — Union agitation on Indiana lines, 313 

Value of, to the business of the city, 906 

Inventory plan, Perpetual, 1168 

Investments. (See Financial) 

Ireland : 

Dublin, Labor situation, 433, 51 1, 905 

rRailwav statistics, operating results, 651 

Iron, pure, versus copper-bearing steel as a 
rust resistant, 468 

Italy : 

Alessandria, Scheme of electric railways, 


Electrification of state railways [Kapp], 

Italian State Railway, Overhead equip- 
ment of the Turin-Modane section, 

Lecco-Colico Ry., Three-phase system. 

Notes [Bell], *375 

Subway for Genoa proposed, 42 

Ithaca (N. Y.) Street Ry., Sale, 94S 


Jack boxes, Cordless, for way-station service 

(Western Electric), *1298 
Jackson, Mich., Michigan United Traction Co.: 
Kalamazoo-Grand Rapids Line,. Progress 

on, 1016 

Snow plow, Self-contained, *1246 

Jackson (Miss.) Light & Traction Co., Acci- 
dent talks, 665 
Jamestown, N\ Y., Strikes, 45, 75 

Statistics of electric railways, 344 

Tokyo-Yokohama line, 1137 

Johnstown (Pa.) Traction Co., Merger, 1353 

Journals. Brakeshoe pressures and hot jour- 
nals'. Discussion at. Master ' Car 
Builders' Convention, 2 

(Abbreviations: 'Illustrated. cCorrespondence.) 



[Vol. XUI. 

Kansas City, Mo.: 

Automobile ordinance, 1001 

— '—Kansas City, Clay County & St. Toseph 

Benefit association of employees, 1038 
ISlock signals proposed, 1032 
Fare reduction, 318 
Power, 216 
Shelter stations, 1211 
Shops, 221 

System. Construction standards, 
■ Kansas City Street Ry., Franchise 

nance, 1029 
— Metropolitan Street Ry. : 

Crushers, Gasoline-driven, 145 

Franchise negotiations, 77, 114, 
469, 510, 636, 1149, 1205, 
1301, 1350 

Passing of the cable, 660, 945 

Receivership, 38, 350 

Smoking, 666 

Transfers, 85 

Wage increase, 242 

Service and labor questions, 660 

Swope Park, Municipal line for suggested, 


Kentucky Traction & Terminal Co. (See Lex- 
ington, Ky.) 

Kentucky Utilities Co. (See Lexington, Ky.) 

Keystone Railway Club, September meeting, 

Kuhn properties. Receiverships for, 81 ; Com- 
ment, 53 



Labor. (See Employees) 

Labor union activity in the courts, 54 

Lamps, Electric: 

Tests, Cleveland Ry., *180 

Tungsten lamps, Special, without commer- 
cial value for use on interurban cars, 

/Lancashire & Yorkshire Ry., England, Direct- 
current high-tension system [Kapp], 


'.Land for carhouses and shops, Providing for 

future needs, 485 
lLaurel (Miss.) Light & Railway Co., Annual 

Report, 908 

iLecco-Colico Ry., Three-phase system, Notes 
[Bell], *375 

Leetonia, Ohio, Youngstown & Ohio River 
R. R., Annual report, 352 


Air brake decision, New York, 414 

Car advertising. New York decision, 71 

— — Car diversion, Is it justified? 202 

Charters, ordinances, franchises, 430, 508, 


Copying of corporate records, Maine de- 
cision, 1131 

Directors, Responsibility of, Decision of 

New York Supreme Court, 167 

Full crew law in Pennsylvania, 42 

■- Intangible losses in Jersey City, Damages 

not allowed, 435 
— -—Heating of cars, Chicago, 1069 
Interstate Commerce Commission, Juris- 
diction over interurban railways, 129 

. Kansas City Southern Ry., United States 

Supreme Court decision, 1205 

. Negligence, Liability for, 431, 508, 1344 

New York Rys., Suit for damages, 1198 

, Pennsylvania public service company law, 

194, 210 

- — —Receivers' certificates, Use of, 128 

Signs on cars, New York Supreme Court 

decision, 93 

Smoke nuisance, Decision of Pennsyl- 
vania Supreme Court, 917 

Strike losses, Municipal responsibility for, 

Decision of United States District 
Court, Wells Fargo & Co. versus Jer- 
sey City, 186; Comment, 169 

Yerkes' worthless bond issue, 1, 44 


Aspects of the model utility bill [Kerr], 

868; Report on bill, 1238 
Present tendency of public utility laws 

LTingleyJ, 850 
, Report on federal relations by American 

Electric Railway Association, 872 

_ (See also Public service commissions) 

Lehigh Valley Transit Co. (See Allentown, 


Level, Foreman's pocket, Florida Last Coast 

Ry., *939 
Lexington, Ky.: 

Expectoration, Crusade against, 1355 

Kentucky Traction & Terminal Co., Strike, 

111, 1256 

Kentucky Utilities Co., Strike, 79 

Lighting of cars: 

. Bay State Street Ry., Tests on, *504 

. Changes brought about by use of tungsten 

lamps, Effects of reflectors and interior 
coloring. Results of tests of different 
lamp arrangements [Porter and 
Stafey], *1089 

. Cleveland Ry., Tests and results, *180 

. Costs and results from different lamp ar- 
rangements [Porter and Staley], 1092 

Lighting of cars: (Continued) 

Desirable features [Stickney], 1282 

General discussion, 1130 

[Porter and Staley]; Discussion, 1061 

Requirements for good illumination. Ad- 
vantages of reflectors. Possibilities of 
indirect lighting [Cravath], * 1057 

Toledo Railway & Light Co., Tests with 

various combinations of lamps, * 1 1 6 ; 
Comment, 1007 

Lightning arresters, Substations of Berkshire 
Street Ry., *1175 

Lima, Ohio, Western Ohio R. R., Siphon for 
emptying oil barrels, *341 

Lincoln, Nebraska, Omaha, Lincoln & Beat- 
rice Ry., Electric freight locomotive, 

Line cars. (See Tower cars; Work cars) 
Little Rock (Ark.) Railway & Electric Co., 

Claims for damaged clothing, 181 
Liverpool, Eng.; Traffic problems, 1350 

(See Passenger handling 

San Antonio 

One-man street-car service, 




Loading time. 

Lockport, N. Y., 

Locomobile : 

American, The [Cooper], 

Buckeye, *697 

Locomotive repairs, Ultra-refinement in 
Locomotives, Diesel, Prussian-Hessian 

Rys., *1026 
Locomotives, Electric: 

Baldwin-Westinghouse, Standard arrange- 
ment, *1298 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., Specifica- 
tions, 1181 

City and suburban service. Use with old 

steam trailers instead of motor cars 
in Berlin. Opinion of E. C. Zehme, 

Dessau-Bitterfeld Ry., »987 

Driving systems [Lydall], *1339 

■ Freight 50-ton, 600-1200-volt, 

Columbia Electric Ry., *272 
Freight, Omaha, Lincoln & Beatrice Ry., 


Lecco-Colico Ry., Italy, Three-phase 

[Bell], *376 

Lotschberg Ry. 2500-hp locomotives for 

single-phase operation. New form of 
drive with helical gearing and side 
rods [Bell], *374; *1048; Comment, 

Mittenwald Ry., *35 

New York Central & Hudson River R. R., 


Norfolk & Western Ry., *650 

Replacing trucking service of Chase Roll- 
ing Mill Co., Waterbury, Conn., *1 109 

Single-phase. Experimental type of articu- 
lated locomotive of General Electric 
Co. Device for converting single- 
phase to polyphase current, *677; 
Comment, 673 

Three-phase, in Italy [Bell], *376; 425 

Loetschberg Ry.: 

Locomotives, 2500-hp. New form of drive. 

*1048; Comment,. 1046 
Opening, 262 

Single-phase system, Notes [Bell], *374 

London. (See Great Britain) 
London (Ont.) & Port Stanley Ry.: 

Electrification, 666, 994 

Report by Adam Beck, 505 

Pay-as-you-enter cars, *1064 

London letters, 37, 191, 392, 657, 989 
Long Island Ry. (See New York City) 
Loramie & Minster Electric R. R. (See Min- 
ster, Ohio) 
Los Angeles, Cal. : 

Los Angeles Ry.: 

Fare case, 478, 910 
Merger operations, 1258 

Pacific Electric Ry. : 

Accident, 121, 666 

Block system for Venice Short Line, 

Crossing, Track, of solid manganese 

steel, *273 
Elevated railway franchise, 512 
Fares, 318 

Index bureau, Value of, in dealing 
with fraudulent claims [Bishop], 

Maintenance of cars, 387 
Wage increase, 242 
Lost articles, Caring for, Boston Elevated Ry. 

[Dana], *68 
Louisville (Ky.) Ry., Trailer service. 1355 
Lynchburg (Va.) Traction & Light Co. Con- 
struction car with hoist equipment, 

McAlester, Okla., Choctaw, Railway & Light 
Co., Homemade car hoist, "190 

Mail, Compensation, for carrying, Report of 
American Electric Railway Associ- 
ation, 867; Letter to Congress, 1337 

Maine public utilities act, Referendum peti- 
tion on, 42, 114, 168, 236 

Maintenance and repair. Distinction between, 

Maintenance at carhouses. (See Carhouses) 
(Abbreviations: "Illustrated. cCorrespondence.) 

Maintenance records: 

Connecticut Co., 330 

Equipment defect records, 

Traction Co., *1189 

Motor operating costs [Thirlwall], 

Pacific Electric Ry., 387 

-Repair shop, Portland, Ore., 133, 134 

Maintenance of way department. (See Way 


Managements of railways, Merit and demerit 

systems [Feters], 135 
Manchester (N. H.) Traction, Light & Power 


-Consolidation, 117 

Wage increase, 472 

Manganese open-price associations, Meeting, 
Arrangement under which the com- 
panies operate, 767, 984 

Manganese track work and rolling stock 
weights [Jones], cl07 

Manila. (See Philippines) 

Manufacturer's dutv in the electric railway 
field [Drew], 25 


Berkshire Street Ry., 1171 

Berlin, Germany, 377 

Boston to New London trolley trip, 728 

Canadian Northern Ry., Montreal tunnel, 


—Connecticut Co., 255, 328 

Geary Street Municipal Ry., San Fran- 
cisco, 686 

Holland, between Maastricht and Aachen, 


Kansas City, Clay County & St. Joseph 

Ry., 217 

Mittenwald Ry., 33 

New York City, 378 

Newark-Trenton Line, 455 

Norfolk & Western Ry., 650 

Philadelphia, Proposed rapid transit 

routes, 222, 500 

Rhine river interurban railways, 963 

Massachusetts, Legislation, 39 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Ana- 
lytical study of operating expenses, 78 

Massachusetts Public Service Commission: 

Corporation expense returns, 1208 

Members, 113 

Meadville, Pa., Northwestern Pennsylvania 

Responsibility for shipments, 119 

-Two-car trains, *695 

Measuring currents in underground structures 
[Hering], *682 

Mediation laws. (See Employees, Arbitra- 

Medical inspection bureau, Brooklyn Rapid 

Transit Co., 83, 448 
Melbourne (Australia) Tramway & Omnibus 

Co., Annual report, 516 
Mellen, Charles S., resigns from Boston & 

Maine and Maine Central Railroads, 

76, 128 
Memphis Street Ry. : 

Fare accounting [Burroughs], 584 

Gear and pinion record, *1299 

Lighting of shops, 391 

Motor inspection, 9 

Paving protector used with T-rail, *1145 

Safety campaign, Reports on near-acci- 
dents, 144 

Mercury contact for operation under rail 
(Brach), *1250 

Metropolitan Street Ry. (See Kansas City; 
New York City) 

Mexico Tramways, Freight and express serv- 
ice, 940 

Midland Valley R. R. (See Arkansas City, 

Milk tariff on Newark-Trenton line, 159 
Milk transportation, *602 
Milwaukee (Wis.) Electric Railway & 

— —Joint use of tracks, 1300 
Service order on Milwaukee city 

Order of Wisconsin Railroad 

mission, 1182 
— —Tracks, Joint use of, 945 
Wage increase, 242 

Minneapolis, Minn., Twin-City Rapid Transit 
Co. : 

Employees, Placards for, 120 

-House for substation operator, *500 

Plant development, 1250 

Power distribution, 1191 

Repair shop improvements, *674 

Welfare work for employees, *467 

Minster, Ohio, Loramie & Minster Electric 

R. R., Receivership, 44 
Missouri, Ruling in regard to free transporta- 
tion, 158 

Mobile (Ala.), Light & Railroad Co., Fare 

accounting [Glover], 586 
Montreal, Que.: 

-Montreal Tramways: 

Annual report, 352 
Benefit Association: 

Annual report, 160 
Economic aspect of work, 1330 
Cars, Latest features, * 1 132 
Circuit-breaker testing, M244 
Jurisdiction of Quebec Public Utilities 

Commission, 1356 
Track improvements, *969 
Trailer operation proposed, 366 
Two-car train operation, *939 



July-December, 1913.] 



Montreal, Que.: (Continued) 
Traffic changes, 202 

Underground railway proposed, 236, 1252 

Morristown (N. J.) R. R., Track construc- 
tion on narrow right-of-way, *681 

Berlin, Germany, Proposed by Elevated & 

Underground Ky., 647 

England, Plan for larger provipcial towns, 

306; [Hamilton], 689 

Report by Board of Estimate and Appor- 
tionment of New York City to Mayor 
* Kline on bus operation in London and 
Paris [McCollum], 1093; Comment, 

Motor lead connections, San Antonio, Tex., 



Converters for split-phase motors, *678 

Maintenance cost of old and new types, 

based upon figures taken from six 
roads [Thirlwall], 495 

Maintenance of single-phase, Denver & 

Interurban Ry., *108 

Series-repulsion type ( Alexanderson), <*678 

Single phase, Life of parts in car miles, 

Denver & Interurban Ry., 108 

Split phase-single phase, Norfolk & West- 
ern Ry., 189, 298; Comment, 289, 290, 
363: [de Muralt], c270; [Murrayl, 
c306: [Babcock], c391 

Mount Vernon, N. Y., Westchester Electric 
Ry. Building for employees, *971 

Moving pictures: 

Chicago Rys., 441 

• — —Railway exhibit of Pittsburgh Rys., *692 

Traffic promotion and teaching the trades, 

Use of, 364 
Multiple-unit trains: 

Buffalo, International Ry., 1077 

Montreal Tramways, *939 

Northwestern Pennsylvania Ry., *695 

Public Service Railway of New Jersey, 

Tests to determine relative advan- 
tages of two-car trains and single 
cars in city service, 10, 935; Com- 
ment, 5, 91, 917 

. -Southern Traction Co., Dallas, Texas, *938 

Municipal ownership: 

Grand Junction, Colo., Defeat, 1070 

San Francisco, Geary Street Municipal 

Ry., Cost of construction and oper- 
ation, *686; Comment, 672 

Unsuccessful tramways in Gt. Britain, 171 

Municipal Tramways Association of Great 
Britain, Convention proceedings, 689 
Muskogee (Okla.) Electric Traction Co.: 

Carhouse and repair shop, *1010 

Disciplining trainmen and recording turn- 
ins, *1332 


Nail driving tool for inaccessible places, 

Topeka, Kan., *229 
Napa, Cal., San Francisco, Napa & Calistoga 

R. R., Vallejo Wreck, 55, 519, 919 
Naples, Proposed underground and elevated 

railway, 30 
Nashville, Tenn.: 

Nashville-Gallatin Interurban Ry. : 

Cars, 175 

System, 1200-volt line, *172 

Nashville Railway & Ligbt_ Co.: 

Cross-arm boring machine, * 1 46 
Wheel and axle practice, 184 
National Association of Railway Commis- 

Annual convention, 973, 1013 

Committee on legislation, Report, 1015 

Committee on railroad equipment, Report, 


Committee on safety appliances, Report, 


Committee on statistics and accounts of 

electric railways, Report, 1013 

Proceedings less radical than in former 

years, 1009 

Report of delegates from Accountants' 

Association [Duffy and Ham], 767 
National Civic Federation: 

Annual meeting, Report on model public 

utility bill. Discussion on workmen's 
compensat'on and government owner- . 
ship, 1238 

Aspects of model utility bill [Kerr], 868; 

Report on bill, 1238 

Study of economic conditions, 865 

National Conservation Congress, Attitude 

toward water power development, 1129 
National Electric Light Association, Public 

policy committee. Dinner of, 1197 
National Municipal League: 
Regulation of public utilities, Attitude, 


Report of franchise committee [Wilcox], 


Nelson (B. C.) Street Ry., Municipal Oper- 
ation, 1256 

New Albany, Ind., Safety first meetings, 357 

New Bedford, Mass., Union Street Ry., Car- 
house, Provision for employees, *292 

New England Investment & Security Co. (See 
Springfield, Mass.) 

New England Railway problems [Hale], 1243 

New England Street Railway Club: 

October meeting, 1056 

November meeting, 1142 

New Haven, Conn., Connecticut Co.: 

Bridges. Approximate methods of de- 
termining bridge loads, "638; Com- 
ment, 635 

Dump cars, Multiple, *344 

System. Consolidation of various lines. 

Analysis of financial and operating 
results, *252; Comment, 251 

T rail construction, Relation to types of 

paving [Cram], *368 

Way construction. Division of duties be- 
tween construction and way depart- 
ments, *328 

New Orleans, La.: 

Fenders (Herr), *74 

Terminal for interurban railways, Report 

on, 1070 

New South Wales Government Railways & 
Tramways, Annual Report, 1108, 1206 

New York and Boston trolley route via New 
Have" & New London, 435 

New York Central & Hudson River R. R. : 

Locomotives, Electric, *1024 

Safety exhibit car, *227 

New York City: 

American Cities Co., Changes in, 1074 

American Power & Light Co., Annual re- 
port, 198 

Astor house, Removal, 434 

'Belt Line Rv., Increase of capital stock, 


Brakes, Air, Order of Public Service 

Commission upheld by the Supreme 
Court. G. L. Fowler disagrees with 
court's conclusions [Dodd], 4)4, c468 

Brakeshoe hearings, 944, 1061, 1351 

Corona Rapid Transit Line, Extension, 


Fire extinguishers ordered on Long Island 

R. K. and New York Consolidated 
R. R., 153 

Floods in subway, 701 

Hudson & Manhattan R. R.: 

Directors, 157 

Earnings, 399 

Finance reorganization, 116 

Inspection pit safety device, * 1 097 

Income tax on rapid transit lines, City 

immune from, 945 

Interborough-Metropolitan Co., Annual re- 
port, 475 

Interborough Rapid Transit: 

Annual report, 437 

Boilers, High rating of, 1165 

Bond sale, 707 

Bulletin, Fourth year of, 1355 
Co-operative stores, *65 
Employees rewarded, 1309 
Subway, Traffic statistics, 1122 
Turbo-generators, *309; Comment, 

Venner's suit, 999 

Long Island R. R. : 

Accident near College Point station, 

Freeport R. R. completed, 277 
Wooden cars forbidden, 1077 
Wreck hearing, 905 

Metropolitan Street Ry. : 

Decision against tort creditors, 111 
Traction suit appealed, 943 

Mid-Crosstown Ry., Stock and bond issue, 


— ■ — Motorbus operation, Report by Board of 
Estimate and Apportionment to Mayor 
Kline on bus operation in London and 
Paris [McCollum], 1093; Comment, 

New York -Rys. : 

Annual report, 471, 474 

Co-operative stores, *65 

Employees rewarded, 1309 

PK control equipment _ [Wynne], 20 

Service wagons, Electric, 53 

Suit for damages, 1198 

New York, Westchester & Boston Ry., 

Delay record, 1088 

Omnibus applications, 150 

Pooling of receipts, 659 

— ■ — Public Service Commission: 

Brake order upheld by Supreme 

Court [Dodd], 414, c468 
Brakeshoe hearing, 944, 1061, 1351 
Subway system described, 80 

Queensboro Bridge: 

Plans for Manhattan approach, 1070 
Rapid transit service, 1292 

Rapid transit construction progress, 41, 


Rapid transit conditions and the political 

situation,, 408, 944 

Safety exposition at Grand Central Pal- 
ace, 764 

— — Second Avenue R. R., Receivership, 706 

Smoking on cars prohibited, 282, 318, 357 

Smoking on cars, Hearings, 1002j, 1076; 

Comment, 1045 
Staten Island, Richmond Light & Rail- 
road Co., Boiler explosion, 945, 1023; 
Comment, 1008 

Staten Island transfer arrangement, 161 

Steinway tunnel: 

Action postponed, 396 
Reconstruction by Interborough Rapid 
Transit Co., 196, 905 

(Abbreviations: "Illustrated. cCorresportdence.) 

New York City: (Continued) 

Subway loop, Opening of, 80, 236 

Subways, New: 

Lexington Avenue, 79, 80, 348, 661, 

904, 943, 993, 1030, 1067. 1151, 


Seventh Avenue, 112, 702 

■ Third Avenue Ry. : 

Cars, Converting prepayment to non- 
bulkhead type, * 1 148 
Insurance for employees, 160, 317; 

Comment, 290 
Report for six months, Remarks to 
the security holders by Mr. Whit- 
ridge, 112, 116 
Tax assessments ordered reduced, 115 
Traction suit appealed, 943 

Transportation problems discussed by 

Frank Hedley, 16 

Tunnels under East River, Consent for 

additional, 277 
New York Electric Railway Association: 

Discussion on complaints of the public; 

Comment, 1221 

Discussion on public relations, 1227 

New York, New Haven & Hartford R. R. : 

Annual report', 704, 996 

Automatic stop competition, 80 

Committees of directors to report on op- 
erations, 701 

Commutation rates, Decision, 85, 119 

J)ividend passed, 1259 

Electric railway holdings, Notes, 517; 

[Mellen], 1068 
Mellen, Charles S., Resignation of, 76, 


■ -Outlook for, 401 

Policies, President Elliott on, 433, 1113 

Publicity favored by President Elliott, 661 

Safety of employees, Order of Public 

Service Commission, 436, 459 
Sale of Rhode Island properties, Pro- 
posed, 156 

Sanderson & Porter secure control of 

Springfield and Worcester electric 
railways, 199 

— — Three-wire distribution, Trial of, 1084 

Trolley line ownership condemned by In- 
terstate Commerce Commission, 78; 
Comment, 55 

Trolley lines, New, and extensions to ex- 
isting lines, 93 

New York Public Service Commission, First 
District. (See New York City) 

New York Public Service Commission, Second 
District. (See New York State Pub- 
lic Service Commission) 

New York State Public Service Commission: 

Appointments to, By Governor Sulzer, 91 

Hearing concerning protection of em- 
ployees on New Haven Road, 459 

Hearing on reorganization of Buffalo & 

Lake Erie Traction Co., 997 

New York State Rys. (See Rochester, N. Y.) 

New Zealand, Strike arbitration a failure, 364 

Newark. N. J., Public Service Ry.: 

Franchises approved, 1201 

High speed service between Newark and 

Trenton, Engineering and operating 
features of line, 85, *455 

Newark-Trenton passenger and milk 

tariff, 159 

Private car, Dust-proof and sound-proof, 


■ Prizes for ball teams, 985 

Terminal plan progress, 127, 992 

Traffic conditions, report [Wilcox], 79, 


Train operation, economy of, 1046 

Two-car trains in city service, Tests of, 

10, 935; Comment, 5\, 91, 917 

Wage increase, 1355 

Welfare work, Savings of, 793, 812 

Niagara Falls, N. Y. : 

Aluminum Company of America, Over- 
head construction, 427 

Combination lighting and trolley poles, 


Niagara power in Buffalo, 409, *420 

Norfolk & Western Ry.: 

Locomotives, Electric, *650 

Single-phase-polyphase traction, 189, 298; 

Comment 289, 290, 363; [de Muralt], 
c270; [Murray], c306; [Babcock], 
c391; F. V. Gallaugher, c504 

Northern Electric Ry. (See Chico, Cal.) 

Northern Ohio Traction & Light Co. (See 
Akron, Ohio) 

Northern Texas Traction Co. (See Fort 
Worth, Texas) 

Northwestern Pennsylvania Ry. (See Mead- 
ville, Pa.) 


Electrification between Christiania and 

Drammen, 69 
Rjukan Ry., Single-phase electrification, 



Oakland, Cal.: 

Oakland, Antioch & Eastern Ry.: 

Bond issue, 354 

Opening, 78, 435 

Steel cars, *696 
Oakland Traction Co., Concrete poles, 




[Vol. XLII. 

Oakland, Cal. : (Continued) 

San Francisco, Oakland Terminal Rys. : 

Organization chart, 1190 

Reorganization plans, 117, 355 
United Properties Co.: 

Refinancing, 1075 

Sale of holdings, 400 
Oakwood Street Railway Co. (See Dayton, 


Officials of street railways, Salaries of, Bos- 
ton Elevated Ry., 409 
Ogden (Utah) Rapid Transit Co., Accident, 


Ohio Electric Ry. (See Cincinnati, Ohio) 

Ohio Public Utilities Commission, Organiza- 
tion, 312, 396 

Ohio Valley Electric Ry. (See Huntington, 
W. Va.) 

Oil, Retrieving, Denver, 62 

Oil fuel. Texas companies change to coaL 102 
Oiler, Wheel flange (National Appliances), 

Oklahoma City, Okla. : 

-New road opened, 1154 

Oklahoma Ry. : 

Boring attachment, *462 
Weed burning, Cost, *469 

Omaha, Neb.: 

Omaha & Council Bluffs Street Ry. De- 
cision concerning jurisdiction of the 
Interstate Commerce Commission, 129 

Omaha, Lincoln & Beatrice Ry. (See Lin- 
coln, Neb.) 

Operating records: 

Chicago, Report of Board of Supervising 

Engineers on rush-hour traffic, 265 

Motorbus operation costs in London and 

Paris, 1094 

New York, Westchester & Boston Ry., 


Pacific Electric Ry., 387 

Operation of electric railways: 

Expense and cost of construction, Esti- 
mating [Fischer], 380 

Revenue, Determination of probable. Ana- 
lytical study of a proposed interurban 
railway based upon an examination of 
results obtained from typical exist- 
ing lines [Fischer], 301; Comment, 

(See also Public, Relations with) 

Oregon Electric Railway. (See Portland, Ore.) 
Oregon-Washington Railroad & Navigation 

Co. (See Portland, Ore.) 
Organization charts: 

San Francisco, Oakland Terminal Rys., 

*1 190 

Way department, Rochester, N. Y., 63 

Ossining, N. _ Y., Hudson River & Eastern 

Traction Co., Repair shop practice, 


Overhead charges, Discussion at Atlantic City, 

Overhead construction: 

Alunrnum Company of America, Niagara 

Falls, 427 

Anchors and guides, 884 

Cap and conei. Standard design, * 733 

— Connecticut Co., *254 
Crossings of telephone and trolley wires 

in England, 274 

Curves, 886 

Dressing curves, *885 

Feeders, 887 

Flat contact wire for pantograph [Potter], 

c 1147 

Frogs and crossings, 886 

Inclosed special work for carhouses, *450, 

957, [Caum], cll08 
Kansas City, Clay County & St. Toseph 

Ry., *218 

Lecco-Colico Ry. [Bell], *375 

Loetschberg Ry. [Bell], *374 

Mittenwald RyJ, *34 

Nashville-Gallatin Interurban Ry., * 1 73 

Norway, Rjukan Ry., *646 

Pole clearances, spacing and setting, 883 

Protection of workmen in Southern Pa- 
cific shops, * 1 144 
Report of American Electric Railway En- 
gineering Association, 730, *883 

Rhine river interurban railways, *962 

Rules concerning high tension, Illinois, 150 

Sag in span wire, Tables, 730 

Span and guy attachments, 884 

Specifications adopted by American Elec- 
tric Railway Engineering Association, 

Testing trolley insulators in place, Brook- 
lyn, 1342 

Three-wire distribution, Possibilities of. 

Trial on New York, New Haven & 

Hartford R. R., 1084 

Trolley take-up for bascule bridge, *967 

Waterloo, Cedar Falls & Northern Ry., 



Pacific Claim Agents' Association, Convention, 
103, 136 

Pacific Electric Ry. (See Los Angeles^ Cal.) 
Pacific Gas & Electric Co. (See San Fran- 
Paints and painting: 

-Baked enamel painting, 578 

Shop of Twin City Rapid Transit Co., 676 

Paints and painting: (Continued) 
— Washing of cars and the effect of poor 

soap on paint and varnish. Chemical 

investigation by Detroit United Rv. 

[Smith], 228; Comment, 209 
Panama, Colon Electric Tramway, Proposed 

construction, 777 
Pantograph collectors, Flat contact wire for 

[Potter], cll47 


Electric railway system, Rehabilitation, 


■ Motorbus operation, Report to Mayor 

Kline of New York City [McCollum], 
1093; Comment, 1084 

Parks and pleasure resorts, Through service 
for, 325 

Passenger handling records, Hamburg Ele- 
vated & Subway Ry., * 1 79 
Paving clearance gage, New York State Rys., 

— Cincinnati Traction Co., *1087 

Connecticut Co., Bitulithic, asphalt and 

wood block, *332 
— ■ — General practice in American cities, *540 

Maintenance, Unfair burden of, England 

[Fenton], 689 
Progress in, 637 

Protector used with T-rail, Memphis, 

Tenn., *114S 
— Texarkana, Ark., Concrete, *490 

Various types and their relation to T-rail 

construction. Experiences of Con- 
necticut Co. [Cram], *368 
(See also Rails, T-rail) 

Pay rolls as records, 326 

l eak loads for surface cars, 957 

Peninsular Railway (See San Jose, Cal.) 

Pennsylvania Industrial Welfare and Effi- 
ciency Society, Convention, 784 

Pennsylvania Public Service Commission 
Members, 235, 1083 

Pennsylvania public service company law, 194, 

Pennsylvania R. R. : 

Electrification, Broad Street Station to 

Chestnut Hill, *500 

Financing, New, 998 

- — Fort Wayne division, Automatic train stop 

[Gray and Thurber], *1U1 
— Safety first exhibit at New York Ter- 
minal, *934 

Pennsylvania Railroad Commissions, Respon- 
sibility for shipments, Decision on, 

Pennsylvania Street Railway Association, An- 
nual meeting, 1195 
Peoria, 111., Illinois Traction System: 

Coal-handling plant at St. Louis, * 1 193 

Fare accounting [Bramble], 586 

Fare collection, Registry system abandoned, 


Purchase of Western Railways & Light Co. 

considered, 1036 

Slogan contest, 1038 

Stock issue, 1157 

— Traffic agreement with East St. Louis 

system, 46 

Watch inspection methods, *501 

Pernambuco, Electric railway concession in, 


Perth Amboy, N. J., Free transportation for 

policemen and firemen, 85 
Philadelphia. Pa.: 

American Rys., Annual report, 907 

Loan bill for rapid transit improvements 

passed, 1070 

Rapid Transit Co.: 

Annual report, 154 
Co-operative buying, 85 
Co-operative plan, 84, 159 
Exhaust fans in cars, 951 
Insurance and pensions for the em- 
ployees, 911 
Power contract, 1179 
Re-routing plan, 708, 992 
Review of the Stoteshury management, 

Wage increase, 283 

Rapid transit report by A. Merritt Tay- 
lor, Director of Department of City 
Transit. Subway and elevated lines 
recommended, 194; *222; Comment, 
211; Volume of maps published, 652; 
Explanation to City Council, 698 

Smoke nuisance decision, Reading Rail- 
road, 917 

Trenton, Bristol & Philadelphia Street 

Ry., Annual Report, 439 
Philippines, Manila Electric Railroad & Light 

Co., Welfare work, 341 
Phoenix (Ariz.) Ry., Strike, 112 
Piecework (See Employees) 
Pinions : 

Memphis record, *1299 

Recording wear and mileage, Brooklyn 

Rapid Transit System [Johnson], 

Pipes, Measuring current in [Hering], *682 
Pit construction (See Carhouses) 
Pittsburgh, Pa.: 

American Water Works & Guarantee Co., 

Receivership, 156 

Pittsburgh & Butler Street), Ry., Conver- 
sion to 1200-volt operation, 1032 

Pittsburgh, Pa.: (Continued) 
Pittsburgh Rys.: 

Automatic train stop [Grav and 
Thurber], *1111 

Exhibition, *692 

Financing plans, 355 

Route sig n, J 3 5 1 

Subway discussion, 432, 905, 943 

Subway ordinance, 1204 

Pittsfield, Mass., Berkshire Street Ry. : 

Carhouses, track work and bridges, *1270 

Inexpensive timetable board, * 1 146 

Power generation and transmission and. 

distributing system, "1170 


Clearances and spacing, *883 

Combination railway and lighting: 

(E. R. E. Co.,), *109 
Niagara Falls, *1 199 

■ Concrete., Oakland, Cal., *1054 

Deflections and loads for steel poles, 732 

Joint use, Report of American Electric 

Railway Association, *855; Discus- 
sion, 844; Comment, 836 

Purchased in 1911, Statistics, 64 

Keinforced-concrete, of star section. 

(Lienesch),, *345 

Reinforcement at ground line, Tests ii* 

Pittsburgh, *307 
Report of American Electric Railway En- 
gineering Association, 730 
Setting, 883 

Tubular steel, Specifications for. Report 

of American Electric Railway Engi- 
neering Association, 734 

Policemen, Free transportation, Perth Am- 
boy, N. J., 85 

Poor, Free transportation of, in Massachusetts, 

Portland, Ore.; 

Oregon Electric Ry., Sanding equipment, 


Oregon-Washington Railroad & Naviga- 
tion Co. Safety Committee [Smith], 

Portland, Eugene & Eastern Ry., Electri- 
fication progress, 396 

Portland Railway, Light & Power Co.: 

Accident prevention, Prize for best 

paper on, 1076 
Automobile, Gasoline, for pole haul- 
age, *190 
Blanket franchise sought, 350 
Earnings, 663 

Fare accounting [Huggins], 587 
Fare ordinance, Protest against, 348, 


Fare reduction question, 1033 
Floats in Rose Carnival, * 1 88 
Index bureau, Value of [Boynton], 

President F. T. Griffith's policies, 


Repair shop practice [Maize], * 1 30 
Ticket ordinance, 1116 

United Rys., Sanding equipment, *419 

Pottsville, Pa., Eastern Pennsylvania Rys., 
Annual report, 704, 947 

Power consumption by cars or trains (See 
Train energy) 

Power distribution: 

Berkshire Street Ry., *1170 

Feeder tests, San Diego Electric Ry 

[MacNutt] *141 

Low tension, Hamburg Elevated & Un- 
derground Ry., *6 

Progress in, 637 

Short-circuit accident at Chicago, 1106 

Specifications of American Electric Rail- 
way Engineering Association for 600- 
volt overhead construction, 883 

Substation operation, 449 

Transformer stations, Kansas City, Clay- 
County & St. Joseph Ry., 216 

Twin City Rapid Transit Co., *1191 

(See also Poles; Overhead constructions 

Transmission lines) 

Power generation: 

Berkshire Street Ry„ * 1 170 

Cleveland, Painesville & Eastern R. R., 


Conveniences, Providence, R. I., *343 

Cyclic comparison for expressing turbine 

efficiency, 367 
Economizers, Care of, for steam boilers. 


General practice in American cities, *542' 

High ratings for steam boilers, 1165 

Operating practice at Providence, R. L, 60 

Progress in, 637 

Report of American Electric Railway En- 
gineering Association, 809; Discus- 
sion, 802; Comment, 794 

Self-contained engine and boiler, Buck- 
eye-mobile, *697, 1297 

Turbo-generators, 30,000-kw, Interbor- 

ough Rapid Transit Co., *309 

Power station practice: 

— — Alternator design problem, 551 

Boiler plants, rating and capacity, Ameri- 
can practice, *542 

Condensers and pumps, 550 

Economies [Swain], 1292 

Economizers and feed-water heaters, De- 
velopment, 545 

General practice in American cities, Re- 
view of, *542 

(Abbreviations: * Illustrated. cCorrespondence.) 

July-December, 19 13.] 



Power station practice: (Continued) 

Providence, K. I., Rhode Island Co., *343 

Safe-guarding of passageways, 249 

Stokers and pressure regulators, 544 

Storage batteries, "559 

Storage bateries, International Ry., Buf- 
falo, N. Y., 420 

Turbine units., Development of, 549 

Power stations: 

Berkshire Street Ry., * 1 1 70 

Cleveland, Painesville & Eastern R. R., 


Double-deck, Passing of, at Fort Wayne, 

Indiana, 412 

Evolution of the power plant in Ameri- 
can cities, *542 

Hamburg Elevated & Underground Ry.|, *6 

■ Minneapolis, Twin City Rapid Transit 

Co., Developments, 1250 

Mittenwald Ry., *33 

Northern Ohio Traction & Light Co., 

Gorge station near Cuyahoga Falls, 
Ohio, *336 

Power to propel trains (See Train energy) 
Progress in electric railway operation, 637 
Providence, R. I., Rhode Island Co.: 

Agreement with employees, 160, 202 

Fare complaint, 401 

Improvements in the handling and distri- 
bution of traffic. Platform collection 
cars. Block signals on single-track 
lines, *56 

Power plant conveniences, *343 

Prussia : 

Dessau-Bitterfekl Ry., Changes on, 224 

— — Prussian-Hessian State Rys., Diesel loco- 
motive, *1026 

Prussian State Ry., Triplet storage bat- 
tery cars, *988 

Public, Relations with: 

Comment by former railway manager, 184 

Complaints and service improvement in 

Rochester, 167, 176 

Complaints of the public, Meeting, 1221 

Discussion by New York Electric Railway 

Association [McCall, Allen, Pardee, 

Simms, DeLong], 1227; Comment, 


Information regarding delays, 167 

New spirit, Discussions at various con- 
ferences in New York City, 1221 

Newspaper appeals, 394 

Public service corporation concessions, 211 

Report of American Electric Railway As- 
sociation, 829 
Public service commissions: 

Changes in personnel deprecated, 1316 

Conflict in Arizona and California, 209 

Engineers as members [Hurd], 984 

Functions of. Two epochs of rate regu- 
lation [Norton], 300; Comment, 326 

Relation of Bureau of Standards [Rosa], 


— Tendency of public service regulation 

[McCullough], 858; [Hedley], 860 

Vocations of members. Appointment of 

engineers, 1083 

Public service corporations: 

Concessions, 211 

Copying of corporate records, Decision of 

Maine Supreme Court, 1131 

■ Discussions at Railway Business Associa- 
tion [Elliott, Cox], 1241 

Federal relations (See Legislation) 

Model public utility bill [Kerr], 868; Re- 
port of National Civic Federation. 1238 

Municipal or state control, Attitude of 

National Municipal League, 1165 

Public Service Ry. (See Newark), N. J.) 

Public utility bill, Model (See National Civic 

Publicity : 

Company bulletins in publicity work, 1315 

Detroit United Ry. [Van Zandt], 806 

— — Guides for city riders, 1007 

Information in case of delays, 167 

Publicity and a campaign of education, 


Publicity a potent factor [Harries], 757 

— — Sheets for newspaper use sent to member 

companies by the American Electric 

Railway Association, 1 

Value [Rose], 276; Comment, 250 

Puget Sound Electric Ry. (See Tacoma, 


Puget Sound Traction & Light Co. (See 

Seattle, Wash.) 
Pumps, Development of, 550 
Purchased power: 

Buffalo, International Ry., Niagara power, 

420; Comment, 409 

Buffalo & Lake Erie Traction Co., 1035 

Central New York, 363 

Chicago surface and elevated lines. Terms 

of new contract, 1138; Comment, 1129 

Contracts for. Typical forms of agree- 
ments between electric railways and 
power companies compared, 1178 

Syracuse, N. Y., the Beebe lines, 933 

Versus generated power. Discussion by 

P. M. Lincoln, 958 

Winnipeg decision, 1032 

Purchasing agents' association proposed 
[Stigall], cl024; [Ingle], cll98; 
Opinions, 1108; Comment, 1131 

Purchasing of new equipment^ and general 
business prosperity [Leigh], *1293 


Rail-cutting machine, Oxy-acetylene, (Davis- 

Bournonville), * 1 1 10 
Rail grinders: 

Portable, Cincinnati Traction Co., *427 

Portable, with drill (Norwich), *35 

Rail joint plate tAbbott), * 1 1 1 

Rail joint plate protectors of wood, Virginia 

Railway & Power Co., *506 
Rail joints: 

Cast-weld for curves and tangents, 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Ry., *920 

Cost of cast-weld joints, 923 

General practice, 538 

Maintenance, Rochester, N. Y., 64 

Rail sections, General practice in American 
cities, 533 


Chemical composition of, American prac- 
tice, 534 
Corrugation : 

— Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co. [Gidanski], 
M322; Comment, 1316 
German report, 903. 

Girder, San Antonio, Texas, 107 

■ Life of, Factors in, 535 

Report of National Association of Rail- 
way Commissioners, 1013 

T-rails for paved streets, Rochester, *63 

T-rail and its relation to pavements. 

Experiences of Connecticut Co. 
[Cram], *368 

Railway Business Association, Annual meet- 
ing, 1241; Comment, 1316 

Railway Signal Association, Convention, 754, 
830, 888 

Rapid transit in American cities, 223 

Rates, Railway (See Fares; Freight rates; 

Through routes and joint rates) 
Ratio of grate to heating surface for steam 

boilers, 486 


- — —Gear and pinion wear and mileage, Brook- 
lyn Rapid Transit Svstem [Johnson], 

Interline accounting, 894 

Lost articles, Boston [Dana], *68 

Pay rolls as records, 326 

Shop time card, Rockford & Interurban 

Ry., *899 

Turn in, Muskogee, Okla., * 1 332 

— — Watch inspection, * 50 1 

"Rectitude in railway affairs," 1116; Com- 
ment, 1085 
Reflectors (See Lighting of cars) 
Repair cars (See Work cars) 
Repair shop equipment: 

Armature band wire tension machine 

(Electric Service Supplies), *1063 

Armature wagon, Buffalo. *924 

Car hoist, Home-made, *190 

■ Commutator slotting machine, Home- 
made, 1186 

Commutator slotter, Portable, *428 

Jig for boring sweeper broom centers, 

Syracuse, N. Y., *937 

— — Northern Ohio Traction & Light Co., 
Kenmore Shops [Lathrop], *878 

Split-bearing boring attachment [Dav], 


Tool for driving nails in inaccessible po- 
sitions, *229 
Repair shop practice: 

■ Armature winding, Tension device, Den- 
ver & Interurban Ry., *108 

Axles, Nashville Railway & Light Co., 


Board for recording available cars, * 1 245 

Bolt cutter dies, 147 

Car defect repeaters, 91 

Car wheel truck, Duluth, *1147 

— — Cross-arm boring machine, Nashville, 

Tenn., *146 

Denver & Interurban Ry., 503 

Developments in American cities, * 5 7 1 

Efficiency engineering, 573 

Engine lathe applications, *146 

Equipment defect records at San Antonio, 


Forging machine dies, 148 

Home manufacture, 580 

Indexing of patterns. Indianapolis Trac- 
tion & Terminal Co.. * 1 3 34 

Inspection pit safety device, Hudson & 

Manhattan R.R., 1097 

Inspection shop bonus system [See], 1326 

Lighting, Memphis Street Ry., 391 

Motor inspection, and maintenance at 

Memphis, 9 

Operating efficiency, Improving, 576 

Organization of Maintenance carhouse 

[Ingoldsby], 1234 

Payrolls as records, 326 

-Portland Railway, Light & Power Co. 

[Maize], '130 

Progress in, 637 

Protection of workmen, Southern Pacific 

Ry., *1144 

Real maintenance, 1317 

Retrieving oil and waste, Denver, 62 

Testing circuit breakers at Montreal, 


— — Time distribution by calculagraph, Indian- 
apolis Traction & Terminal Co., *464 

(Abbreviations: * Illustrated. cCorrespondence.) 

Repair shop practice: (Continued) 

Tire heater and torch, Portable (Hauch), 


Twin City Rapid Transit Co., "674 

Wheels, Nashville Railway & Light Co., 


Repair shops: 

Dayton, Ohio, Oakwood Street Ry., *450 

Design and operation in American cities, 


Kansas City, Clay County & St. Joseph 

Ry., *221 

Land for future needs, 485 

Muskogee, Okla., "1012 

Northern Ohio Traction & Light Co., Ken- 
more [Lathrop], *878 

Portland Railway, Light & Power Co., 130 

— — Rhine river interurban railways, *965 

Rochester, Syracuse & Eastern R.R., *466 

Twin City Rapid Transit Co., Oil house 

and paint shop, *674 

Vitalizing old shops, 573 

Republic Railway & Light Co. (See 

Youngstown, Ohio) 
Resistors for lightning arresters, Concrete, 492 
Revenues (See Financial) 

Rhine river high-tension direct-current inter- 
urban railways, *962 
Rhode Island Co. (See Providence, R. I.) 
Richmond, Va., Virginia Railway & Power Co.: 

■ Annual report, 1156 

Articulated cars, * 1 45 

Coaster-meter record prizes, 1211 

Joint use of poles, Compensation for, 1202 

— —Rail joint plate protectors of wood, "SOS 
Relief association, 1213 

Rotaries, Repairing collector rings [Pal- 
mer], *307 

Rjukan Ry., Norway, Single-phase electrifica- 
tion, *646 
Roanoke, Va., Strike, 40 
Rochester, N. Y.: 

New York State Rys.: 

Car advertising, Legal decision, 71 
Complaints and the service improve- 
ment department, 176, 991; Com- 
ment, 168 
Jig for boring sweeper broom centers, 

Maintenance-of-way department, Work 
of, 63 

Maintenance of way in Syracuse, 

Paving clearing gage, *309 

Pit construction, *232 

Shelter houses, * 132 1 

Sign, Illuminated crossing, * 1 1 98 

Syracuse division (See Syracuse) 

Tests of ball and roller bearings, 376 

Training of platform men, 1336; 
Comment, 1315 

Weed killer, *345 
Rochester, Syracuse & Eastern R. R. (See 

Syracuse, N. Y.) 
Rockford (111.) & Interurban Ry., Shop time 

card, *899 

Rotary converters, Repairing collector rings of 

[Palmer], *307 
Routing of cars: 

Giving publicity to changes, 209 

Increasing load factor of cars, 957 

Rowdyism, Dealing with, Baltimore, 281 
Rubber insulation committee of manufacturers 
and users of rubber, Conference in 
New York. Preliminary report, 931 


Great Britain, for platform men, 4 

Interlocking, decision in Wisconsin, 936 

Lax conditions of enforcement on inter- 
urban lines, Verdict of California 
Railroad Commission, 919 

Neglect of standards pointed out by Cali- 
fornia Railroad Commission, 55 

Operating, with Simmen signals, Indian- 
apolis & Cincinnati Traction Co., 339 

Posting, in dark places, 485 

Report of American Electric Railway 

Transportation & Traffic Association, 
729, 763 

Rush-hour traffic: 

Chicago, _ Report of Board of Supervising 

Engineers, 266 
Factory, 249 

Rust, Relative resistance of pure iron and steel 
with copper, 468 


Safety (See _ Accident claim department, Pre- 
vention of accidents; Emplovees. 

Safety committees (See Employees) 
Safety exhibit car, New York Central R. R., 
*227 _ 

Safety exposition, First in America, New 

York City. 113 
Safety first campaigns (See Accidents, Pre- 
vention of) 
Saginaw, Mich., Wage increase, 46 
St. Augustine, Fla., Florida East Coast Ry., 

Foreman's pocket level, *939 
St. Charles, Mo., Waiting station of United 
Rys., *98 

St. Joseph (Mo.), Railway, Light, Heat & 
Power Co., Sale of stock, 241 



[Vol. XLII. 

St. Louis, Mo.: 

Coal-handling plant of Illinois Traction 

System, *1193 

Elevated and subway bill, 236, 995 

Subway, Proposed, 995 

■ United Rys. : 

Cars, New, 161 
Center-entrance car, *1062 
Coupler with signal and lighting at- 
tachments, *270 
Operating with Keokuk power, 235 
Waiting station at St. Charles, Mo., 

Salt Lake City. Utah Securities Corporation, 

Power contracts, 42 
San Antonio (Tex.) Traction Co.: 

Equipment defect records, 1189 

Motor lead connections, *335 

San Diego Electric Rys.: 

Commutation rate case dismissed, 161 

— ■ — Feeder tests. Automatic sectionalizing 

switches [Macnutt], *141 
San Franciso, Cal. : 

Central California Traction Co., Renew- 
able plate for third-rail shoe, *506 

-Geary Street Municipal Ry. : 

Annual report, 315 
Bond issue, 348 

Extension opposed by Chamber of 

Commerce, 235 
History of, Cost of construction and 

operation, *686; Comment, 682 
Opening, 114 
Moving house over street cars in opera- 
tion, *1 195 

Municipal lines, Routes and costs, 395 

Pacific Gas & Electric Co.: 

Annual report, 1073 

Issue of notes, 477 
-Public Ownership Association, Resolutions 

to prevent the visit of Mr. Dalrymple, 


Sale of municipal street railway bonds 

authorized, 1256 

San Francisco, Napa & Calistoga R. R. 

(See Napa, Cal.) 

-San Francisco, Oakland Terminal Rys. 

(See Oakland, Cal.) 

-Southern Pacific Ry. : 

Agreement regarding seniority and 

rates of pay, 1152 
Electrification of mountain lines, 

Study of [Babcock], 424 
Expenses of suburban traffic, 1258 
Fares, Low, in Oakland, Hearing, 

Interurban and street service de- 
fined, 1113 
Losses, 394, 1151 

Protection of workmen at shops, * 1 1 4 4 
United Railways Investment Co.: 

Annual report, 314 

President Calhoun to retire, 347 
United R. R. : 

Accident, The unreported, or "blind 
case" Handlon, 106 

Cars of California type, *225 

Insurance of employees, 1212 
San Jose, Cal. : 

Co-operation with automobilists to reduce 

accidents, 401 
Peninsular Ry., Fare complaint dismissed, 


Sand spout, Spiral-ribbon ( Johns-Manville) , 

Sander, Vacuum, Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., 

Sanding equipment in interurban cars, Port- 
land, Ore., *419 
Sanitation : 

Regulations as related to public carriers 

[Rucker], 853; Discussion, 843 

Relation to public carriers [Rucker], 

Comment, 875 

Santa Barbara (Cal.) & Suburban Ry., Low- 
step, center-entrance car, *31 

Schedules and timetables: 

Inexpensive schedule board, Berkshire 

Street Ry., *1146 
Informution for passengers in cases of in- 
terferences with, 167 

Making, International Ry., Buffalo, 504 

Report of American Electric Railway 

Transportation and Traffic Associa- 
tion, 847; Discussion, 842 

Rush-hour traffic, Handling, 249 

Through cars for amusement resorts, 325 

Schenectady (N. Y.) Ry., Fare reduction, 84 
School fares, Troy, N. Y., 318 
School tickets, Albany, N. Y., 480 
Schools (See Employees, Training) 
Scioto Valley Traction Co. (See Columbus, 

Scotland, Glasgow Corporation Tramways, 

Notes, 347 
Scrap tool steel, Reclamation of, 147 
Seattle, Wash.: 

■ -Fare case decision, 153 

Highland Park & Lake Burien Ry., City 

accepts railway, 995 

Municipal ownership of railway, 906 

Puget Sound Traction, Light & Power 


Accident, The unreported, or "blind 

case" [Young], 106 
Fire protection for car storage yards 

[Kempster], *1140 
Safety committee meetings, 1210 
Stock issue, 949 

.A BLfilliM 

Seattle, Wash.: (Continued) 
Seattle Electric Co.: 

Tickets, Six for a quarter, 1252 

Tickets withdrawn from sale, 357 
Seattle, Renton & Southern Ry.: 

Municipal ownership proposed, 115 

Receivership, 395 

Sale proposed, 197, 313 
Securities (See Financial) 

Self-propelled cars (See Gasoline cars; Stor- 
age battery cars) 

Service cars (See Work cars) 

Service requirements, Ascertaining, Boston 
Elevated Ry. [Dana], *340 

Service wagons: 

Electric, New York Rys., 53 

— ■ — Gasoline : 

Detroit United Ry., *72 

Syracuse Rapid Transit Co., *342 

International Street Ry., Buffalo, *264 

(See also Tower cars) 

Shelter houses. (See Waiting stations) 

Sicily, New line at Messina, 1024 

Signals : 

— — Bell signals between motorman and cqn- 
ductor, Proposed changes, 729 

Automatic stop (Gray and Thurber), * 1 1 1 1 

Automatic stops, Report of Block Signal 

Committee, 774; Discussion, 763 

Automatic stops and speed control, 621 

Block system: 

Indiana, Extension of time for instal- 
lation, 994 
Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction 
Co., Rules for operation of 
trains under Simmen system, 339 
Multiple intermediates, 620 
Progress in, 637 

Report of joint committee of Engi- 
neering and Transportation and 
Traffic Associations, 774; Dis- 
cussion, 763; Comment, 752 

Report of National Association of 
Railway Commissioners, 1015 

Rhode Island Co., 59 
Crossing : 

Home-made (Harvie), *1194 

Illuminated, New York State Rys., 

Protective Signal Mfg. Co., 308 

Double-track signaling, *615 

-Economical maintenance, Electric rail- 
ways ahead of steam roads, 487 

Elementary single-track signaling, *616 

Historical sketch of continuous track-cir 

cuit signaling, . 614 

History of developments in American 

practice, *605 

Indications, *616 

Interlocking rules in Indiana, Illinois, 

Wisconsin and Minnesota, 76 

Interlocking rules adopted in Wisconsin, 


Newark-Trenton high-speed line, *456 

Simmen system Nashville-Gallatin Ry. , 


Intermittent control: 

General review of, *611 

Special forms of, (Nachod, Chapman, 
United States, Ward), 612 

Light, Development of, 615 

Open field for signal system, 875 

Preliminaries, Use of, 617 

Review of developments in American 

practice, *605 
Simmen system, *609 

Single-track blocking with preliminaries, 


Single-track blocking without prelimina- 
ries, 619 

Standard train signal system, Report of 

Central Electric Railway Association 
committee, *29 

Train order, Electric (Union Switch & 

Signal Co.), 71 

Wide-angle signal lens test at grade cross- 
ing at Oak Island, N. J. (Armspear), 

Signs, Courtesy cards, Additional material for, 

Signs on cars: 

Lack of legible and definite, New York 

Supreme Court decision, 93 

Locations for, 363 

Single-phase railways: 

Denver & Interurban Ry., Motor main- 
tenance, *108 

■ G.-E. experimental locomotive with series- 
repulsion motors, *677 

G.-E. split-phase locomotive. *680 

Inductive interference, Report of British 

and French electrical engineers at 
Paris meeting, 1141 

Loetschberg Ry., Notes [Bell], *374, 

*1048; Comment, 1046 

Mittenwald Ry. power stations, trans- 
mission line and locomotives, *33 

Norfolk & Western Ry., 189, 298: Com- 
ment, 289, 290, 363; [de Muralt], 
c270; [Murray], c306; [Babcock], 
c391; [Gallagher], c504 

Rjukan Ry., Norway, *646 

— —Spain, between Pamplona and Sanguesa 
(correction), 109 

Sinking funds (See Accounting) 

Siphon for emptying oil barrels, Western Ohio 
R. R., »341 

Smoking on cars: 

Brooklyn, Prohibition, 666 

Kansas City, 666 

New York City, Prohibition, 282, 318, 357, 


■ Nuisance on city cars with short runs, 

1045, 1076 

Smoke nuisance in cities, Reading R. R., Penn- 
sylvania court decision, 917 

Snow and ice removal equipment (Railway 
Appliances Co.), *655 

Snow plow, Self-contained, Michigan United 
Traction Co., *1246 

Society for Electrical Development, Promotion 
meeting at Association Island, Lake 
Ontario in September, 412 

South Africa: 

Cape Electric Tramways, Annual report, 


Financial condition of railways, 439 

Statistics, 654 

Southern Pacific Co. (See San Francisco) 
Southern Traction Co. (See Dallas, Texas) 
Southwest Missouri R. R. (See Webb City, 



Electric railways proposed, 197 

Electric tramway near Vigo, 135 

Single-phase railway between Pamplona 

and Sanguera (correction), 109 
Valencia Economic Tramway & Railroad 

Co., Electrification, 42 
Special-car service, Care in maintenance of, 


Special work (See Carhouses; Overhead con- 

Specifications, Special, 250 

Spikes, American practice, 536 

Spitting in cars. Crusade against, Lexington, 
Ky., 1355 

Splice bars, Specifications for, American So- 
ciety for Testing Materials, 32 
Spokane, Wash.: 

Spokane & Inland Empire R. R., Annual 

report, 947 

Washington Water Power C-i. : 

Fare accounting [Colpas], 584 
Safety committees, Work of [Aston], 

Springfield, 111., Springfield, Clear Lake & 
Rochester Interurban Ry. Sale, 281 

Springfield, Mass.: 

Investigation of railway conditions, 320 

New England Investment & Security Co., 

Change in control, 239 
Springfield (Ohio) & Xenia Ry., Annual re- 
port, 352 

Springs for train platforms, Buffalo, *924 

Report of American Electric Railway 

Engineering Association, 735; Com- 
ment, 716 

Report of Central Electric Railway Asso- 
ciation, *29 

Staten Island (See New York City) 

Statistical units used in analysis of electric 
railway accounts [Emery], 815; Dis- 
cussion, 800 


Cologne municipal railways, 935 

Comparisons of capitalization and earn- 
ings of American electric railways, 
925; Corrections, 1280 

German electric railways, 69 

Great Britain, 1911-1912, 67 

-Interurban railways, Construction costs, 

operating expenses and probable rev- 
.enues [Fischer], 301, 380. 460; Com- 
ment, 291, 448 

Japan electric railways, 344 

Mileage, cars and capitalization, 691 

New York Subway, 1122 

Operating results in Great Britain and 

Ireland, 651 

Poles purchased in 1911, 64 

South African electric railways, 654 

Ties purchased in 1911, 269 

Trespassing on steam railroads [Dow], 960 

Steam railroad electrification (See Heavy elec- 
. trie traction) 

Steps, folding, with shear plate, Duluth Street 
Ry., *U97 

Stockton, Cal., Tidewater & Southern Ry., 

Opening, 1154 
Stokers, Automatic, and pressure regulators, 


Stopping of cars: 

Detroit, Near-side stop, 47, 520 

Discussion by Transportation and Traffic 

Association, 848 

Paducah, Ky., Near-side, 1038 

Rochester, N. Y., Near-side, 9 C 1 

Storage batteries: 

Buffalo International Ry, power station, 


Use of, in power stations, *559 

Storage battery cars: 

Edison-Beach installations, 629, 631 

Electric Storage Battery Co., *627 

Germany, *633 

Gould Storage Battery Co., *626 

Havana cars, Operating statistics, 629 

Operating data: 

German cars, 634 

Third Avenue R. R., 628 

(Abbreviations: "Illustrated. cCorrespondence.) 

July-December, 1913.] 



Storage battery cars: (Continued) 

Progress in development, 637 

Report of American Electric Railway En- 
gineering Association, Discussion, 890; 
Comment, 876 

Review of developments in American prac- 
tice, 624 

Triplet cars for Prussian State Ry., *988 

Versus gas-electric cars, 3 

Storehouse and material yard efficiency, 877 
Storerooms, New Bedford, Mass., Union Street 
Ry., *295 

Stores, Co-operative (See Employees, Co-oper- 
ative stores) 

Strike losses, Municipal responsibility for, 
Decision of United States District 
Court, Wells Fargo & Co. versus 
Jersey City, 186; Comment, 169 


Allegheny Valley Ry., 1349 

Arbitration a failure in New Zealand, 364 

Buffalo, Damages, 1115 

Chicago, County Traction Co. & Suburban 

RR., 150 

■ Chicago suburban lines, 77 

Dublin, Ireland, 433, 511 

General Electric Co., 1153, 1204 

— Indianapolis (See Indianapolis Traction & 

Terminal Co.) 

Industrial arbitration [Murphy], 1240 

Jamestown, N. Y., 45, 75 

Knoxville, Tenn., 994 

Lexington, Ky., 79, 111 

Phoenix, Ariz., 112 

Roanoke, Va., 40 

Substations : 

Berkshire Street Ry., *1174 

Chicago, Harding Avenue, Short circuit 

accident, 1106 
Cleveland, Painesville & Eastern R. R., 


Development in construction of, *557 

Fort Worth, Texas, Northern Texas 

Traction Co., 3000-KW station. Ar- 
rangement, wiring and building de- 
sign, *410 

Hamburg Elevated & Underground Ry., 


Kansas City, Clay County & St. loseph 

Ry., *218 

Nashville-Gallatin Interurban Ry., * 1 73 

Portable, Northern Ohio Traction & 

Light Co. [Shear], *261 

Rhine river interurban railways, *964 

Running, at low cost, 449 

Special types, 559 

Twin City Rapid Transit Co., Diagram of 

connections for variable voltage, 1191 

Waterloo, Cedar Falls & Northern Ry., 


Subways. Financial aspects [Sergeant], 813; 

Comment, 794 
Sweden, Diesel electric cars in, 187 
Switchboards and switches, Development of, 


Switches, Sectionalizing, San Diego Electric 

Ry [Macnutt], *142 
Switches, Track, Drain box for, *63 
Switzerland : 
Loetschberg Ry.: 

Electric locomotives for single-phase 
operation. Helical gearing and 
side rods, *1040: Comment, 1046 

Notes on system [Bell], *374 

Opening, 262 

Operation of single-phase lines [Bres- 
lauer], 1244 

Simplon Tunnel Ry., Operation of three- 
phase line [Kilchenmann] , 1244 

Sydney, N. S., Cape Breton Electric Co., An- 
nual report, 908 

Syracuse, N. Y. : 

lieebe Syndicate: 

Niagara power, 933 

Track aand overhead maintenance, 70 

Empire United Rys., Bond issue, 1208 

Gasoline emergency wagon, *342 

New York State Rys., Maintenance of 

way, *1187 

Rochester, Syracuse & Eastern R. R. : 

Repair shop and car house, *466 
Specifications for ties, 70 

Syracuse, Lake Shore & Northern Ry., 

A-xles of interurban cars, Study of 
failures by R. A. Dyer, 143 


T-rails (See Rails) 
Tacoma, Wash.: 

■ Puget Sound Electric Ry., Fare con- 
troversy, 319, 357 

Tacoma Railway & Power Co.: 

Offer of railway to city, 1150 
Unprofitable extension, 661 
Valuation of physical property, 515 

Tarentum, Pa., Allegheny Valley Ry., Strike, 

Taunton, Mass., Bristol County Street Ry., Re- 
ceivership, 1157 
Taxing of railways: 

Federal income tax law [Cavanaughl, 1277; 

[Hixson], 1278; Comment, 1268 
Ohio, 470 

Report of American Electric Railway Asso- 
ciation, 846 

Report of Railway Commissioners, 977 

Technical data, Segregating, 54 

Terminals and terminal stations: 

Chicago, 76, 151, 396 

Arnold and Wallace agree on recom- 
mendations, 1205 
Loop improvements in Chicago, 167 
Recommendations by J. V, Wallace, 992 
Report by B. J. Arnold, 1153 

Freight handling. Development, *596 

Newark, N. J., Report by D. F. Wilcox, 


Terminology in transportation department, 897 
Testing equipment, Necessity for analysis of 

test results, 170 
Texarkana, Ark., Concrete paving, *490 
Texas City (Tex.) Street Ry., Service estab- 
lished, 1027 

Thermostat, Electric, for car heaters (Railway 

Utility Co.), *149 
Third Avenue Ry. (See New York City) 
Third-rail shoe: 

Renewable plate for, Central California 

Traction Co., *506 

■ Revolving for cab signals, Nashville-Galla- 
tin Interurban Ry., 174 

Three-phase railways, Lecco-Colico Ry., Italy, 
Notes L Hell], *375 

Three-wire distribution, Possibilities of. Trial 
of New York, New Haven & Hartford 
R. R., 1084 

Through routes and joint rates: 

Buffalo, International Ry., 282 

—Chicago & Oak Park Elevated R. R., 471 

Indianapolis and Louisville, 243 

Tickets : 

Portland, Ore., Ordinance, 1116 

Three classes, Hamburg Elevated & Sub- 
way Ry., *179 
Tidewater & Southern R. R. (See Stockton, 

Tie plate, Hook shoulder (Lackawanna), *1110 
Tie plates and tie rods, American practice, 537 
Ties : 

Purchases in 1911, Data of Bureau of the 

Census, 269 

Specifications, Rochester, Syracuse & 

Eastern R. R., 70 


Experimental type, Brooklyn Rapid 

Transit Ry., *923 
General practice concerning treated, 
untreated, hewn and sawn timber 
and steel ties, 529, 533 
Twin-type, Some installations of, 
* 1064 

Timber, Treated or untreated, hewn or 

sawn, General practice, 529 

Treatment (See Timber preservation) 

Timber preservation: 
Advantages of, 64 

Creosoted ties found economical, Beebe 

lines. 70 

Timetables (See Schedules and timetables) 
Tires (See Wheels) 
Toledo, Ohio: 

Fare ordinance, Three-cent, 1201 

■ Toledo Railways & Light Co.: 

Car lighting tests with various lamp 

arrangements, *1016; Comment, 


Damage suit, 1253 

Trolley wire take-up for bascule 
bridge, *967 
Topeka (Kan.) Railway Co., Nail driving tool 

for inaccessible places, *229 ■ 
Toronto, Can: 

Accident prevention plans, 480, 519, 1039 

Appraisal of railway property, 313, 904, 

1047, 1053 

Fares on civic lines, 395 

Fares, Newspaper comment, 276 

Safety campaign, 519, 660 

■ Sale of railways to the city proposed, 941, 


Subway plans, 1031 

Toronto Ry. : 

Extension, 435, 660 
Prepayment ears, *507 
Purchase by city, 1151, 1152 
Valuation of property. Report of B. 
J. Arnold and J. W. Moves re- 
garding franchises and other as- 
sets, 1053; Comment, 1047 

Transportation plan, 1253 

Tower cars, Waterloo, Cedar Falls & North- 
ern Ry., Adjustable platform on roof, 
Tower wagons: 

— —Gasoline, Detroit United Ry., 72 

International Street Ry., Buffalo, *264 

(See also Service wagons) 

Track construction: 

Dallast, General practice, *528 

Beebe lines, 70 

Berkshire Street Ry., *1272 

Buffalo, International Street Ry., *263 

Characteristics of, in paved streets in 36 

American cities, *530, 532 
Cincinnati Traction Co., Standard forms 

and standard methods result in cost 

reduction, *1086 
Concrete foundations, General practice, 


Concrete paving, Texarkana, Ark., *490 

Connecticut Co., *331 

Crossing, Solid manganese steel, Pacific 

Electric Ry., *273 
Crushers, Gasoline-driven, Kansas Citv, 


(Abbreviations: "Illustrated. cCorrespondence.) 

Track construction: (Continued) 

■ -Drain box for switch, *63 

Excavation and drainage, General prac- 
tice, *525 

Fastenings, American practice, 536 

Geary Street Municipal Ry., San Fran- 
cisco, 687 

Handling large quantities of supplies, Buf- 
falo, International Street Ry., *263 

Kansas City, Clay County & St. Joseph 

Ry., *213 

Manganese track work and rolling stock 

weights [Jones], cl07 
Montreal, *969 

Narrow right-of-way, Morris R. R., "681 

Nashville, Gallatin Interurban Ry., * 1 72 

New York State Rys., Rochester division, 


Newark-Trenton high-speed line, *456 

Pavement (See Pavement) 

Progress in American practice, *525, 637 

-Kail joints (See Rail joints) 

Renewal of concrete stringers, Cincin- 
nati, *1086 

■ Report of American Electric Railway En- 
gineering Association, *851; Discus- 
sion, 845 

Representative cross-sections, *530 

Southwest Missouri R. R., *423 

Spacing on curves, 407 

Special work: 

American practice, *539 

Connecticut Co., *332 
— ■ — Spirals and easements, Connecticut Co., 


Standardization of permanent track, 959 

T rail in relation to pavements. Experi- 
ences of Connecticut Co. [Cram], 

Ties (See Ties) 

Waterloo, Cedar Falls & Northern Ry., 

100 . . 

Track contact for annunciators and indicators 

[Brach], *1250 
Track maintenance: 
Beebe lines, 70 

Buffalo, International Street Ry'., *263 

Montreal, *969 

New York State Rys.: 

Rochester division, *63 

Syracuse, * 1 1 87 

Notes [Goss], 985 

Review of American practice, *525 

Spacing on curves, 407 

T-rail in paved streets [Cram], *368 

Weed burner, Oklahoma Ry., *465 

Trackless trolleys, England, Various lines in, 



Cost of passenger transportation service, 

Report of American Electric Railway 
Association, 865 

Electric cars on steam railway tracks, 485 

Influence of motor buses, 1093 

Motor cars and traffic laws, 447 

Peak loads for surface cars, 957 

Relief of congestion by construction of 

subways and viaducts [Sergeant], 
813; Comment, 794 

Report on passenger traffic by American 

Electric Railway Transportation and 
Traffic Association, 849; Comment, 843 
Rules for cities, Proposed code of Inter- 
national Travel Club, New York, 393 
Traffic count, Boston Elevated Ry. [Dana], 

Traffic department, Relation with its company 

[Starkey], 1100 
Traffic investigations, Cities: 

Report on Zones of traffic density, 

Report concerning improvements in 
service, operation and equipment 
of surface companies, 265 
Milwaukee City lines, Milwaukee Elec- 
tric Railway & Light Co. Service 
order of Wisconsin Railroad Commis- 
sion. 1182 

Philadelphia, 222, 652; Comment, 211 

Providence, R. I., Results of re-routing. 


Springfield, Mass., 320 

Trail cars (See Cars) 

Trailer operation: 

Louisville, Ky., 1355 

Montreal, Proposed, 366 

Questionable economy, 167 

Train energy, Predetermination of: 

Essential features of the problem. Com- 
ment on various methods advocated, 

Method based upon simple dynamical 

principles [Del Mar and Woodbury], 
*1055, C12S0, cl343; [Hutchinson], 

Train operation: 

City service, Report of Engineering and 

Transportation and Traffic Association, 
775; Discussion, 764; Comment, 751 

Interurban service, Report of Engineer- 
ing and Transportation and Traffic As- 
sociations, 782; Comment, 775 

Locomotives versus motor cars in Berlin, 


Relative economy of single car and two- 
car trains, 1046 



[Vol. XLII. 

Train operation: (Continued) 

Tests to determine possible operation of 

two-car trains in city service, New- 
ark, N. J., 10; Comment, 5 

Train stop (See Signals, Automatic) 

Trainmen's quarters (See Employees) 

Transandine Ry., Notes, 1332 

Transfer issuing and recording machine 
[Champion], * 1065 

Transfers, Report of American Electric Rail- 
way Transportation & Traffic Associa- 
tion and Accountants' Association, 
811 ; Discussion, 798 

Trespassing on steam railroads, Statistics 
, [Dow], 960 

Transmission lines: 

Berkshire Street Ry., *1177 

Fort Worth, Texas., Northern Texas Trac- 
tion Co., *410 

Inductive interference: 

Report of British and French elec- 
trical engineers at Paris meeting, 

Report of committee of California 
State Railroad Commission, 690 
Joint use of poles, Report of American 

Electric Railway Association, *855; 

Discussion, 844: Comment, 836 
Mittenwald Ry., *33 

Review of progress made in America, *554 

Trenton, Bristol & Philadelphia Street Ry. 

(See Philadelphia) 
Trip from New England to Atlantic City con- 
vention by trolley, 447, 459, 658, *728, 

Trolley, Roller, Key Route, California, *647 
Trolley catcher [Ohio Brass Co.], *148 
Trolley clamp. Pressed steel [Ohio Brass], *308 
Trolley harp [Western Electric], *986 
Trolley wheels, C. E. R. A. standard dimen- 
sion, Diagram, *140 
Trolley wire take-up for bascule bridge, To- 
ledo, Ohio, *967 
Truck, Motor, Paris tramway rehabilitation, 

Truck, Repair shop, Car-wheel truck, Duluth, 

Tungsten lamps (See Lamps, Electric; Light- 
ing of cars) 
Turbines, Steam: 
Development of, 549 

Low-pressure and mixed-pressure, Devel- 
opment of, 550 

Providence, R. I., 15,000-kw vertical, *61 

Turbo-generators : 

Alternator design problems, 551 

Berkshire Street Ry. stat ; ons, 1171 

Capacity and frequency, 549 

Cyclic comparisons of steam turbines in 

expressing efficiencies, 367 

Fire hazards [Lawler]; Comment, 170 

Interborrough Rapid Transit Co., New 

York, *309; Comment, 289 

Twin City Rapid Transit Co. (See Minneapo- 
lis, Minn.) 


Underground structures. Measuring currents 
in [Hering], *682 

Union. Electric Co. (See Dubuque, la.) 

Union Street Ry. (See New Bedford, Mass.) 

Union Traction Co. of Indiana (See Ander- 
son, Ind.) 

United Light & Railways Co. (See Grand 

Rapids, Mich.) 
United Properties Co. (See Oakland, Cal.) 
United Railroad (See San Francisco) 
United Rys. (See Portland, Ore; St. Louis, 


United Railways & Electric Co. (See Balti- 

United Railways Investment Co. (See San 

United Traction Co. (See Albany, N. Y.) 
Utah Securities Corporation (See Salt Lake 


Valuations (See Appraisal of railway property) 
V alves: 

Electro-pneumatic for a.-c. current (Union 

Switch & Signal), *273 

— Motorman's, Protective cap, 181 

Vancouver, B. C, British Columbia Electric 


Carhouse, Inexpensive, * 1 3 3 8 

Fare changes, 950 

Fender and wheel-guard tests. Tables 

giving results with different types of ap- 
paratus, 347, 968 

Locomotives, 50-ton electric freight, *272 

Ventilation of cars: 

Exhaust fans in Philadelphia, 951 

Floor ventilation, Montreal, * 1 133 

Honeycomb ventilator (Railway Utility 

Co.), *72 
— : — [Lavelle], 18 
Viaducts (See Bridges) 
Vienna Municipal Tramways: 
Annual report, 398 

Cars, Single-deck and double-deck pre- 
payment, *182 

Virginia Public Service Association, Annual 
meeting, 144 

Virginia Railwav & Power Co. (See Rich- 
mond, Va.) 



Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Ry., Agreement, 


Birmingham, Ala., Increase, 243 

— — Boston & Worcester Street Rv., Agree- 
ment, 282 

Detroit United Ry., Difficulties, 311 

Dubuque, la., Increase, 120 

Grand Rapiils, Mich., Increase, 46 

Kansas City, Increase, 242 

Los Angeles, Increase, 242 

■ Manchester, N. H., Increase, 472 

Milwaukee. Increase, 242 

Minneapolis, Increase, 203 

Omaha, Neb., Increase, 1211 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co., Increase, 


Phoenix. Ariz., Increase, 197 

— i — Public Service Ry., Increase, 1355 

■ Saginaw, Mich., Increase, 46 

Waiting stations: 

Combined residence and railway station, 

Rhine river interurban railways, *964 

Kansas City, Clay County & St. Joseph 

Ry.. *212, 1211 

Newark-Trenton high-speed line, *457 

Rochester lines of New York State Rys., 


St. Charles, Mo., United Rys., *98 

Waterloo, Cedar Falls & Northern Ry., 


Washing of cars, Chemical investigation by De- 
troit United Ry., showing effect of 
soap on paint and varnish. Possible 
improvement in methods of washing 
[Smith], 228; Comment, 209 


Railway valuations, 909 

Workmen's compensation act [Rupli], 138 

Washington, D. C. : 

Car capacity order, 911 

Passes abolished, 85 

Washington Railwav & Electric Co., Profit- 
sharing plan [Ham], 814 

Washington Utilities Co., Bond issue not 

approved, 82 

Washington-Virginia Ry., Fender and 

wheel-guard order resisted, 1070 

Washington Water Power Co. (See Spokane, 

Waste, Retrieving, Denver, 62 
Watch inspection on Irgh-soeed interurban 
railways in the Central West, *501 

Water power: 

Conservation and the attitude of the Na- 
tional Conservation Congress, 1129 

Development of, for electric railways in 

the United States, *553 
Waterloo (la.). Cedar Falls & Northern Ry. : 

Line car with novel features, *426 

— ■ — Waterloo-Urbana 40-mile extension, # 99 

Way department: 

Connecticut Co., 330 

New York State Rys., Rochester division, 


(See also Track construction; Track main- 

Webb City, Mo., Southwest Missouri R. R. : 

Dictaphone in dispatching trains, *74 

Track improvement, *423 

Weed burners: 

-Kerosene, for interurban lines (Wayne 

Process), *272 

Oklahoma Ry., *465 

Weed killer, New York State Rys., *34S 
Weh, W. F., President of the Claims Asso- 
ciation, *902 
Weighing and counting machine (National 

Scale Co.), *987 
Welding, Electric: 

American practice, * 5 79 

Art welding on lighting current, 985 

Welfare work (See Employees) 

Wells Fargo & Co., versus Jersey City. Award 

for damages by United States District 

Court, 186; Comment, 169 
West Virginia Public Service Commission, 

Amendment of laws, 994 
Westchester Eelctric Ry. (See Mt. Vernon, 

N. Y.) 

Western Ohio R. R. (See Lima, Ohio) 
Westinghouse, George, Grashof medal pre- 
sented to, 1198 
Wheel-guards (See Fenders and wheelguards) 


Chilled-iron, Tractive effort, breaking 

power and care of [Bennett], *1098 

Cost of chilled-iron [Bennett], 1099 

Flange oiler (National Appliances), *696 

Nashville Railway & Light Co., 184 

Solid forged, Methods of manufacture, 

1103 . 

Solid wrought carbon-steel, Report of 

American Electric Railway Engineer- 
ing Association, 891; Discussion, 889 

Specifications for, American Society for 

Testing Materials, 32 

Squealing, Effect of brake shoes on, 1061 

Steel-tired, Different types of construc- 
tion [Hayes], 1101 

Steel-tired, forged and rolled-steel 

JHayes], 1100 

Willoughby, Ohio, Cleveland, Painesville & 
Eastern R. R., Power generating 
equipment, *94 

Winnipeg, Man., Purchased power decision, 

Wires and cables for car equipment, Report 
of American Electric Railway Engi- 
neering Association, 892 

Wiring plans, Schematic diagrams on, 917 

Wisconsin Railway Commission, Service order 
for Milwaukee city lines of Milwau- 
kee Electric Railwav & Light Co., 

W ork cars : 

■ Derrick. Buffalo, International Street Rv., 


Derrick, Connecticut Co., *334 

Hoisting equipment, Lynchburg, Va., *655 

Work order system, Unit cost [Kalweit], 765; 

Discussion, 762 
Workmen's compensation, Report of National 

Civic Federation [Belmont], 1238 
Workmen's compensation act of the State of 

Washington [Rupli], 238 


Yards, Fire protection (See Fire protection 
and insurance) 

Youngstown, Ohio, Republic Railway & Light 
Co., Earnings of subsidiary compa- 
nies, 239 

(Abbreviations: *Illustrated. cCorrespondence.) 

July-December, 19 13.] 




Allen, Harrison. Court procedure in the trial 
of personal injury cases, 139 

Armstrong, A. H. Engineering problem of 
electrification, * 1 284 

Aston, T. G. Organization and work of safety 
committees, 103 


Babcock, A. Hi A question of names, c391 
Bell, Louis. Notes on European electric rail- 
ways, *374 

Bennett, H. K. Value of safety committees, 

Bennett, W. A. Chilled-iron car wheels, "1098 
Bishop, S. A. Value of an index bureau in 

dealing with fraudulent claims, 105 
Boynton, B. E. Practical value of an index 

bureau, 10S 
Bullock, IT. A. Welfare work on one city 

system, 825 


Carson, George. Value of safety committees, 

Caum, Frank. Inclosing special work at car- 
houses, el 108 

Cavanaugh, H. B. Federal income tax law, 

Cooper, G. S. The American locomobile, 1297 
Cram, R. C. T rail in paved streets, *368 
Cravath, J. R. Electric railway car lighting, 


Dana, Edward. Caring for lost articles in 
Boston, *68 

How service requirements are ascertained 

in Boston, *340 
Davies, J. V. Engineering accounting, 864 
Del Mar, W. A., and D. C. Woodbury. Ap- 
proximate perdeterminat-'on of train 
energy, *1055, cl2S0, cl343 
■de Muralt, C. L. A question of names, c270 
Dodd. J. N. New York City brake order, 
414, c468 

Drew, J. H. Manufacturers' dutv in the 

electric railway field, 25 
Drown, H. V, Prevention of accidents, 780 
Duffy, C. N. Economics of the Cleveland 
railway situation, 770 


Echegary, Martin. Choice of gear ratio, 
c 270 

Elkins, A. F. Essentials of public service ac- 
counting, 1276 

Emery. J. A. Statistical units used in analysis 
of electric railway accounts, 815 


Falknor, A. J, Commission for the trial of 

personal injury cases, 137 
Fischer, L. E. Determination of probable 

operating revenue, 301 
Estimating operating expense and cost of 

construction, 380 
Hypothetical electric interurban railways, 


Forse, W. H. Sinking funds, 863 
Fowler, G. L. Brake tests for Brooklyn Rapid 
Transit Company, 419 

Gallaugher, F. C. A question of names, c504 
Gallwey, H, A. Satisfactory experience with 

electric operation, c938 
Gidanski, C. M. Rail corrugation, *1322 
Goss, B. W. Track maintenance, 985 
Gruhl, Edwin. Cost of carrying a passenger, 

and proposed work of the Bureau of 

Fare Research, 893 


Ham, W. F. Profit-sharing plan of the Wash- 
ington Railway & Electric Company, 

Handlon, J. H. Unreported accident or 
"blind case," 106 

Harris, A. M. Electric railway securities 
from the investors' standpoint, 861 

Hayes, N. D. Steel-tired, forged and rolled- 
steel wheels, 1101 

lledly, Frank. Present tendency of public 
service corporations, 860 

Hemming, R. N. Report of standardization 
committee, Central Electric Railway 
Association, *29 

tiering, Carl. Errors in the interpretation of 
tests for electrolysis, 1135 

Measuring currents in underground struc- 
tures, *682 

Herrick, A. B. Electrolysis tests, cl343 

llixson, L, T. Report of the standing freight 
committee, Central Eelectric Railway 
Accountants' Association, 28 

Llurd, E. C. Engineers on commission, c984 

Hutchinson, C. T. Predetermination of train 
energy, cl295 


Ingle, C. A. Proposed association of pur- 
chasing agents, c!198 

Ingoldsby, T. L. Standardized maintenance, 


Johnson, W. E. Method of recording wear of 
gears and pinions, * 1 02 1 

Jones, L. W. Rolling stock weights and man- 
ganese track work, cl07 


Kalweit, G. W. A unit cost work order sys- 
tem, 765 

Kempster, A. L. Fire protection for car stor- 
age yards, * 1 1 40 

Kerr, W. D. Aspects of a model utility bill, 


Lasher, F. B. Accounting department con- 
ferences, 895 

Lathrop, J. C. Kenmore shops of the North- 
ern Ohio Traction & Light Co., *878 

Lydall, F. Driving systems of electric loco- 
motives, * 1 339 


McCollough, Richard. Present tendency of 
public service regulation, 858 

Ms.cdougall, R. E. Value of safety commit- 
tees, 779 

McKelway, G. H. Testing trolley insulators 

in place, 1342 
Mncnutt, H. Feeder tests on the San Diego 

Railway, * 141 
Maize, F. P. Repair shop practice at Portland, 

Ore., *130 

(Abbreviations: "Illustrated. cCorrespondence. ) 

Martin, W. A. Counting nickels by weight, 
cl 198 

Murphy, Charles. Industrial arbitration, 1240 
Murray, W. S. A question of names, c306 
— — -Impartial study of electrification, cl343 


Palmer, H. R. Repairing collector rings of 
rotaries, *307 

Porter, L. C. and V. L. Staley. Illumination 
of street railway cars, * 1 089 

Potter, R. R. Flat contact wire for panto- 
graph collectors, cll47 


Rosecrantz, C. M. Other elements of value 
than franchise values, 822' 

Rucker, W. C. Regulations on sanitation as 
related to public carriers, 853 

Rupli, J. T. Workmen's compensation act 
of the State of Washington, 138 


Schneider, E. F. The claims department, 22 
See, P. V. Inspection shop bonus system, 1326 
Sergeant, C. S. Financial aspects of the re- 
lief of congestion by the construction 
of subways and viaducts, 813 
Seymour, J. B. Permanent security of bolted- 

up construction, 1104 
Shear 4 V. W. Portable substation for the 
Northern Ohio Traction & Light Co., 

Shoup, Paul. Relation of carriers to the de- 
velopment of the territory they serve, 

Shroyer, Walter. Report of standing com- 
mittee on passenger accounts, Central 
Electric Railway Accountants' Asso- 
ciation, 25 

Smith, G. N. Organization of safety commit- 
tees, 104 

Smith, M. B. Car washing versus paint pres- 
ervation, *228 

Sampling coal deliveries, *1242 

Staley, V. L. (See Porter, L. C.) 

Starkey, J. F. Relation of a traffic depart- 
ment with its company, 1100 

Stigall, E. E. Proposed association of pur- 
chasing agents, cl024 

Swain, J. G. Power plant economy, 1292 


Thirhvall, J. C. Maintenance costs of old 
and new railway motors, 495 

Tingley, C. L. S. Present tendency of public 
utility laws and regulations, 850 


Van Zandt, A. D. B. Progress in publicity, 


Wherry, W. M. Franchise values, 781 
White, A. J. Nuts to crack, 24 
Wilcox, D. F. Traffic conditions in Newark, 

Winders, C. H. Legislation changing court 
procedure in the trial of personal in- 
jury cases, 137 

Woodbury, D. C. (See Del Mar, W. A.) 

Wynne, F. E. Recent developments in rail- 
way control, *20 


Young, C. F. Unreported accident or "blind 
<:ase, 106 



[Vol. XLIL 


Adams, J. E., 161, 204 
Adams, J. W., 320 
Akers, Albert 1003 
Alexander, J. S., 162 
Anderson, Fred A., 284 
Anderson, Richard, 521 
Anderson, S., 952 
Annable, F. L., 86, 357 
Apperson, R. D., 321, 710 
Armstrong, Allan G., 1124 
Austin, L. L., 122 

Baker, George J., 204 
Baker, William C., *283 
Balsden, Almon S., 402 
Barber, E. B., 912 
Barnard, Wilfrid K., 1262 
Barnes, Samuel, 204 
Barton, Daniel M., 1311 
Baukat, John G., 1160 
Baxter, George D., 1357 
Beck, Adam, 1310 
Beilstein, Louis Edward, 284 
Bemis, A. J., 204 
Benham, Albert, 86 
Bentz, Daniel, 204 
Bernd, O. H., 121 
Berry, V. W., 1310 
Black, Charles N., *839 
Blackburn, A. E., 520 
Blair, Henry A., 1040, *1079 
Blizard, Murat, 204 
Blondell, C. F., 122 
Blynn, E. D„ Jr., 204 
Bodwell, A. L., 1124 
Boettcher, Claude K., 952 
Bolen, Newton W., 48 
Bowman, W. J., 520 
Boyle, Edward F., 912 
Bradley, William, 161 
Bradv, Anthony N., 162 
Brady, Nicholas F., 358 
Bremmen, A. L., 244 
Brennan, T., J., 442 
Brinkerhoff, A. D., 244 
Brown, J. W., 48 
Brown, William C, 1124 
Brownell, A. L., 204 
Buckingham, Clarence, 402 
Buckland, Walter L., 912 
Bull, W. F., 1214 
Burford, C. C, 1003 
Burritt, E. B., *719 
Butler, Frank L, 161 

Calhoun, Patrick, 402 

Calkins, Leighton, 1310 

Callaghan, W. C, 1039 

Cameron, H. W., 320 

Campbell, A. P., 1078 

Carlton, A. E., 1214 

Carpenter, E. C, 1357 

Catlin, Hoyt, 321 

Cattell, W. A., 357, 442 

Caul, Charles A., 321 

Chamberlain, F. H., 1124 

Chambers, F. C., 442 

Chase, Charles J., 86 

Cheney, S. W., 358 

Cherry, O. J., 244 

Choate, Joseph K., 283 

Clark, C. Peter, 952 

Cleveland, John A., 1357 

Coe, J. A., 952 

Cole, Frank E., 204, 1078 

Collins, G. J., 204 

Collins, J. F., 442 

Conley, P. J., 161 

Cook, Frederick W., 1311 

Cook, Harold F., 244 

Cooper, George F., 357 

Copeland, Charles M., 481 

Corey, C. M., 1125 

Coryell, A. B., 358, 1078 

Cramer, Frank. 204 

Crardall, H. N., 161 

Crapo. H. H., 480, 667 

Crawford, N. McD., 321, 710, 1357 

Crowley, H. J., *321 

Custer, C. C, 1214 

Daigen, J. C, 244 

Dalrymple, James, 204, 402 

Daly, Laurence, 520 

Dame, Frank L., 520 

Daniels, F. H., 402 

Davis, N. E., 204 

Davis, O. P., 86 

Davis, W. L., 1310 

Dawson, Phillip. 283, 480, 1310 

Daly, Charles W., 1357 

Day, Frederick I., 480 

Day, T. J., 442 

Dechant, William L., 358 

Decker, Martin S., 47 

de Haseth, G. A., 358 

Deinst, Theodore, 162 

Delaney, J. 912 

de la Touche, Gaston de Pellerin, 442 

Dempster, W. H., 204 

de Winds, J. P. H., 1357 

Dick, James E., 161 

Dickson, Edgar J., *1160 

Dietz, Charles C, 1214, 1262 

Dobbins, J. Gerry, 1078 

Dole, Alvah C, 1124 

Donecker, H. C., *719 

Doughty, B. H., 520 

Doyle, E. P., 442 

Draper, Walter A. 1310 

Drummond, A. L., 122 

Duffy, C. Nesbitt, *1041, 1078, 1125 

Durham, J. A., 244 

Dutton, A. N., 1078 

Dwyer, Thomas, 520 

Eckert, E. E., 442 

Edgar, B. C, 480 

Edwards, Allen F., *952 

Edwards, V. L., 1003 

Elliott, Howard, 204, 520, 1124 

Elliott, Thomas, 162 

Epps, M. H., 204 

Evans, William G., 952 

Eyke, Walter L., 162 

Fabian, V. F., 244 
Farrell, A. M., 520 
Farrell, J. E., 161 
Fehr, Harrison R., 667, *710 
Fewell, M. R., 358 
Fichthorn, Kurtz A., 1357 
Fitzgerald, Thomas, 1039 
Flanders, H. M., 1214 
Foley, C. F., 1262 
Foraker, J. B., Jr., 1310 
Foss, H. C, 162 
Foster A. W., 1262 
Fox, S. Crozier, 403 
Friedmann, Joseph L., 122 
Freuauft', F. W., 204 
Furey, James, 161 
Fusselman, J. R., 1357 

Gabriel, F. D., 121 
Gailor, Chester F., *1214 
Gallagher, P. L., 357 
Gamwell, W. W., 521 
Garretson, C. D., 1003 
Garrison, N. I., 1039 
Gerber, C. H'., 1262 
Gilbert, L. A., 442 
Gillett, J. Walter, 952 
Gillett, Ralph D., 913 
Given, W. H.. 442, 480 
Glover, M. W., *902 
Godfrey, I. L., 912 
Goethals, George W., 244 
Gorman, Tohn B., 1311 
Gould, George J., 1078 
Goss, Dean W. F. M., 47 
Graham, Edward M., 204 
Grant, Flagg F., 1262 
Green, Thomas, 47 
Greenwood, Henry K., 520 
Greet, A., 1214 
Gregory, T. W., 283 
Griffin, W. R. W., 1160 
Grove, E. P., 357 

Hale, W. B., 520 
Haller, W. A., 121 
Ham, A. C, 121 
Hancock, J. W., 402, 442 
Hanlon, T. J., Jr., 952 
Banna, J. Off., *902 
Hannaford, Foster, 121 
Hanson, F. R., 1078 
Harries, George H., 86 
Harris, Henry L., 403 
Hart, C. E., *481 
Hart, George Spencer, 481 
Hawley, Cornell S., *903 
Hays, Henry W., 1160 
Hazzard, H. C, *87 
Hearn, Joseph T., 1124 
Hegarty, D. A., *902 
Henning, E. H., 244 
Henry, A. F., 1003 
Hewitt, Albert E., 358 
Hibbs, Elwood D., 403 
Highlands, Andrew A., 1039 
Hill, F. H., 402 
Hitchcock, E. A., 86 
Hitchcock, William H., *320 
Hoagland, H. C, 1039 
Hogan, Francis J., 1357 
Holton, W. O., 47 
House, William A., 161 
Howard, Edward H., 521 
Hull, R. B., 204 
Hurd, E. C, 1214 

Irvin, William, 1003 

Tameson, Henry, 912 
Tefts, C. A., 1124 
Tellison, Floyd O., 162 
Tones, B. J., 1078 
Tones, Henry T., 162 
Jones, R. C, 320 
Tones, William E., 244 
Tosselyn, B. S., 48 

Junkens, C. D., 1078 

Kahler, Jacob, 244 
kasemier, A. L., 244 
Kern ert, H. F., 283 
Kilgour, John, 1003 

Lane, John J., 122 
Langton, G. L., 480, 912 
Larkin, James S., 162 
LarneQ, William M., 710 
Larson, Louis, 204 
Lasher, Frank B., 1310 
Laub, C. R., 204 
Lawless, E. J., 358 
Lawrence, George P., 357 
Leahy, Thomas M., 161 
Leary, Michael J., 321 
Le Clert, R. J., 1214 
Lee, Francis V. T., 667 
Lee, Robert E., 47, 86, 162 
Leffingwell, William E., 86 
Leland. T. E., 47 
Lennox, W., 244 
Lewis, J. J., 442 
Libbey, J. H., 1310 
Lilienthal, lesse W., *402 
Lippitt, L. E., 358 
Longino, B. T., 442 

MacAlister, W. H„ 244 
McCall, E. E., 358 
McClellan, William, 86 
McCloskey, Hugh, *1125 
McCraig, C. J., 1003 
MacDonald, J. A., 121 
McEwen, D. D., 357 
Mcintosh, P. J., 283 
McKee, W. L., 357 
McKinley, William B., 442 
McKnight, James PL, 244 
McMurray, E. T., 204 
McNear, George P., 244 
McPherson, James, 47, 1214 
Madden, Charles, 1078 
Maddox, W. T., 162 
Mahan, R. S., 244 
Maltbie, Milo R., 1357 
Mann, Charles E., 1039 
Manning, George W., 320 
Marsh, T. F., 442 
Marshall, Charles C, 952 
Marston, Edgar L., 1078 
Martin, Howard F., 403 
Martin, Paul C, 1078 
Mason, J. L, 1214 
Mather, Frank, 161 
Maxwell, Miss E., 357 
Meddaugh, J. E., 47 
Mellen, Charles S., 121, 402 
Mendes, A. de Sola, 244 
Michener, A. S., 284 
Millar, Archibald B., 1262 
Miller, Duncan, 205 
Mitchell, C. S., 320 
Montelius, Carl O. Y., 357 
Morris, T. C, 121 
Morrison, Frank, 357 
Mortland, David M., 1125 
Mueller, J. R., 204 
Murphy, F. W., 1263 
Murphy, J. J., 121 
Myers, James, 357 

Nance, E. B., 402 
Nasmith, F. F., 667 
Neiswanger, E. B., 1310 
New, Harry S., 244 
Newman, C. E., 403 
Norford, H. D., 442 
Norman, A., 1039 
Norn's, Henry H., 121 
Nichol, J. T., 204 
Nihan, Robert E., 161 
Nims, F. A., 86 

O'Brien, Harry, 442 
Ostendorf, A. J., 47 

Paige, Allan W., 205 
Palmer, C. E., 244 
Parker, H. R., 442 
Patterson, N. W., 1039 
Paxton, C. M., * 1 3 1 
Pearson. John, 710 
Peck, D. C, 1078 
Peck, Dwight H., 952 
Penney, Thomas, 1003 
Persons, Frederick A., 1124 
Pevear, J. S., *1 125 
Fleming, Charles J„ 122 
Prather, H. C, 912 
Pratt, Frank, 402 
Pritchett, L. E., 442 
Putnam, E. L., 1214 

Ralph, T. W., 442 
Rawlings, John B., 1214 
Read, Norman, 162 
Reed, George F., *1263 
Rhett, E. Lowndes, 1311 
Rhoads. N. B., 1078 
Richards, Henry M., 1125 

Ridle, Samuel, 1310 

Kidgway, H. W., 161 

Rieder, Jacob, 357 

Rigg, Walter A., 1357 

Riley, T. W., 121 

Riley, Timothy W., 1214 

Ritchie, R. R., 244 

Roach, John M., "1040 

Roberts, William, 161 

Kodgers, J. F., 86 

Koss, D. S., 162 

Ross, Tames, 521 

Ross, J. T., 284 

Ross, W. G., 320 

Rupp, W. H., 1039 

Ryan, C. N., 1214 

Rykert, H. S., 204 

Ryley, Thomas W., 1040, 1124 

Sanders, H. L., 244 
Sanderson, C. H., 358 
Sartwell, Leo. 47 
Schuler, E. T., 244 
Searle, Robert M., 1262, 1310 
Sexton, W. E., 1039 
Sharp, W. C, 1039 
Shelmerdine, Wm. H., 520 
Shelton, T. W., 86 
Shepard, Frederick J., Jr., 357 
Sherman, Arthur E., 121 
Sherwood, E. C, 1003 
Shober, S. L., 1357 
Sibbald, lohn, 520 
Sillick, Fletcher H., 1078 
Skipwith, Lee, 161 
Slant, Edward, 204 
Sloan, M. S., 1357 
Smith, Alfred H., 1262 
Smith, De Witt, 1003 
Smith, Samuel /., 357 
Snow, Warren H., 1310 
Snyder, Leon, 710 
Sparks, W. C, 121 
Sperry, M. L.. 162 
Spindler, J. J., 161 
Stage, Charles W., 1160 
Stanley, Albert H., 1078, 1214 
Steacv, J. W., 161 
Sterling, Charles A., 442 
Stevens, R. P., 86, *284, 320, 667, 710 
Stierly, A. E., 283 
Stone, Everett E., 480 
Storms, George F., 121 
Strohm, A., 357 
Sullivan, Patrick F., 402 
Sunderland, J. B., 1357 
Sutton, John G., 1262 
Swartz, R., 204 
Swayze, T. F., 161 
■Swisher, W. C, 161 
Syme, Conrad H., 1003 

Taurman, A., 162 
Taussig, Richard A., 357 
Taylor, Z. V., 86 
Terry, W. E., 321 
Theis, George T., Tr., 204 
Thomen, R. O., 357 
Thompson, Henry Martyn, 122 
Thomson, T. Frame, 912 
Tingley, C. L. S., 1263 
Todd, Robert I., 121 
Totten, Robert Christy, 1263 
Townsend, George, 48 
Trexler, Harry C, 710 
Tucker, J. O., 520 

Underwood, E. W., 162 

Valentine, George A., 480 
Voepel, O. A., 442 
Vorce, C. B., 1357 

Waddell, S. H., 320 
Wallace, Alfred, 1262 
Wallace, Tohn F., 47 
Wallace, W., 161 
Waller, Robert J., 161 
Warren, Alba H., 952 
Weaver, James E., 480 
Webb, G. A., 204 
Webb, J. E., 204 
Webster, D. F., 244 
Weh, William F., «902 
Welsh, Maurice A., 442 
Westlake, Clarence P. 1262 
Wheeler, Charles K., 1078 
White, Thomas Langan, 403 
Wickersham, N., 162 
Wightman, H. J., 244 
Wilcox, J. A., 244 
Williams, John G., 283 
Wilson, S. E., 86 
Wood, C. V., *1040 
Wood, William Clark, 710 
Woerner, William F., 86 

Yates, Richard, 1078 
Yost, C. E., 1214 
Young, P. S., 1357 

Zehner, William P., 244 
Zimmer, Judson, 520 

•Denotes Portrait. 

Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. XLII 


No. 1 


McGraw Publishing Company, Inc. 

James H. McGraw, President. C. E. Whittlesey, Secretary and Treas. 
239 West 39th Street, New York. 

Chicago Office 1570 Old Colony Building 

Philadelphia Office.... Real Estate Trust Building 

European Office. .. .Hastings House, Norfolk St., Strand, London, Eng. 

Terms of Subscription 

For 52 weekly issues, and daily convention issues published from time 
to time in New York City or elsewhere; United States, Cuba and Mexico, 
$3.00 per year; Canada, $4.50 per year; all other countries, $6.00 per year. 
Single copies, 10 cents. Foreign subscriptions may be sent to our 
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Requests for changes of address should be made one week in advance, 
giving old as well as new address. Date on wrapper indicates the month 
at the end of which subscription expires. 

Copyright, 1913, by McGraw Publishing Company, Inc. 
Entered as seoond-class matter at the post office at New York, N. Y. 

Of this issue of the Electric Railway Journal, 8000 copies are printed. 

LIMITATIONS Cheap fuels, and especially waste 

OF LOW-GRADE material used as fuel, may often be 
FUELS shown to evaporate water much more 

cheaply than coal of a higher grade at a considerably higher 
price per ton. Yet in the end it is quite possible that such 
conditions may result in a net loss owing to the indirect 
charges which enter into the economics of steam generation. 
As low-grade fuel invariably runs high in ash, the removal 
of refuse as well as the necessity for frequent cleaning of 
fires often amounts in the smaller plants to an item of no 
small cost, and this, together with the other incidental and 
perhaps somewhat obscure handling charges, may turn an 
apparent profit into a very decided loss. Any tests made 
to determine relative fuel values are far better when they 
are carried out under the simple but thoroughly practical 
plan of making a run extending over several weeks with 
each_ grade and then counting in the total cost of boiler- 
room operation. 


The recent decision in Chicago de- 
claring worthless the $6,750,000 of 
old bonds of the Consolidated Trac- 
tion Company has succeeded in establishing after long 
litigation the exact liability of the Chicago Railways as 
regards this issue. The contention of the Chicago Rail- 
ways that it could not, by any express or implied con- 
tract, be held responsible for these bonds has been sustained 
on the ground that the merger for whose formation they 
were issued was ultra vires and against public policy. 
Consequently the bonds are worthless. Of the $4,494,000 
originally held by the Yerkes estate, the Chicago Railway:; 
had bought in $4,464,000 at 30, and now all of the total 
authorized issue of $6,750,000 has been recovered excep f 
$254,000, par value. This amount includes $17,000 never- 
issued and $30,000 still held by the estate, so that the 
amount held by the public at the present time is $207,000, 

or less than 4 per cent of the total issue. It may be that 
the present holders will not suffer total loss, however, for 
it would appear that inasmuch as Mr. Yerkes overstepped 
legal bounds and the dictates of public policy in bringing 
about the enormous bond issue to form the merger, his 
estate may be compelled to make restitution of the moneys 
paid for the bonds, and such a step would seem to be a 
perfectly just one, even should it render the estate in- 
solvent. At any rate, the elimination of the liability from 
the Chicago Railways will serve to relieve it of a menacing 
and depressing factor in its security market. The decision 
comes as a fitting climax to an example of the old-time 
financiering methods of which Yerkes was one, but only 
one, exponent. Fortunately those days and methods have 
passed, thanks to the code of modern financial ethics, which 
public service commissioners have done a great deal to 
bring about. Promoters and capitalists can no longer 
brazenly manipulate stock and bond issues as if the public 
utilities concerned were their individual properties. Un- 
fortunately, however, we still have the heritage of these 
evil practices. Many of the present transit problems in 
our large cities&a a - undo ubtedly be traced back directly to 
the financi^i^^m'an^^rh^t^bsi. use no stronger term, of 
the early ^ays. 

j SEP £9 1914 

PUBLICLT¥ At tne har/quet of the New York 

BY THE \ Electric! Railway Association held 

ASSOCIATION-.' i ast ^ e ek C. Loomis Allen re- 

ferred to the fact that the American Electric Railway 
Association had recently begun the distribution to the 
member companies of sheets for newspaper use to help in 
counteracting popular erroneous impressions in regard to 
the condition of electric railway companies. He added 
that the method would be to send once a month to the mem- 
ber companies extracts from articles published in the 
official organ of the association. This is work which is 
much needed. The time has gone by when anyone can 
expect that the public as a whole will take the time to learn 
the real situation of the railway companies unless the com- 
panies themselves take the trouble to state their position 
and do something to help themselves. There are many 
ways in which this can be done, and the distribution of 
sheets for newspaper use is one method and should be 
adopted. But to confine the information to what is 
selected from a single publication is to reduce the effective- 
ness of the method to a minimum. It is much like using a 
tack-hammer where a sledge-hammer is needed. If the 
association is to do this work, the sheets which it sends out 
should contain the best matter, the most telling arguments 
and most cogent facts available. In his speech Mr. Allen 
said : "No man need fear the verdict of the American 
people if that people has before it all the facts in the case." 
To this sentiment we cordially subscribe. There are 



[Vol. XLII, No. i. 

hundreds of sources from which the facts may be obtained, 
such as judicial decisions, interstate commerce commission 
and other commission reports, interviews with prominent 
railway men, and the technical papers. But as a rule this 
matter is not in daily newspaper style. The information 
could be rewritten in a manner that would be acceptable 
to the newspapers. The facts are there, and in such shape 
that they can be readily appreciated by those who under- 
stand the value of news. Again, several public service 
commissioners individually have recently expressed them- 
selves strongly in regard to the benefits which electric 
transportation provides and the underlying justice of the 
companies' contentions. These gentlemen occupy a quasi- 
judicial position, and their favorable opinions should be 
more widely circulated. In this batttle against ignorance 
every means of help should be utilized, and each clay, if 
possible, instead of once a month, some data, culled from 
every available source and so prepared that they can be 
easily used, should be put in the hands of the member 

THE HUMAN ^. F. Schneider, general manager 

ELEMENT AND Cleveland, Columbus & Southwestern 

ACCIDENT CLAIMS Railway, has been so prominent a 
leader and pioneer in the matter of safety talks to em- 
ployees and to the public that special interest attaches to his 
paper on the claim department read at the last meeting of 
the Central Electric Railway Association. To many Mr. 
Schneider will appear an iconoclast when he classes as 
"bosh" such subjects as instruction for trainmen, the book 
of rules, card indexes for discovering fraudulent claims, ex- 
pert testimony in accident suits, etc. We do not believe 
that Mr. Schneider means that these matters are useless and 
unworthy of consideration. He simply means that in the 
past too many managers have regarded them as marking 
the limit of their responsibility, and when an accident 
has occurred and they have added a few rules to guard 
against its repetition they have felt that they have done 
their full duty. It is absolutely necessary, of course, to in- 
struct trainmen in their duties, to have a rule book kept up 
to date, to watch the payment for claims, and to do what- 
ever else the usual best practice recommends to keep down 
accidents and the expenses from accidents. But the careful 
manager will not make a fetich of these purely mechanical 
or routine matters. Nor should he or his employees con- 
sider that if the road has a low damage expense account 
that fact marks the limit of their duty in regard to the 
safety of the public. Too much emphasis upon the size of 
the damage expense account means an attempt to express 
the extent of human suffering in dollars and cents. Trans- 
lation of one of these matters into terms of the other is 
absolutely impossible. The paramount thought for both 
the manager and the trainmen to have in mind is the 
sacredness of human life. If they feel this, they will real- 
ize that one of the highest privileges which can be granted 
to any one is that of saving the life of another and that by 
their environment and position they can take advantage of 
this privilege to a greater extent and to a greater degree 
than those in most other employments and other walks of 
life. If this is their underlying thought in transportation, 
the accident question on electric railways is solved. 


At the Master Car Builders' convention at Atlantic City 
the standing committee on car trucks took under consid- 
eration a query regarding the tendency of passenger car 
journals to roll out of their bearings under heavy applica- 
tions of pressure from the brakeshoes. The question is of 
live interest to high-speed electric railways. Hot-journal- 
box troubles have by no means decreased in the proportion 
which might be expected from the comparatively recent 
improvements made in methods of applying and maintain- 
ing lubrication. Indeed, on many railways the problem of 
eliminating delays due to hot boxes has reached an im- 
portance by no means warranted by the apparent simplicity 
of the factors involved, and it is generally magnified by the 
exasperating fact that no remedy seems to be thoroughly 

The influence of the enormously high brakeshoe pres- 
sures used with modern equipment is apparently a factor 
which is almost invariably overlooked. On the Inter- 
borough Rapid Transit Company's subway lines, for in- 
stance, the difficulties with hot journal boxes were at one 
time a serious handicap to satisfactory operation. The 
trouble was finally traced to the frequent and necessarily 
heavy applications of brakeshoe pressure which were found 
actually to crush the babbitt lining at the edges of the 
standard M. C. B. journal brasses, and a new form of 
journal brass with a rectangular outside contour and a full 
semi-circular bearing on the journal was developed. This 
design was described in the Electric Railway Journal 
for July 27, 1912, page 121. As the new form of brass re- 
placed the original standard, the hot-box trouble rapidly 
decreased until at the present time delays from this cause 
are practically unknown. 

In the New York subway conditions, of course, are 
extreme, yet the standard automatic air-brake system is 
used without the high-presssure air and blow-down for 
brake cylinders introduced on a number of steam roads. 
Indeed, it is quite possible that crushed brasses are re- 
sponsible in a modified degree for many of the inexplicable 
epidemics of hot journals on railroads whose traffic require- 
ments involve but a moderate number and limited severity 
of brake applications. 

Since the M.C.B. committee reported that it had dis- 
covered a tendency for journals to roll out of the brasses 
in steam railroad passenger coaches but not in freight 
cars, there is good reason to believe that it is present in all 
electric railway cars and it would be manifest wisdom to 
consider the factor as an important one. The only reme- 
dies suggested by the committee were the use of clasp 
brakes and lowering the position of the brakeshoe on the 

The latter suggestion was based upon the theory that the 
trouble would be reduced if the resultant of the two forces 
imposed on the journal by the weight of the car and by the 
brakeshoe pressure was kept at least 10 deg. inside of a 
line through the center of the axle and the edge of the 
journal brass. The direction of this resultant would be 
obviously made more nearly vertical as the shoe was moved 
Delow the horizontal center line of the wheel, yet this in 
turn has been demonstrated in the past to increase the 

July 5, 1913.] ELECTRIC RAIL 

tendency toward sliding on rough track by locking the 
wheel against vertical play. New journal brasses such as 
were forced by numerous hot journals upon the New York 
subway would undoubtedly be an expensive remedy, yet 
not so much so as the introduction of the clasp brake with 
one shoe on each side of the wheel, and it is certain that a 
full semi-circular cross-section for a brass would strike 
at the root of trouble once it was established as the prime 
reason for hot journals on any particular railway. 


In its desire to eradicate horse traction completely, the 
London County Council Tramways is faced by a condition 
quite similar to that on the cross-town and ferry lines of 
New York. The East End of London has a number of 
horse-car routes for which conduit construction would not 
be justified but which the local authorities will not permit 
to be electrified with the overhead trolley. In New York 
the problem has been solved so satisfactorily by means of 
storage battery cars that the Third Avenue Railway will 
soon have a total of 160 in operation, while the New York 
Railways is making a beginning with forty-five equipments 
on stepless cars. For some reason or other, no storage 
battery car seems to have been offered to the London man- 
agement. Yet the tests of both types of cars made by the 
Third Avenue Railway showed that the accumulator car 
was cheaper for low-speed city conditions, as set forth in 
detail in the article entitled "The Log of a Gasoline-Elec- 
tric Car," published in the Electric Railway Journal for 
Sept. 23, 191 1. The gas-electric car under test weighed 
857 lb. per passenger compared with 557 lb. per passenger 
for the storage battery car, this difference being due largely 
to the fact that the stresses set up in operation required a 
heavy body despite the fact that the engine was carried on 
the truck. This car was in operation from November, 1909, 
to September, 1910, and during this time its cost of gaso- 
line per revenue mile at 12 cents per gallon averaged 4.61 
cents, or about four times the cost of electrical energy at 
2 cents per kw-hr. The guaranteed cost of battery main- 
tenance plus the cost of energy was practically equal to 
that for gasoline alone, aside from the fact that the first 
cost of the gas-electric car was much greater. 

Like the first battery cars of the Third Avenue Railway, 
the three experimental gas-electric cars in London are 
reconstructed horse cars. It is clear, however, from the 
description published in this issue that the conversion 
called for more radical changes than was the case in New 
York, particularly as the greater part of the equipment is 
mounted on the platforms. In the Third Avenue battery 
cars the cells are placed under the seats, and the chain- 
driven motors are installed on the trucks, so that no plat- 
form space is required except for small standard rail- 
way controllers. On the other hand, the London double- 
deck cars have a platform space of 12 ft. 6 in., although 
the closed lower deck is only 14 ft. 6 in. long. This dis- 
proportionate platform space is accounted for in part by 
the stairways to the upper deck, but, in any event, it is not 
to the advantage of the car body or to the comfort of the 
passengers to place gas-electric equipment on the platforms 
instead of the truck. Since the operating conditions for 


which these cars are designed are quite analogous to those 
in New York, it certainly will be a pity if a carefully 
designed storage battery car is not placed in competition 
with them for the proposed service. 


We are glad to notice that the act to enlarge the board 
of arbitration authorized under the Erdman act will prob- 
ably pass Congress. On the initiative of the National Civic 
Federation, a number of representative railway presidents 
and labor leaders and the officials in charge of the ad- 
ministration of the Erdman law united in the support 
of the several proposed amendments. Among them one 
of the most important authorizes the appointment of six 
arbitrators instead of three, unless the parties to the dis- 
pute prefer the smaller number. Of these six arbitrators, 
two are to be appointed by each of the parties to the dis- 
pute, and two are to be chosen by these four, or, in case 
of their failure to agree, by the board of mediation and 
conciliation. This board, which is to be created by the 
proposed law, is to be composed of a commissioner and 
assistant commissioner and not more than two other of- 
ficials to be appointed by the president. It is not as- 
serted even by the advocates of these proposed amend- 
ments that they will make the law ideal. President Low 
on this point says that while, in the opinion of the sig- 
natories, three is a desirable number of arbitrators for a 
dispute involving a single railroad, the proposed measure 
represents a compromise on certain points, and it was im- 
posssible to secure unanimous consent to a larger number 
than six for a dispute affecting the interests of a whole 
section of the country. But it is interesting to note that 
the plan of six arbitrators in cases of this kind carries 
the indorsement of seven railroad presidents, the presi- 
dents of five brotherhoods, Judge Martin A. Knapp and 
ex-Commissioner of Labor Charles P. Neill. 

Electric railways are only a little less concerned than 
the steam roads in securing the right solution of the prob- 
lem of settling labor disputes equitably, and we hope that 
indorsement of the larger board under the Erdman act 
by those who have signed the petition mentioned will 
popularize the plan of having a larger board in electric 
railway disputes. As we have frequently pointed out, the 
so-called arbitration that is carried out by two partisans 
and one umpire is not arbitration; that is, it is impossible 
by this means to secure judicial adjustments of labor con- 
troversies, and for this reason such proceedings ought to 
be resisted to the last ditch. Only a few days ago the 
offer of the Jamestown Street Railway and the Chautauqua 
Traction Company to submit a labor dispute to a large 
representative board was rejected by the union for the 
reason that it was "unalterably opposed to a large number 
of members on a board of arbitration." 

The reason for this is obvious. As a rule, the settle- 
ment of a dispute by a board of three arbitrators, formed 
as it usually is, is no arbitration in the sense that it is an 
impartial award on the merits of the case. The decision is 
merely a splitting of the difference between the extreme 
demands of the employees and the previous conditions of 
employment. The presence of six arbitrators, or two to 
represent each side, has another advantage than that of 



[Vol. XLII, No. i. 

merely bringing more minds to bear upon the question in 
dispute. It provides two men for each of the three in- 
terests represented, and one of these can give moral sup- 
port to the other in justifying a conclusion which is based 
upon the evidence and yet is unfavorable to the side of 
which he is a representative. 


We believe that a very fruitful topic for discussion by 
the Claims Association at its next convention would be 
the amounts assessed as damages against railway com- 
panies for different kinds of personal injuries. No one can 
read the reports of such cases, as decided in different 
parts of the country, without being impressed with the 
great differences in amounts of damages awarded by the 
courts for similar injuries. In some sections precedents 
have been set for high payments, and these precedents 
are being used as arguments for even larger assessed 
damages. In other parts of the country the payments are 
more like those which generally have prevailed in the past, 
and it is well known that verdicts for personal injuries 
always have been much higher in this country than in 
the countries of Europe. An instance came to our at- 
tention recently where a claimant, a bartender, secured 
$12,000 from an electric railway company because of an 
accident which resulted in three stiff fingers. We should 
hardly believe that such an accident would seriously impair 
his efficiency for his work, but in the part of the country 
where this case was tried large damages are not unusual, 
and it is not surprising to find that the company which 
was defendant in this case paid for its injuries and dam- 
ages account last year 22 per cent of its gross receipts. 

It is easier to suggest than to secure a remedy in a 
situation of this kind. Nevertheless, some things may be 
said. For instance, many states now have employers' 
liability acts which specify the amount to be paid in the 
case of certain accidents, and these amounts might fairly 
be used as a basis for the determination of railway dam- 
ages. Certainly the railway company ought not to be held to 
a higher accountability than the state requires of others 
who cause accidents. The fact should also be generally 
recognized that no money payment for damages, no mat- 
ter how large, can ever be full compensation for the ac- 
cident. At least most victims of an accident, if they had 
their choice, would not undergo the pain and permanent 
injury which they suffer for any sum at all near the dam- 
ages which they can collect on account of the accident. 
No ordinary amount of money, for instance, could, in the 
opinion of most of us, make up for the loss of a leg or an 
arm. Unfortunately, however, accidents do happen. They 
are one of the penalties paid by the community for the 
civilization which all of us enjoy. Partly to recompense 
those individuals who do meet with accidents custom has 
recognized a certain scale of payment for their misfortune, 
but at best this scale must be arbitrary. It is essentially 
a compromise between too large a sum, which would dis- 
courage all industrial effort by others for the benefit of 
the community, and too low a sum, which would make the 
individual victim the only person to suffer by the accident. 

If this viewpoint is accepted, and it seems the only log- 
ical one, the question of the scale of damage payments 

for injuries where liability is admitted becomes simpler. 
The amounts assessed should be proportioned according to 
some generally recognized scale not too great to dis- 
courage people from building factories and railways, and 
in no case should the impossible object be sought of fully 
recompensing the victim. Judged by these standards, an 
individual payment of $12,000 for the accident mentioned 
above and an annual expense for damages of 22 per cent 
of a railway's gross income seem excessive. 


The Tramways & Light Railways Association of Great 
Britain has recently drawn up a collection of rules and 
regulations to aid in standardizing this feature of English 
tramway operation. While this work is admittedly a skel- 
eton which can be clothed to meet local conditions of pri- 
vate or municipal systems, the rules are worth study as 
models of brevity and clearness. They apply only to city 
conditions, of course, as there are no interurban railways 
in the United Kingdom. The rules differ from those of the 
American Electric Railway Transportation & Traffic Asso- 
ciation in quite a number of interesting particulars. In the 
first place, the British book is prefaced by an "agreement 
of employment" which sets forth the conditions of service, 
such as medical examinations, conformity to the rules, notice 
before quitting work, right of suspension and dismissal, 
liability for negligent damage to equipment, weekly pay- 
ments of wages with one week's wages in hand, non-guar- 
antee of continuous work, rates of wages, title of respon- 
sible governing officer, etc. The wording of the rules is 
notable for the use of the term "must" throughout. Bell 
signals, which have caused so much discussion in the prepa- 
ration of the American code, are disposed of by the simple 
phrase : "Bell signals between conductors and motormen 
must be set out in accordance with the accepted practice of 
each company or corporation." Uniform bell signals are 
wanted in this country because of the operation of inter- 
urban cars on city tracks, whereas in England the operation 
of the cars of one system over that of another is much less 

A remarkable omission from the English code is that 
of all reference to the responsibilities of the motorman 
and conductor except that they are equally responsible for 
replacing the trolley on the wire. The code also has no 
carhouse rules except those which instruct the motorman 
and conductor how to take the car in and out of the build- 
ing. Furthermore, the crews are not instructed to warn 
passengers against danger in boarding or leaving cars, a 
condition which would indicate that the English passenger 
is not quite so reckless as the American and that the street 
pavements are kept in better condition. Among the instruc- 
tions addressed only to motormen are those on the main- 
tenance of a certain distance between cars, prohibition of 
passengers riding on the front platform, starting a car up 
a grade, operating a car through flooded track, proper 
operation of each class of brake and methods for minimiz- 
ing the use of electrical energy. The rules for conductors 
differ very materially from the American code owing to 
the use of zone and ticket systems of fare collection. The 
conductor is not permitted to run the car in case the motor- 

July 5, 1913.] 



man is disabled, but is ordered simply to knock out the 
canopy switch and wait until help arrives. The rules, which 
comprise 103 in all, are supplemented by several appendices 
on how to deal with offenders against the by-laws or public 
ordinances, how to report street accidents, how to handle 
overhead line troubles, how to resuscitate people suffering 
from shock and, finally, how the trainmen are to deal with 
defective cars. 

The last appendix gives a number of short practicable rules 
on what to do when the automatic switch blows, when the 
car will not start with lighted, unlighted or dim lamps 
respectively, when the controller is giving trouble, etc. On 
the whole, the English rules do not attempt to cover so 
many features of operation as our own, but they appear to 
embody some features in wording and practice which could 
profitably be studied in connection with their possible appli- 
cation to the American code. 


In ordinary city service the short duration of the peak 
loads involves the establishment of a force of men and of 
an equipment of rolling stock which can be employed for 
only a few hours a day. The result, in many cases, is 
that the rush-hour traffic is the least profitable part of the 
business. Indeed, some managers estimate that it is con- 
ducted at an actual loss. This condition is being contin- 
ually aggravated by the growing tendency for all labor to 
demand and receive an eight-hour workday, making office 
workers, artisans and laborers require transportation to and 
from their places of employment at practically the same 
times. It is even now not extraordinary for extra cars to 
be used for only one trip in the afternoon rush, and if the 
platform men have to be paid a minimum wage of $1.50 
each for the day's work, the platform expense alone for 
the single trip will amount to $3 — possibly more than the 
total receipts from the collection of fares. 

Four means for meeting this condition have been sug- 
gested, namely: light, one-man cars for tripper service; 
double-deck cars with extra conductors at heavy loading 
points ; trailers ; and multiple-unit trains which are split up 
and run as single cars during the non-rush hours. The 
Public Service Railway- of New Jersey, in considering the 
problem of rush-hour traffic, came to the conclusion that 
the last-named plan might possess more of the elements 
likely to produce practical success than the others. In con- 
sequence that company, during the past nine months, has 
been carrying on a series of elaborate tests to determine 
the practicability of train operation. The results are pub- 
lished elsewhere in this issue. 

The tests have been carried out in a very thorough man- 
ner, and a vast number of observations have been made. 
For this reason the recorded results are of exceptional 
value not alone in their application to the conditions in 
Newark but even more through the light which has been 
thrown upon many of the questions arising in the consid- 
eration of the general problem. The work might be con- 
sidered, in fact, supplementary to the work of the A. E. 
R. A. committee on train operation, and, as the cost of 
taking the observations has amounted to several thousand 
dollars, the spirit in which the tests were inaugurated and 
the generosity with which the company has made them 

public are worthy of the most sincere commendation as a 
material benefit to the whole industry of electric railroading. 

One of the points brought out by the tests is an indica- 
tion that in order to attain the best results considerable 
time is required to familiarize both public and train crews 
with the new method of operation. During the tests it was 
not possible to furnish complete train service over any of 
the lines. In consequence it was necessary to run the test 
trains intermingled with the single cars which formed the 
normal service. For this reason the railway company con- 
siders that the actual figures applying to the relative per- 
formances of the trains and single cars should be used with 
caution and that they should be considered as indications 
rather than bases for final conclusions. Indeed, the opera- 
tion of trains is being regularly continued in Newark so 
that the public may become thoroughly familiar with them 
before the commencement of further tests which are to be 
made in the near future. These will be carried out on lines 
which are fully equipped with multiple-unit cars so that 
complete train service may be given during the rush hours. 
Until these are completed the company will make no definite 
change in its practice. 

Nevertheless, we believe that the observed results will 
receive careful scrutiny from everyone interested in the 
operation of street railways, because of the care with which 
they were made and because they are undoubtedly the most 
extensive of the kind ever conducted upon congested city 
traffic. In all previous investigations with which we are 
acquainted the observations have not been recorded in suf- 
ficient detail to make it possible to eliminate the numerous 
variables which enter into every traffic problem. The 
number of stops per mile, the number and extent of exter- 
nal delays, the number of passengers, the time of passenger 
interchange, all influence to a marked degree the schedule 
speed and produce variations from it. If these are not 
known, comparisons between two cars are based largely 
upon luck, because the car or train which gets few pas- 
sengers makes few stops and has few delays and it nat- 
urally makes good time regardless of any advantages of 
design or equipment. But when all factors are recorded, 
as in this case, it is possible to draw comparisons which 
have a real meaning. It is, of course, true that all vari- 
ables are liable to cancel out if a sufficient number of rec- 
ords are made, so that reasonably reliable averages may in 
many cases be obtained. Yet, in addition to the time re- 
quired by such a procedure, it is easily possible for inherent 
qualities of different equipments to continue to affect re- 
sults almost regardless of the number of trial runs. Such 
a condition will be found in the Newark tests, where it is 
shown that in practically no case was it possible to get the 
same load per car into the trains as was customary on 
single cars. The reason is. of course, obvious when the 
condition is actually pointed out by the results. A few 
train units in a line of single cars, running on about the 
same headway, are not likely to pick up any more passen- 
gers than the normal i^ad for the single unit. Yet this 
light loading of the Tain would work to its advantage by 
enabling it to hold ii place in the line, and if the absence 
of the theoretical train load amounting to twice that of the 
single car had not been recorded, absolutely erroneous con- 
clusions might be drawn from the trials. 



[Vol. XLII, No. i. 

Power Equipment of the Hamburg Rapid 

Transit System 

Power Station, Substations and Transmission for the 800-Volt Direct-Current Operation of This Elevated and 

Underground Railway 

The power generating and distributing structures of the 
Hamburg Elevated & Underground Railway consist of 
the power station at Barmbeck, adjacent to the carhouse 
and shops described in the Electric Railway Journal 
for March 15, 1913, one substation at Hauptbahnhof (main 
steam railway station) built underground because no land 
was available, and a second . substation near the Kelling- 
husenstrasse passenger station of the railway. The low- 
tension circuits of the right-of-way comprise the third-rail 
construction hereinafter described, two lighting circuits, 
which are independently connected to the storage batteries 
of the substation, as each of the two substations feeds only 

room, machine shop, dining room, toilet, etc., are located 
in an extension of the boiler room. Many European power 
stations are famed for their architectural grace, but even 
among them the Hamburg installation is noteworthy for 
ornamental treatment both outside and in. The accompany- 
ing views can give only a faint idea of the attention 
lavished on this feature. The exterior decoration of the 
structure was compulsory owing to the proximity of the 
new Hamburg municipal park, and the operating company 
resolved voluntarily to make the interior of the structure 
equally ornate. 

The building is of brick with a steel truss roof, the 

Hamburg Power — View of Turbine Room at Barmbeck, Looking Toward the Switchboard Gallery 

one lighting circuit for the whole belt line, and a two-wire 
circuit from the storage batteries for the operation of all 
safety mechanisms at 220 volts direct current. 


The power house is favorably situated in the outskirts of 
the city with regard to both the most economical trans- 
mission of energy and the supply of material. It is but 1.6 
miles and 4 miles respectively from the substations so that 
it was feasible to transmit the energy at the generating po- 
tential of 6000 volts, thus dispensing with transformers at 
the power station. The location of the building between the 
Barmbeck Canal and a spur of the Prussian State Railways 
insures ample facilities for getting coal and other supplies. 

The accompanying plan shows the general arrangements 
and dimensions of the Barmbeck power station. The 
boiler room is 157 ft. 10 in. long x 117 ft. 5 in. wide and 
the corresponding dimensions of the turbine room are 159 
ft. 10 in. x 58 ft. Sy 2 in. The plan shows that the store- 

monotony of the outer wall surface being broken by small 
square figured panels and arched pilasters around the 
higher windows and doorways. The lower part of the 
stack, just above the roof line, has a temple effect brought 
about by the use of columns, while the remainder of this 
structure is made with narrow flutings interrupted by head- 
ers of brick at regular intervals. For the interior treat- 
ment tile was used in the turbine room and basement to a 
height of more than 6 ft., and it was also employed for the 
switchboard gallery and stairways. A view of the turbine 
room looking toward the switchboard gallery shows how 
the effect of the tile has been artistically enhanced by the 
use of decorative lines and patterns at the window arches 
and elsewhere. The lighting fixtures, railings and grill 
work on doors are also of artistic design. A leather- 
padded sound-proof telephone booth is installed near the 
switchboard to enable the operator to send and receive 
messages under ideal conditions of quiet and convenience. 

July 5, 1913. J 



The view of the boiler room shows that little inside 
bunker storage has been provided as dependence is placed 
on the open storage yard, which is of ample capacity for 
the ultimate installation of twelve boilers. Coal is dis- 
tributed in the yard by means of a scoop which has a travel 
of 260 ft. from a bridge of 180- ft. span. This scoop can 
take coal at the rate of 40 tons an hour from either canal 
boats or railroad cars as the case may be. The coal is 
transported from the yard to the boiler room by means of 
two chain conveyors which are installed in reinforced con- 
crete runways under the coal pile. The capacity of each 
conveyor, 20 tons an hour, is ample for all needs. 

The boiler room is laid out for an ultimate equipment of 
eight units. The initial installation, however, consists of 
five units with a heating surface of 4520 sq. ft. each, all 
operated at 220 lb. pressure with 350 deg. C. superheat. 
The grate area is 130 sq. ft. Four of the boilers have chain- 
grate stokers, but the fifth is provided experimentally with 
an overfeed stoker. The superheaters which are placed be- 
tween the piping and the upper boilers have a heating sur- 
face of 1 184 sq. ft. each. The feed-water heater for each 
boiler has a heating surface of 3229 sq. ft. Another boiler 
of the same size is now on order and two more will soon 
follow. It will be noted from the cross-section of the sta- 
tion that the products of combustion are led through an 
arched duct of brick under the feed-water heaters directly 
to the base of two stacks located within the boiler house. 
As yet, however, only one stack has been built. The full 
height is 261 ft. and the inside top diameter is 13 ft. 

The boiler-feed pumps are of the centrifugal type. One 
of them is rated at 276 gal. per minute and the other at 
451 gal. per minute. Only one pump is required for con- 
tinuous operation. The feed-water lines are composed of 

Hamburg Power — Generating Plant at Barmbeck 

two complete loops which may be used with or without the 
feed-water heaters. The exhaust of the feed-water pumps 
and that of a non-condensing turbine are utilized to heat 
the nearby carhouses and shops. Make-up water is taken 
from a well by two electrically operated pumps and carried 
to two cisterns in the roof framing of the boiler house. 
Part of it is treated by a purifier having a rated capacity 
of 20 gal. per minute and is transmitted to make-up water 

tanks beneath the purifier in the basement and to the car- 
bouse and shops for car-washing and other purposes. 

The steam pressure lines run directly from each pair of 
facing boilers to the nearest turbine, thereby insuring 
minimum transmission losses. Emergency cross-connec- 
tions are provided to permit any boiler to feed any turbine. 

The generating equipment consists of one 400-kw tur- 
bine operated at 1500 r.p.m. and two 2000-kw turbines 

Hamburg Power — Cross-Section and Plan of Generating 

operated at 3000 r.p.m., all generating 6000-volt, fifty-cycle, 
three-phase current for direct transmission to the substa- 
tions. As shown on the plan, provision has been made for 
the installation of a fourth 6000-kw turbine, which is al- 
ready required on account of the increasing traffic demands. 
The speed regulation of the turbines is 5 per cent above or 
below normal. Two Tirrill regulators are installed for 
voltage control. The electrical end of the turbine is cooled 
by filtering air under a draft of 0.39 in. of water. The 
average winter afternoon load during the Christmas 
shopping season last year was 4000 kw. 

The condensers are of the surface type. The pumping 
outfit consists of a turbo-generator set, the exhaust of 
which is transmitted to the second stage of the main turbine 
or utilized for heating the car maintenance plant as previ- 
ously noted. The extension of the small turbine shaft car- 
ries the wet-air pump, which consists of a centrifugal water 
pump and a centrifugal air pump, and the cooling-water 
pump. The condenser equipments are placed in the base- 
ment between the turbine piers, as is the Allgemeine com- 
pany's usual practice. 


The cables from the generators are carried through the 
basement to the switch room, whence they are continued as 
bare conductors to high-tension compartments. Circuit- 
breakers are installed for these conductors at the inlets in 
the basement, at the remote-cont 1 oil switches and at the 
point where the lines branch off to the duplicate busbar 
system. The incoming high-tension cables are also sepa- 



[Vol. XLII, No. i. 

rately connected to the two sets of busbars, consequently 
one high-tension circuit can be operated while the other 
is out of service. The remote-control oil switches can be 
operated by hand when necessary, but ordinarily they are 
actuated from the main switchboard by relays on a 110- 
volt d.c. circuit. 

The high-tension busbar compartments are placed in a 
two-level room behind the switchboard gallery in two rows 

Electric liy.Joumal 

Hamburg Power — Cross-Section of Substation Built Along 
and Above Underground Railway 

with an ample gangway between. The barriers are built 
up of Duro asbestos plates. A particularly interesting fea- 
ture is that the base of each cell is finished in tile with a 
miniature dike at the front to prevent burning oil from 
flowing over into the aisle. The switchboard is also com- 
posed of Duro asbestos, but to give a better appearance 
this material is surfaced with Dutch tile. 

In addition to the high-tension equipment the power sta- 
tion has two 40-kw synchronous motor-generator sets to 
generate no volts direct current for emergency lighting 
and remote-control operation. The secondaries of these 
sets are connected to two three-phase transformers which 
supply the carhouse and shops with power and lighting cur- 
rent at 220 volts. The d.c. supply at no volts is reinforced 
by a storage battery having 972 amp-hr. capacity on a 
three-hour discharge basis. A 5-kw asynchronous motor- 
generator set is also installed to deliver 220 volts d.c. for 
the block signals. 

sion and battery compartments are above the subway. Ampie 
natural illumination is received through roof lights, as is 
apparent from the accompanying halftone view of the in- 
terior. While the lighting, therefore, offered no particular 
trouble, careful attention had to be given toward obtain- 
ing ample ventilation by mechanical means. The suction 
and filtering ends of the ventilation ducts are placed on the 
tunnel side, while the tower through which the exhausted 
air passes leads to the street. Furthermore, the battery 
room can be separately exhausted so that no fumes can 
enter the converter room. The interior view of this station 
shows the same neat tiled-wall treatment as in the case of 
the generating station. The Heilwigstrasse station is of 
similar construction, but it was built somewhat like a 
private dwelling in order to provide living quarters for the 
substation operator. Both substations are equipped with 
a crane. 

Each substation now contains three 6000-volt cascade 
motor-generator sets of 1000-kw capacity, with a fourth 
set for each substation already ordered; two Pirani sets, 
each consisting of a 185-hp asynchronous 6ooo-A^o't motor, 
a double-commutator interpole booster and a direct-current 
exciter with differential switching connections, and an 
accumulator of 386 cells with a capacity of 1258 amp-hr. 
on a one-hour discharge basis. 

The choice of cascade sets was dictated largely by the 
consideration that they could be connected directly to the 
6000-volt circuit. Their dimensions are smaller than 
equivalent motor-generators or rotary converters, because 
with a like number of poles one-half of the work is done 
by the asynchronous three-phase motor, which operates 
half as transformer and half as motor, and the other half 
of the work is done by the d.c. commutating-pole genera- 
tor, which serves half as a rotary converter and half as a 
generator. The rotor of the motor has a twelve-phase 
winding and is mounted on the same shaft as the armature 
of the generator, which has only two bearings. The poles 
of the motor have a damper winding. The motor is started 
on the three-phase side by means of fixed rotor resistances 
which are automatically cut out at synchronism by means of 

Electric Ey.Journat 

Hamburg Power — Cross-Section of Subway, Showing Wall Brackets for Cables, Location of Third-Rail and Walkway 

and Details of Conduit Trough 


Energy is transmitted to two substations, one at Haupt- 
bahnhof and the other at .Heilwigstrasse. The first sta- 
tion is rather unique in that it is located below the street 
level alongside and also over the underground railway. 
The cross-section of the substation jhows that the converter 
room is parallel to the right-of-way and that the high-ten- 

a centrifugal switch and are then short-circuited by hand. 

The load on the motor-generator sets is greatly equalized 
by the use of Pirani battery control so that the variations in 
voltage, even under the worst peak conditions, are very 
small. During the day the batteries are used merely to 
equalize loads but during the late night and early morn- 
ing hours they are capable of handling the entire traction 


July 5, 1913.] 



oad and of furnishing the necessary additional lighting, 
it is very simple to change to these different purposes 
merely by changing the regulation of the Pirani machines. 
Owing to their importance the Pirani sets were installed 
in duplicate. 

The control gear of all high-tension 
equipments is mounted on trucks 
which are separated by concrete walls 
so that all apparatus can be safely 
inspected by moving the truck away 
from its fixed connections. Auto- 
matic oil switches are used both for 
the cascade sets and for the incoming- 
high-tension lines. 

A second battery with a capacity of 
199 amp-hr. on the seven-hour dis- 
charge basis furnishes current at 220 
volts for block signals, remote-control 
and emergency lighting. A novel fea- 
ture of the battery equipments is the 
use of a portable charging equipment. 
This consists of a 220-volt, 4.5-volt 
motor-generator set with accompany- 
ing switching panel. At present all 
substation circuit-breakers are set for 
a maximum of 2500 amp. 

The Hauptbahnhof substation is 
furnished with a portable air com- 
pressor and the Heilwigstrasse sta- 
tion with a stationary air compressor 
for blowing out machines, switches, 
etc. The Hauptbahnhof substation 

has room for three and the Heilwigstrasse station for two 
additional motor-generator sets. 

was reserved under the walkways for the feeder cables, 
and in some cases the cables are carried in a boxlike struc- 
ture. On stone viaducts the granite deck has been con- 
tinued with metal to form a cable trench. The return cir- 
cuit lines consist of bare copper cables. 

Hamburg Power — Subterranean Substation Built Alongside and Over the 


The third-rail is of the under-contact type similar to the 
Sprague-Wilgus design. It is carried from porcelain insu- 
lators at intervals of about 16 ft. and is protected with 
wooden boards. A leather washer is installed between the 
porcelain insulator and the rail to minimize vibrations. 
The contactor rail in the tunnel sections is about 2 in. 
lower than in the open sections, so that light is auto- 
matically cut in by the downward movement of the collector 
shoes. The rail consists of cast iron with 0.3 per cent 
manganese and 0.1 per cent carbon with a cross-section of 
280 sq. in. 

Hamburg Power — Boiler Room at Barmbeck 


The locations for the low-tension d.c. cable runs from 
the substations to the third-rail were planned with great 
care. On viaducts and bridges particularly ample space 


The Memphis Street Railway Company, Memphis, Tenn., 
has made an exceptional armature-winding record for the 
past four years. The company operates approximately 300 
cars and found it necessary to wind only seventeen arma- 
tures in 1910, twenty-five in 191 1, twenty-two in 1912 and 
none to June 1, 1913. In explanation of this record, A. B. 
McWhorter, master mechanic, states that it is due to co- 
operation between the mechanical department and the mo- 
tormen, careful daily inspection and care in winding. 

The company winds its own coils, dips and bakes them. 
After they are baked they are not allowed to harden before 
being used, but are placed in the armature core when the 
insulating paint is soft and pliable. After an armature is 
wound it is painted but not baked. Inspections of motors 
are made daily because the company's repair shop contains 
only two pits and it is not considered practicable to make 
inspections on a mileage bnsis. In consequence all cars arc 
run over these two pits every night, and in case a defect is 
found which might resuli in armature trouble at any time, 
the car is taken out of s cice and repair- made immediately. 

All inspections at t repair shops .rid the division car- 
houses are made by i rained inspec'. rs. These men are 
taken from the regular car crews, th transfer being in the 
form of a pt®rnotion, After a two weeks' course in the 
shops in armature inspection and repair, the student in- 
spectors receive a written examii uion, and those passing 
the test are put to work as regular inspectors. 



rVoL. XLII, No. i. 

Train Operation for City Service 

The Pu})lic Service Railway of New Jersey Has Been Conducting a Series of Tests for the Purpose of Determining 
Whether the Operation of Two-Car Trains in City Service Is Practicable and Desirable, 
and a Number of the Recorded Observations Are Published 

As is well known, the conditions in the city of Newark 
are peculiarly severe in the limitations which they impose 
upon the local transportation system. They have, in fact, 
become so difficult to meet on account of the rapid growth 
of the surrounding communities that the rush-hour traffic 
upon some of the lines approaches the point where con- 
gestion prevents the operation of sufficient cars to meet 
the requirements, and as the use of two-car trains offered 

all platforms and Tomlinson radial couplers. The motors 
were of the interpole type, with multiple-unit control. The 
air-brake equipment on all cars was of the General Electric 
straight-air type with emergency feature and quick service 


The tests were carried out on the Central, Orange, South 
Orange, Bloomfield, Springfield and Broad Street lines. 

Table I — Characteristics of Lines 













Per Cent 


per Hr. 

ent l\u ■ 

way at 

1 1 A.M., 




South Orange 

Bloomfield . . . 
Springfield. . . 


Penn. R. R. . . 
Penn. R. R. . . 
Penn. R. R . . . 
E. Ferry St. . . 
Magazine St . . , 
E. Ferry St. . . 
Penn. R. R. . . 
Penn. R. R. . 
South St 

South St 

Irvington (In) . 
Big Tree (Out) 

East Orange.. 
West Orange . 
City Line. . . . 
South Orange 
South Orange 
Montclair. . . . 




Big Tree.. 

7 .39 
10. 73 









Munn Ave .... 
Harrison Ave. . 
Seventh St ... . 

Center St 

Center St 

Center St 

Montclair C. H 

Sunset Ave 



Nineteenth St . 
Nineteenth St . 

1 .88 
5 . 72 

5 .63 


11 .53 
11 .35 



31 .2 
29. 1 
24. 1 

31 .9 

32 .9 


1 .89 

1 .96 

2 .12 

3 .08 
1 .88 








♦Rush hour. ♦♦Includes cars to all terminals. 

a possible solution to a part of this problem, the Public 
Service Railway has conducted during the past nine 
months a series of tests to determine the possibilities in this 
method of operation. 


The following table shows the principal dimensions and 
equipment of the four-motor cars which were used in the 

For the benefit of those not familiar with these routes, a 
brief discussion of their characteristics is given in the fol- 
lowing paragraphs: 

The Central, Orange, South Orange and Springfield 
lines are more or less similar in that they all have rather 
heavy grades soon after leaving the business center of 
Newark, while beyond the city line the rise is gradual 
and is broken by down grades. The Bloomfield line has 



J 300 











5 6 7 8 9 


Newark Tests — Profiles of Typical Lines 




2 3 

Motor Cars 

Length over bumpers 46 ft. 4 in. 

44 ft. 4 in. 
8 ft. 1 in. 

Width over all 8 ft. 7 in. 

Seating capacity 44 

Type of motors West. 307 C-A 

Motor rating 40-50 hp. 

Gear ratio ■ 18 :66 

Type of control West. ILL. 

Type of trucks Stand. C-50-P Peck'm 14 B-3 

Total weight 48,700 32,800 

All of the cars under test were of the double-end pre- 
payment type and equipped with hand-operated doors on 

heavy up grades a large portion of the way to the Mont- 
clair carhouse and steep up grades and down grades from 
that point to the end of the line in Caldwell. The Broad 
Street line differs from the others in that it is a through 
route running beyond the city limits in both directions. 
The grades on the southerly end are more gradual than 
those on the other lines, while the north end is compara- 
tively level. The short portions of the South Orange and 
Springfield lines east of the business district do not alter- 
the character of these lines so much. Approximate profiles 

July 5, 1913.] 


of the Central and Bloomfield lines are shown in the ac- tory beyond. The Bloomfield line, after leaving Newark, 

companying cuts. 

The Central line, after leaving the business section of 
Newark, passes through a small factory district and then 
runs through a good residential section, well built up all 
of the way to the end of the line. The Orange line is simi- 

passes through the business centers and residential sec- 
tions of Bloomfield and Montclair with transfer points in 
each. It also serves the small towns of Glen Ridge, Ve- 
rona and Caldwell and has more or less free running terri- 
tory between towns. The Broad Street line runs through 

Table II — Central Line 

Trip Mileage 

Single Car: 

Out 4.27 

In 4.15 

Out 4.27 

Out 4.27 

In 4.15 

Out 4.27 

In 4.15 

In 4.15 

In .■ 4.15 

Out 4.27 

Out 4.27 

In 4.15 

Out 4.27 

Out 4.27 

In 4.15 

Out 4.27 

In i 4.15 

In 4.15 

In 4.15 

Out 4.27 

Out 4.27 

Out 4.27 

In 4.15 

Out 4.27 

Out 4.27 

Multiple-Unit Train: 

In 4.15 

Out 4.27 

Out 4.27 

In 4.15 

Out 4.27 

In 4.15 

In 4.15 

Out 4.27 

Out 4.27 







Net Time 
Gained ( + ) 


Lost ( — ) in 

+ 4.66 
+ 0.75 
+ 1.25 
+ 2.69 
+ 0.75 
+ 3.32 
+ 5.07 

+ 1.16 
+ 1.26 
+ 4.00 



— 4.85 


-Boarding N 

Terminal Line 

















Stopped in 
(Exc. of 




, 325 






per Car 







per Ton 

0.136 : 
0.151 . 
0.185 J 


Oct. 22, 1912 
Weather — Cloudy 
Kail — Good 

Oct. 23, 
Weather — Rain 
Kail— Wet 


Oct. 24, 1912 
Weather — 

A. M. — Showers 
P. M. — Light showers 
f Rail— 

A. M. — Fair 
P. M. — Pad 

M. — 

0.157 1 Oct. 22, 1912 

0.214 J. Weather— A. M.— Fair. P. 
0.275 J Cloudy. Rail— Good 

] Oct. 23, 1912 

0.207 I Weather — A. M. — Rain 
0.216 f P. M.— Rain 

J Rail— Wet 
0.210 1 Oct. 24, 1912 

0.202 1 Weather — A. M. — Showers 
0.240 ( P. M. — Cloudy, light showers 
0.217 J Rail— A. M. — Fair. P. M. — Bad 

lar to the Central line in the city of Newark, but in addi- 
tion to serving a residential section, it passes through the 
business centers of East Orange and Orange. There are 
three transfer points on this line in Orange and West 
Orange. These factors tend to increase the number of 
short riders. 

good residential sections at both end and passes few stores 
outside of the center of Newark. 

The passenger counts made on some of the heavier after- 
noon trips have been plotted in Tables II to VII, which 
will give an idea of the distribution of traffic on the differ- 
ent lines. The length, average grade and other character- 


Net Time 
Gained ( + ) 

or r 
Lost ( — ) in 


—Boarding , 







+ 0.50 








+ 0.38 
























+ 2.77 




+ 0.57 




































+ 1.62 







Table III — Orange Line 

Total Time 
Stopped in 
(Exc. of 






Kw-hr Kw-hr 
per Car per Ton 
Mile Mile 












0.171 >| 












0.113 " 









0.204 J 



0.183 1 






0.222 y 



0.116 , 



0.168 J 



0.122 1 






0.155 I 



0.179 r 






0.216 J 


Nov. 6, 1912 
Weather — 

A. M.— Cloudy 

P. M.— Fair 

A. M. — Sanded 

P. M.— Good 

Nov. 7, 1912 

Weather — 


A. M. — Sanded 
P. M. — Wet, good 

Nov. 6, 1912 
Weather — A. M. — Cloudy 

P. M.— Fair 
Rail— A. M.— Sanded 
P. M.— Good 

Nov. 7, 1912 
Weather — A. M. — Lisht rain 

P. M.— Rain 
Rail— A. M.— Sanded 
P. M. — Good 

Trip Mileage 

Single Car: 

In 6.45 

Out 6.57 

In 6.45 

In 6.45 

Out 6.57 

In 6.45 

Out 6.57 

In 6.45 

Out 6.57 

In 6.45 

Out 6.57 

In 6.45 

Out 6.57 

In 6.45 

Out 6.57 

Multiple-Unit Train: 

In 6.45 

In 6.45 

Out 6.57 

In 6.45 

Out 6.57 
















+ 0.22 






+ 2.27 















The Springfield and South Orange lines operate at their 
eastern ends through a level factory section. After leav- 
ing the business district of Market Street, both lines run 
through a mixed business and residential district to the 
western city line and through a less thickly settled terri- 

istics of the lines under rush-hour conditions, which were 
calculated from the data of the test, are shown in Table I. 


As it was desired to investigate the performances of the 
trains under the most severe conditions, most of the ob- 



[Vol. XL1I, No. i. 


; e o 

July 5, 1913.] 





Vol. XLII, No. r. 

servations were made during the morning and evening rush 
hours. The average time of observation was two days for 
each combination of equipment per line. The largest num- 
ber of observations was made on the Central line, as this 
line appeared to present the best field for purposes of com- 

the rush hours. Considerable difficulty existed in filling 
the trains owing to their comparative novelty, and for this 
reason the summaries include only those trips where the 
loads were in excess of forty passengers per car. 


One of the first questions in the consideration of train 

Table IV — South Okange Line 

Net Time 

Total Time 



Gained ( + ) 


Stopped in 




, Boarding v 







Lost ( — ) in 


(Exc. of 


per Car 

per Ton 











Single Car: 



— 1.75 


1 10 



. 8.82 


+ 7.30 







Nov. 15, 1912 

. 8.78 









> Weather — Clear 


7 39 


10 47 




1 1 76 



i\au — \j. iv. 




+ 5. '20 






0.129 J 


. 5.03 


+ 0.72 






0.172 | 

Nov. 16, 1912 
Weather — Clear 
Rail — Good 






















. 5.48 








0.198 , 

Multiple-Unit Train: 



+ 0.38 






0.133 ' 

Nov. 12, 1912 





















r Weather — Clear 


. 6.66 








0.182 , 

| Rail— O. K. 










0.143 ~ 

1 Nov. 13, 1912 




—3.60 - 







V Weather— Fair. Rail— A. M — 










0.204 , 

) Sanded, fair. P. M.— O. K. 
Nov. 14, 1912 


. 8.82 








0.170 1 

, Weather— A. M.— Cloudy. P. M. 











f — Cloudy, rain. Rail — A. M. — 
Wet sanded. P. M.— Bad. 

Motor Car and Trailer 


] 4.01 









Nov. 15, 1912 











Weather— Clear. Rail— O. K. 

Among the observations taken, the term "external de- 
lays" covers the time stopped because of interference of 
other cars and vehicles and other unusual conditions. The 
time required for passenger movement at each platform 
was taken from the time the car came to a dead stop and 
the door was open until the last passenger boarding or 

operation is whether trains will require a longer running 
time than single cars. In the tables will be found a 
column devoted to schedule adherence. For the sake of 
comparison all trips on these tables were checked against 
the normal running time outside of the rush hours, and the 
difference gave the time gained or lost on the trip as com- 

Table V — Bloom field Line 

Trip Mileage 

Single Car: 



Out ' 








Out 10.73 



Out 10.73 

Multiple-Unit Train: 






Out 10.73 

Multiple Car and Trailer 










Net Time 
Gained ( + ) 


Lost ( — ) in 


-Boarding ^ 

Terminal Line 

Total Time 
Stopped in 
( Exc. of 


Kw-hr Kw-hr 
per Car per Ton 




















+ 0.20 
































































+ 1.39 
















+ 1.90 






in 73 


















+ 1.65 








+ 3.30 
























+ 1.10 















0.205 1 
0.138 J 





0.179 -| 

0.183 I 

0.096 J 







Nov. 18, 1912 
Weather — Clear 
Rail— O. K. 

Nov. 19, 1912 
Weather — Clear 
Rail— O. K. 

Nov. 20, 1912 
Weather — Clear 
Rail— O. K. 



Nov. 19, 1912 
Weather — Clear 
Rail— O. K. 

Nov. 20, 1912 
Weather — Clear 
Rail— O. K. 





















+ 0.50 












3'. 6 4 
















6 86 










0.1 14 

Nov. 22, 
Weather — Clear 
Rail— O. K. 

Dec. 4, 
Weather — Clear 
Rail— O. K. 

Jan. 7, 
Weather — Rain 
Rail — Good 

Dec. 5, 
Weather — Clear 
Rail— O. K. 




alighting was clear of the step. The word "trip" is used 
throughout to mean the run from one end of the line to the 
other, not a round trip. The total number of observations 
was in the neighborhood of 225,000, but, as before men- 
tioned, only part of these are published, including, how- 
ever, all data bearing directly upon train operation during 

pared with this uniform running time. The time lost in 
extra stops or delays in starting, due to interference of 
wagons or other cars or other causes external to the regu- 
lar operation of the car or train, was subtracted from time 
lost or added to time gained, and the final result for each 
trip appears under the heading "Net Time Gained or Lost." 

July 5, 1913.] 




A number of observations were made at the corner of 
Broad and Market Streets, Newark, and these showed that 
the average time required for a train to pass across was 
twenty seconds, (i. e., from the time the front of the first 
car reached the crosswalk on the near side until the rear 
of the second car cleared the cross-walk on the far side). 

sion meant a large percentage error in the result. The 
readings were necessarily hurried in many cases so as not 
to inconvenience passengers. It should also be remembered 
that the number of stops is a very large factor in the power 
consumption, while it depends a great deal also on the rao- 
torman. These factors all help to explain the wide varia- 
tion in some of the results. 

Table VTI — Broad Street Line 

Net Time 

Total Time 


Gained ( + ) 

1 'asscng 


Stopped in 




, Boarding * 






Lost ( — ) in 


( Fxc. of 


per Car 

per Ton 











Single Car: 



— 4.G0 










— 0.90 
















































Multiple-Unit Train: 























0". i 8 i 












, 7.75 
































. 47 





Motor Car and Trailer 






























Nov. 25, 1912 
Weather — A. M. — Clear 

P. M — Cloudy 
Rail— A. M.— Good. P. M. — Fair. 
Nov. 26, 1912 
U)i y Weather — C lear 
215 J Rail— O. K. 

Nov. 25, 
Weather — Clear 
Rail— A. M— O. K 
P. M.— Fair 

Nov. 26, 
Weather — Clear 
Track— O. K. 




Jan. 4, 1913 

-v_iear. kan — 


1 Jan. 6, 1913 

\- Weather — Cloudy 
J Rail — Not good, sanded 

Similar observations for two single cars crossing one after 
the other showed an average of 27.1 seconds, or a dif- 
ference of 7.1 seconds. If this represented the time in- 
terval between two cars, and the same interval was" al- 
lowed ahead of the first car in each case, the time for the 
trains would be 27.1 seconds, against 34.2 seconds for two 
single cars, or a saving of 20.8 per cent. 

In computing the power consumption per ton mile the 
passenger load was taken into account as follows : For 
each line a heavy trip was selected and the passenger load 
plotted. From this plot the average load for the trip was 
determined and expressed in per cent of the total number 
of passengers carried. This factor was then used to cal- 
culate the average load for all trips between the same 

Table VII- 

—Broad Street Line 

Net Time 

Total Time 


Gained (-)-) 



Stopped in 




, Boarding \ 






Lost ( — ) in 


(Exc. of 


per Car 

per Ton 












Single Car: 




+ 0.33 






0.171 "I 

Dec. 4, 1912 




+ 5.00 







Weather — A. M. — Cloudy 




+ 1.52 






0.137 1 

P. M. — Clear 











" Rail — A. M. — Fair 











P. M. — O. K. 










0.160 J 










0.165 1 

Dec. 5, 1912 




+ 2.85 







Weather — A. M. — Cloudy 




+ 2.50 







■ r P. M. — Clear , 1 











Rail— (?) 










0.154 J 

Multiple-Unit Train : 










0.151 1 

Nov. 27, 1912 











y Weather — Clear 









I Rail— O. K. 










0.209 ' 

1 Nov. 29, 1912 




+ 1.75 







[ Weather— Clear 











|" Rail— O. K. 










0.175 „ 










0.159 " 




+ 3.58 







Nov. 30, 1912 




+ 1.12 







l r Weather — Clear 




+ 1.25 







Rail— Good 










0. 1 48 ., 

Motor Car and Trailer 











Dec. 7, 1912 











Weather— Clear. Rail— O. K. 











Tan. 4, 1913 




+ 0.05 







1 Weather— Clear. Rail— O. K. 











Tan. 8, 1913 


. 9.83 









Weather— Rain. Rail — Fair. Wet 


For comparison of the power consumption of the dif- 
ferent equipments, wattmeters were placed on the cars and 
readings taken at each terminal. The smallest division on 
the scale of the wattmeter dial was 5 kw-hr., while the 
difference between readings on some trips was little more 
than this. Hence a mistake in estimating parts of a divi- 

terminals, the average weight per passenger being taken as 
150 lb. 


The present method of coupling includes the following 
operations: removing fender, interlocking couplers, open- 
ing cut-out cocks in air pipes, pulling down trolleys, insert- 
ing cable jumpers, replacing trolley and fastening safety 



[Vol. XLII, No. i. 

chains. This was found to require as much as two minutes, 
but with practice and careful assignment of duties to eacn 
man it could probably be done in a shorter time, and it tlie 
necessity for removing fenders could be obviated by the 
use of wheel guards or some other device, this time would 
be materially reduced. If trains are to be made up on the 
road, however, a definite allowance for coupling must be 
made in the timetable. 


The results show that, aside from any question of operat- 
ing cost, the use of trains is entirely practicable in con- 
gested city service such as obtains in Newark. That is 
to say, the tests demonstrated that the riding public ac- 
cepted the arrangement at once without objection, and no 
difficulties were experienced through interference of the 
long two-car units with vehicular traffic. The observations 
as taken indicate that the train carrying a large number of 
passengers makes a greater number of stops per trip than 
a single car. For a given total number of passengers the 
number of stops is practically the same whether the load 
is carried by one car or two. This might be expected, as 
people will board and alight at the same points regardless 
of the method by which they are transported. The rate of 
increase in the number of stops is, however, by no means 
directly proportional to the number of passengers. Instead, 
it falls off rapidly as the loads become heavy. In other 
words the number of stops per trip tends to become con- 
stant or independent of the number of passengers pro- 
vided the total number carried is sufficiently great. On 
none of the test lines in Newark is this point reached 
within the capacity of the two-car train, but the tendency 
was so strongly marked when both cars of the train were 
comfortably filled that the train made only about one more 
stop per mile than each car would have made had they been 
run singly. 

The loading time per passenger will be found to be ap- 
proximately the same on the train and on the single car, 
indicating that the time lust through the transmission of 
bell signals, through the unequal distribution of passengers 
between the two cars and through the necessity for the 
single exit of the rear car was just about offset by the fact 
that the train provided two entrances for the total number 
of passengers boarding as against the single entrance of 
the single car. 

It is, however, a fact except on two of the lines tested, 
namely. Central and Orange, that both the public and train 
crews were unfamiliar with train operation. This, it is be- 
lieved, influenced adversely the running time of the trains 
as compared with s'ngle cars. 

Based upon equivalent passenger loads the observations 
show that the use of trailers causes a serious slowing down 
of schedule speeds — much more than enough, in fact, to 
offset the inherent savings. This is undoubtedly due to the 
fact that the four ^0-50-hp motors' geared 18:66 were not 
sufficient to haul a trailer weighing 32,800 lb. when both 
cars in the train were heavily loaded. 


At a meeting of the Electric Club of Chicago on June 
26, 1913, Frank Hedley, vice-president and general man- 
ager of the Interborough Rapid Transit Company, New 
York City, discussed problems of transportation as found 
in New York. Before reading his paper Mr. Hedley said 
that between the attacks of the daily newspapers on public 
utilities and the efforts of politicians to regulate them 
street railway development in recent years has been stifled. 
Now, however, a turning point has been reached, for in 
New York by the aid of the Public Service Commission, 
which understands the problems, the city and the trans- 
portation lines have been brought into .partnership. As a 

solution of similar questions in other cities, the owners of 
the properties and the city officials should get together and 
deal fairly and frankly with each other, with the result 
that public utilities would obtain a fairer treatment. 

In his paper Mr. Hedley reviewed the development of 
transportation in New York, making special reference to 
the New York Railways' street car parade, which gave 
publicity to the rapid advance in modes of transportation 
since i860. He also briefly described the low-step, center- 
entrance car now in use in New York and made special 
mention of the fact that it had practically eliminated board- 
ing and alighting accidents. In discussing the effect of the 
peculiar physical formation of Manhattan Island upon 
transportation thereon, he said that the New York Rail- 
ways' lines carry about 1,200,000 passengers daily, the great 
majority of whom, particularly on weekdays, move in a 
southerly direction in the morning and in a northerly direc- 
tion at night, and in each instance in about two hours time, 
which causes great congestion in lower Manhattan during 
these hours. Even with such congestion, however, his. 
company has a record for the year ended June 30, 1912, of 
one collision to 7000 car miles operated. These figures 
include collisions of every character, and the total amount 
of money paid in claims represents approximately 3 per 
cent of the gross income. This excellent record is attrib- 
uted to watchfulness on the part of the trainmen. Mr. 
Medley emphasized the fact that the management of 21.000- 
employees required in the operation of the surface, subway 
and elevated lines, as well as properly maintaining 4500 
cars, was no small task in itself. 

The latter portion of Mr. Hedley's address dealt with 
facts ' concerning the elevated and subway lines of New 
York City. At the time the subway was opened in 1904 
the interval run was two and one-half minutes with eight- 
car express trains, and now ten-car express trains are run 
on a minimum interval of a minute and forty-eight sec- 
onds, at a speed of 25 m.p.h., including stops, thus increas- 
ing the capacity over the initial operation about 72 per 

The movement to the outlying districts has greatly en- 
hanced the value of real estate there. As an example Mr. 
Hedley cited Staten Island and the Bronx, one 5 miles, 
and the other 15 miles from the lower business section of 
New York City. Since 1903, when the assessed valuation 
of real estate in the Bronx was $226,596,647, there has 
been a gradual increase until in 1912 the realty was assessed 
at $616,521,378. Realty values on Staten Island, however, 
have remained stationary for more than 100 years, owing 
to the fact that it has only ferry-boat transportation means, 
while the other has surface, elevated and subway lines. 

In conclusion Mr. Hedley said that in many communities 
ill-advised legislation has done much to direct capital into 
other channels, and the public cannot expect public utilities 
to develop as they should until such time as they can be 
made attractive for the investment of private capital. In 
his eyes, one of the. most important duties of railroad man- 
agers and owners to-day was to see to it that their side of 
the question is brought to the public's attention and to- 
establish the fact in the public mind that investors who 
put their money in public service corporations are entitled 
to the same fair treatment that the investors in other legit- 
imate business should and do receive. 

On the subject of the Public Service Commission, First- 
District, Mr. Hedley made this interesting comment: "I 
have to admit that they have entertained me for the last 
six years, but in my opinion they have done a great deal 
in New York to bring about the solution of our rapid 
transit problem. After about six years of experience with 
the Public Service Commission in New York, I do not hesi- 
tate in stating my firm belief in a commission that has 
power to regulate in a manner to provide adequate, rea- 
sonable and proper operation, together with the control of 
issuing necessary and proper securities." 


Proceedings of C. E. R. A. Convention 

A Full Account of the Technical Sessions Hehl on the Steamer "St. Ignaee" Last Wet!: by the Central Electric Railway 

Association and the Central Electric Railway Accountants' Association 

The meeting and trip of the Central Electric Railway 
Association on board the steamer St. Ignace, of the Detroit 
& Cleveland Navigation Company, were mentioned briefly in 
the telegraphic report published in last week's issue of the 
Electric Railway Journal. A more extended account of 
the proceedings of the two sessions of the Central Electric 
Railway Association and of the meeting of the Central 
Railway Accountants' Association, which were held on the 
steamer, is published herewith. 

President Arthur W. Brady called the meeting of the 
Railway Association to order in the main cabin at 9:30 
o'clock on the morning of June 26. A. L. Neereamer. the 
secretary, read the minutes of the previous meeting, which 
were approved. 

R. N. Hemming, Union Traction Company of Indiana, 
chairman of the standardization committee, presented the 
report of that committee, an abstract of which is published 
on another page in this issue. 

After Mr. Hemming finished President Brady asked if 
the members had received blueprints of the designs recom- 
mended by the committee. 

Mr. Hemming thought the members might like to vote 
separately on the questions considered in the report, par- 
ticularly as the committee recommended controlling di- 
mensions for trolley wheels as standard. 

President Brady said that the report was a valuable one 
and he assumed that it would be wise to have it receive 
the careful consideration of the members with a view to 
definite action at a subsequent meeting. 

E. F. Schneider, general manager Cleveland, Southwest- 
ern & Columbus Railway, moved that the report be ac- 
cepted and a copy of the recommendations be sent to indi- 
vidual members for final action at the next meeting. This 
motion was adopted. 

F. E. Wynne, engineering department Westinghouse 
Electric & Manufacturing Company, then read a paper on 
"Recent Development in Car Control." An abstract of this 
paper is published elsewhere in this issue. 

Mr. Hemming said that the paper was a complete dis- 
cussion of the subject and voiced the consensus of opinion 
of almost every man in the operating department concern- 
ing the desired effect. 

Answering a question, Mr. Wynne said that at times it 
was possible to obtain lighter and cheaper equipment with 
field control because the next smaller size of motors could 
be used than the size that would be needed without field 


Robert B. Rifenberick, consulting engineer Detroit United 
Railway, then read a paper on "Something Along the Line 
of Physical and Intangible Valuation as Covered by Recent 
Legislation." An abstract of this paper was published in 
last week's issue, page n 63. 

President Bradv, in opening the discussion, said that 
the paper was very valuable and interesting. 

Charles L. Henry, president Indianapolis & Cincinnati 
Traction Company, said he had been delighted with the 
paper and the treatment of the subject. How were the 
companies to meet the question before them? There was 
nothing more mysterious and troublesome to Mr. Henry's 
mind than this topic. There was more mud around the sub- 
ject of valuation than any other thing that was ever seen. 
Referring to the Indiana bill, Mr. Henry said that he felt 
that the clause about the cost of bringing the properties to 
a state of efficiency was very important. The companies 

felt, as Mr. Rifenberick did, that that furnished an oppoi- 
tunity for means for determination of the actual values of 
properties. No limitation was imposed on the powers of 
the commission excepting the additional statement that that 
part of the valuation was to be taken into consideration. 

Mr. Henry added that he had been disturbed on the ques- 
tion of depreciation, but the paper gave a good idea of 
that subject. If depreciation was to be taken into account 
on one side of the balance sheet, the causes of depreciation 
should be taken into account on the other side. The most 
important feature of the question of valuation to-day was 
that the companies must make up their minds that they had 
to face it. They might as well get ready to meet it. He 
regretted that the recent decision of the United States 
Supreme Court did not bear out the views of the author 
of the paper in all details, but if depreciation was con- 
sidered as a factor the whole of the question must also be 
considered. Mr. Henry felt a little more favorable toward 
the bill passed by Congress than did the author of the 
paper. As the bill was passed by the House it contained 
provisions for physical valuation only. As amended in the 
Senate the bill provided for the determination of values 
other than physical and the title of the bill also had been 
changed. When the bill was taken as an entirety it was 
an admission, fact or argument that all these factors must 
be taken into consideration. When a valuation was made 
what was to be done with it? Some declared that in rate- 
making the question would be as to what rate would be low 
enough merely to avoid confiscation. It was not a question 
of how close it was possible to come to stealing and still 
not steal ; there ought to be a reasonable compensation. 
This statement should be taken broadly. How could the 
country secure the construction of its needed utilities unless 
it did grant a reasonable compensation? Did it expect to 
induce men to put capital into the properties and then make 
the rate so low that it would just avoid confiscation? The 
money would never be forthcoming if the country forbade 
any margin above a confiscatory rate of return. People 
talked about the gifts of government land when the great 
transcontinental railroads were built. These great enter- 
prises involved large risks in their inception and the public 
got more, tenfold, than was given away in land. 

F. D. Carpenter, vice-president and general manager 
Western Ohio Railway, said that the companies should face 
the question of valuation. The paper had given more light 
on the subject than he had ever had before. 

President Brady said that by reason of the action of 
Congress under the La Follette bill valuation was compul- 
sory. It was important that provision was made in the bill 
for the consideration of various factors or elements of 

Mr. Rifenberick said he thought that the decision of the 
United States Supreme Court in the Minnesota rate cases 
threw the burden of the entire subject on Congress rather 
than on the Interstate Commerce Commission. 

Mr. Brady said that the subject was in such a misty and 
shadowy form that it was difficult to tell just what the 
courts would finally decide. There was still a hope in the 
situation. The subject was one of the live topics before the 
industry and one of the lines of work in which the Central 
Electric Railwav Association could be of immense value to 
its members from time to time. 


E. F. Schneider, general manager Cleveland, Southwest- 
ern & Columbus Railway, then read a paper on "The 


[Vol. XLII, No. i. 

Claims Department." An abstract of this paper is published 
elsewhere in this issue. 

Mr. Henry said that he had great faith in both attorneys 
and physicians. He though that no class of business men 
in the country ranked higher in character than members 
of the legal profession. He felt that the physicians re- 
lieved suffering. 

The meeting was then adjourned until the following- 


E. F. Schneider, the vice-president, acted as chairman of 
the session held on the morning of June 27. President 
Brady expressed his regret that an unavoidable engagement 
made it imperative for him to return to his home before the 
conclusion of the trip. 

James H. Drew, president of the Drew Electric & Manu- 
facturing Company, of Indianapolis, Ind., read a paper on 
"The Manufacturer's Duty in the Electric Railway Field." 
An abstract of this paper is published elsewhere in this 

Mr. Schneider said that the railway men should recog- 
nize the work of the manufacturers and their representa- 
tives and the broad spirit which they held toward the 


H. E. Lavelle, Automatic Ventilator Company, presented 
a paper entitled "Ventilation of Electric Cars" along simi- 
lar lines to one presented by William J. Fleming of the 
same company before the Scranton meeting of the Key- 
stone Railway Club, Sept. 10, 1912, and published in the 
Electric Railway Journal for Sept. 14, 1912. Mr. 
Lavelle mentioned the ventilation requirements specified by 
various individuals and organizations and described the 
deck sash, exhaust ventilators, hot-air intake ventilation, 
floor-line intake roof exhaust and natural intake-and-ex- 
haust ventilation. Referring to the last he said that the 
volume of air handled by this device depended largely on the 
speed of the car. At a speed of 5 m.p.h. to 15 m.p.h., 
anemometer tests had shown from 25 cu. ft. to 100 cu. ft. 
per minute (intake and exhaust) per ventilator. At high 
speeds readings of 300 cu. ft. per minute had been taken. 
In a car of 1800 cu. ft. capacity six sets of ventilators 
averaging 50 cu. ft. per minute per ventilator would be 
changing the car air every six minutes, or ten times per 
hour. In a high-speed car of, say, 2400 cu. ft. capacity, 
six sets averaging 100 cu. ft. per minute would be renew- 
ing the air about every four minutes. This could be, and 
had been, accomplished, under severe winter conditions, with- 
out drafts and without reducing the car temperature below 
50 deg. Fahr. In conclusion Mr. Lavelle referred to the 
necessity of proper ventilation for arch-roof cars. 

Mr. Schneider said that one of the things to which tht 
country was looking forward was the matter of having 
ideal ventilation of cars without drafts. 

Mr. Carpenter said the problem of ventilation was im- 
portant and the companies should face it. He had started 
the use of ventilators and they had proved satisfactory. He 
found that the air was very much improved, by their use. 
For his personal satisfaction he tested the ventilators in a 
smoking compartment, filling this compartment with smoke 
and then opening two ventilators. In three minutes after- 
ward the air was nice and clear. The paper was very inter- 
esting to the railway managers. 

Mr.. Rifenberick mentioned the use of old-type open cars 
in Cleveland during the receivership. The cars were 
labeled "fresh-air cars" and were operated as trailers when 
there was great need for equipment and service in Cleve- 

Mr. Hemming said that the great problem was to intro- 
duce fresh air, to be able to keep out the exhaust and to 
keep out rain. Sometimes during rainstorms ventilators 
leaked so badly that water fell into the interior of the car. 

Types of ventilators with which this difficulty arose were 
in use on some of the steam railroads. It was manifest that 
steam railroad companies would not continue the use of 
these ventilators if they experienced the same trouble that 
had developed on interurban cars. It seemed, therefore, 
that there was a difference in the exhaust created by a 
single car operated on an interurban line and the exhaust 
created by a number of units operated in a train on a 
steam railroad. Perhaps the additional cars of the steam 
railroad train broke up the vacuum in such a way that 
moisture was not forced into the cars in case of rain, as he 
had found in the interurban cars. He thought that ventila- 
tor manufacturers had not gone into the subject deeply 
enough to meet the problem of ventilation of interurban 

Mr. Lavelle said that the problem had been a difficult one 
owing to the differences in car construction between 
interurban and steam cars. He said that there were great 
differences of opinion on the subject as evidenced by the 
views of Mr. Carpenter and Mr. Hemming. 

Mr. Hemming said he was afraid that the plan to intro- 
duce air under the seats would bring too much cold air into 
the car. 

Mr. Hemming said that he had raised the same question 
that Mr. Carpenter brought up in regard to the fresh-air 
intake. He was assured that there would not be too much 
air. He still feared, however, that too much cold air would 
be admitted. 


Mr. Hemming then brought up for the consideration of 
the association the subject of tungsten lamps without com- 
mercial value. He said that everybody appreciated that 
tungsten lamps were becoming more valuable as illuminat- 
ing factors in railway service. A number of different styles 
of lamps were in use on the various interurban roads. The 
number of wattages and voltages was enormous. The 
lamps had commercial value because they could be re- 
moved and used or sold. For that reason it had occurred to 
Mr. Hemming that a lamp of odd voltage not usable on any 
other circuit than an interurban car would be a great im- 
provement. The association should produce some standard 
voltage lamps. This would make a reduction in the cost 
of lamps as every road now suited its own whims in the 
selection of types. There was also the problem of inter- 
change in connection with lamps. One manager had put on 
special lamp sockets and these had been broken off in some 
cases. Fifty-watt lamps had been introduced on one road. 
It was a question whether that was what all of the com- 
panies wanted. At any rate what should be done was to 
develop and introduce a lamp without commercial value so 
far as the voltage was concerned. 

Mr. Carpenter said that it seemed as if this condition 
could be overcome by an arrangement with the manufac- 
turers to supply an odd-size thread on the socket so that 
the lamp could not be used in any other place than on the 
interurban cars. 

Mr. Schneider said that the association had a splendid 
standardization committee, and he thought the subject 
should be taken up by that committee. A motion was 
offered and carried referring the matter to the standardiza- 
tion committee for action. 

success of the meeting 

Mr. Carpenter then said that he had been connected with 
the association since its inception and had witnesssed its 
development to its present flourishing condition. There 
never had been a meeting in which the addresses were of 
more interest than at the present one, and never a meet- 
ing in which so much rest, comfort and pleasure had been 
afforded. He offered the following resolution, which was 
adopted : 

"Whereas the members of the General Electric Railwav 
Association, feeling that they have had one of the most 

July 5, 1913. 



profitable and valuable meetings in their history, desire to 
place on their permanent records an appreciation of the un- 
tiring efforts of their representatives who were charged 
with the duty of carrying out the wish expressed by the 
executive committee to take this trip, therefore be it 

"Resolved, that this association by formal vote express 
its sincere thanks to the members of the supply men's com- 
mittee for their part in this successful meeting." 

The next meeting will be held in Indianapolis on Nov. 
20, provided satisfactory arrangements can be made tbere. 


The route of the steamer City^of St. Ignacc, the meet- 
ing place of the two associations, was from Toledo, past 
Put-in-Bay and across Lake Erie to the Detroit River 
and Detroit, where a stop was made late in the evening 
of June 26. The route then was up the Detroit River 
and through Lake St. Clair and the St. Clair River to 
Lake Huron. A stop was made at Harbor Beach, 
Mich., where the United States government life-saving 
corps gave an exhibition for the members. From 
this point the steamer went north and into Lake Huron 
to a point about opposite the middle of Saginaw Bay, 
where the return trip was begun. The same route was 
followed except that the only stop made on the way 
back to Toledo was at Detroit. Toledo was reached about 
3 p. m. on June 27. 

A special car was operated by the Union Traction Com- 
pany of Indiana from Indianapolis to Toledo in connection 
with the trip of the Central Electric Railway Association. 


Members of the Central Electric Railway Accountants' 
Association held their meeting on June 26. The president, 
E. L. Kasemeier, presided. 

In the absence of any members of the standing freight 
committee the report prepared by this committee was read 
by the secretary, F. T. Loftus, auditor Indianapolis & Cin- 
cinnati Traction Company. An abstract of this report is 
published elsewhere in this issue. In the discussion on the 
report Mr. Kasemeier said that he had found it useful to 
use different colored inks in his records of cars. The re- 
port was accepted by the association and will be consid- 
ered in detail at the next meeting. 

The association instructed the secretary to confer with 
the secretary of the Central Electric Railway Association 
in reference to the question of the minimum charge per 
car. It was also recommended that a postal-card notice 
be sent to the auditor of a line owning a car when the 
car reached a foreign line. 

Secretary Loftus read the report of the query box com- 
mittee, which was published in last week's issue. Definite 
action on the report was deferred until the next meeting. 

The question of forms in use by different members of 
the association was brought up, and it was decided that in 
order to be accessible for easy reference the forms kept by 
the association should be held in the office of A. L. 
Neereamer, secretary of the Central Electric Railway Asso- 
ciation, at Indianapolis. The secretary will ask some of 
the members to assist this fall in the solicitation and classi- 
fication of new forms that may have been introduced by 
members since the last collection was made up. 

Mr. Loftus read the paper prepared by George L. Ford, 
auditor Evansville Railways, on "Voucher Indexing Sim- 
plified." This paper was published in last week's issue. 

Mr. Kasemeier described his use of loose-leaf ledgers 
for indices of vouchers. He said the books were 14 in. x 14 
in. and were indexed minutely. Three books were used 
having an aggregate of 1200 to 1500 pages. The records 
showed the month in which the voucher was recorded, 
the number and the amount. Vouchers were kept in boxes 
and it was possible to refer to them quickly. 

P. E. Schilling, chief clerk Toledo Railways & Light 
Company, said the company had adopted the separate check 

instead of the voucher check, lie thought that this was 
easier to handle. When the check was returned from 
the bank it was pasted on the voucher. 

J. N. Tabb, treasurer Parkersburg, Marietta & Inter- 
urban Railway, said that when he became connected with 
his company he found that a card index of vouchers had 
been maintained since the time the road started operation, 
but he did not find this entirely satisfactory. 

Mr. Kasemeier, answering a question as to whether it was 
necessary to show the amount in the index record, said he 
found it a great advantage. 

Waiter Shroyer, auditor Union Traction Company of 
Indiana, advocated the use of a book index. 

A. J. White, traveling auditor Ohio Electric Railway, 
read a paper on "Nuts to Crack." An abstract of this 
paper is published elsewhere in this issue. 

Mr. Kasemeier said that on account of the danger of 
misunderstanding on the part of agents he was preparing 
a book of instructions to agents. 

Walter Shroyer, chairman of the standing committee 
on passenger accounts, presented the report of that com- 
mittee. An abstract of this report is published elsewhere 
in this issue. During the discussion the members present 
agreed with the committee in reference to the form for 
ticket orders. The practice outlined in regard to ticket 
requisitions was a regular practice. The form of the ticket 
stock ledger was approved except that in some cases it was 
shown that this record was kept directly by the auditor. 
All the members had about the same form for agents' daily 
records of sales. The report of the committee on agents' 
daily summaries of sales showed that nearly all the com- 
panies received the information mentioned, but they did not 
all use the same form. One member present said he had 
discontinued the compilation of daily earnings by operating 
divisions. All of the companies used practically the same 
form of agent's cash book. In the compilation of monthly 
reports of local sales practically all the roads required the 
same information, but followed forms differing a little. 
The monthly report of interline sales followed the prac- 
tice of companies generally except that the Union Trac- 
tion Company of Indiana showed the junction point at 
which tickets were sold. The forms of agent's balance 
sheet, auditor's corrections and auditor's credit advice 
were found to be about the same on all roads. Some of 
the roads did not have a regular printed form for the 
auditor's record of distribution of sales. All of the roads 
used the auditor's report of daily earnings, although one 
company did not compile earnings by operating divisions. 
A number of the companies reported that they did not 
use prepaid ticket orders because these did net amount to 
enough to pay for the trouble. 

In the discussion on the subject of checking reports in the 
office of the auditor it was stated that the commencing and 
closing numbers on each page were added and the differ- 
ence was the total number in the sold column. A tariff 
was compiled especially for clerks who audited reports. 
This gave both one-way and round-trip passenger rates, 
baggage rates and mileage from each station to every 
other station on the road, arranged alphabetically. Men- 
tion was also made of the book tickets which did not 
have the destination printed. The destination was filled in 
by the agent in ink. The hooks were checked against the 
tickets lifted by conductors. 

The redemption of tickets was handled by the different 
companies in the manner outlined by the committee. The 
only road that used a form for tickets lifted was the Union 
Traction Company of Indiana. Mr. Shroyer submitted a 
form and said that it was an excellent one to use if the 
work could be done with a minimum of expense. Auditor's 
accounts were handled in about the same manner by the 
different roads. A grand recapitulation was made of all the 
monthly ticket reports of agents and these were then en- 
tered in the journal. 



[Vol. XLII, No. i. 

Central Electric Railway Convention Papers 

Abstracts of Papers Not Published in the Last Issue Are Presented, Together with the Reports of Several Committees 



During the last few years there has been a growing ap- 
preciation of the remote control and train control of cars 
in city service. The equipments for the first lot of the 
New York Railways stepless cars have been provided with a 
form of remote automatic train control which is one of the 
simplest and lightest yet devised. This system has been 
named the "PK" control, because practically all the main 
circuit connections are made in a pneumatically operated 
"K" controller. In designing this control the aim was to 
produce apparatus with the following features: Remote 
control, train control, simplicity, smoothness of operation, 
minimum weight and space, automatic or hand acceleration 
as desired, close adherence to existing standards and man- 
ual operation of single car in emergency. 


The principal pieces in a "PR" equipment are the line 
switch, commutating switch, master controller, control rheo- 
stat and limit switch. 

The line switch is of the standard electro-pneumatically 
operated type. It is connected in the main circuit next 
to the line. Besides taking all the breaking of mam circuit 
current, whenever power is cut off the car. it also acts as a 
circuit breaker in case of heavy overload or short circuit 
in the equipment. The New York stepless car equioments 
have one line switch in each side of the circuit, since both 
sides of the line are insulated from ground. 

The commutating switch is essentially the same as a 
"K" controller, containing a drum-type reverser and a main 
drum for cutting out the resistances in the motor circuit 
and for changing the motor connections from series to 
parallel. It has a "PK" operating head mounted on a base 
casting which replaces the ordinary controller top. This 
operating head is the novel feature of "PK" control. Both 
the main and reverse drums are pneumatically operated. 
The off position of the commutating switch corresponds to 
the first notch of a "K" controller, so that no circuits are 
opened by the commutating switch. Whenever, for any rea- 
son, power is shut off, the current break is taken by the 
line switch. 

In appearance the master controller is a miniature plat- 
form controller. It is provided with a notch for each main 
circuit position so that manual acceleration is secured. In 
addition to making the usual connections of the control 
circuits for operating the reverser and commutating switch, 
it includes the dead man's feature. The control rheostat 
is built up of heating elements such as are used in electric 
irons. It is connected across the line and taps are brought 
out at suitable points for operating the main control cir- 
cuits, the compressor governor, signals and other auxiliary 
circuits. This permits the use of line current for the con- 
trol and auxiliary circuits and provides a low voltage for 
the train line and control wiring. 

The limit switch is of the standard type and is so con- 
nected in the control and main circuits that automatic 
acceleration is secured when the master controller is thrown 
more than one notch at a time. The rate of progression of 
the commutating switch is governed by the limit switch. 
When the master controller is in the off position the com- 
mutating switch is held positively in its off position. 


In operation, starting with the master controller in the off 
position and the reverser in the forward position, the first 

notch on the master controller closes the line switch and 
thus appl es power through the commutating switch and re- 
sistance to the motors in series. The remaining notches cut 
out the resistance, change the motors from series to parallel, 
and cut out portions of the motor fields. An eight-notch 
master controller, therefore, gives series-parallel control 
with four resistance notches and four running positions, two 
of each being in series and two of each in parallel. Since 
every position of the commutating switch has a correspond- 
ing notch on the master controller, the control may be 
brought in one notch at a time, just as with an ordinary 
platform controlier, and may be stopped at any notch. On 
the other hand, the limit switch provides for automatic 

All of the apparatus is arranged to permit the operation 
of two-car trains. Double-end control is secured with only 
one commutating switch. Most of the parts requiring re- 
pairs and renewal are already well known by the average 
carhouse force. 


The New York stepless car control is used in connec- 
tion with field-control motors. It may, therefore, be advan- 
tageous briefly to review this development also. In con- 

' \ ^ Electric fly. Journal 

Fig. i — Arrangement of Motor Leads in Field-Control 


struction, the field-control motor differs from the ordinary 
enmmutating-pole motor only in having the main field coils 
wound in two parts with a change in the wiring around 
frame and in having one more lead brought from the motor. 
The larger portions of all main field coils are connected in 
series to give normal field. The smaller portions also are 
all connected in series and form the extra field which is con- 
nected in series with the normal field winding to give full 
field in starting. The additional lead is brought out from 
the motor between the normal and full field windings and 
forms a point common to both. The smaller portion of the 
field coils, being in circuit only a part of the time, namely, 
when running on full field, is wound with a smaller section 
of copper than that used in the normal field, which is in 
circuit all the time that the motors are taking current. 
Fig. I shows the arrangement of motor leads for use with 
field-control motors. 

Field-control motors are in service in connection with 
both unit-switch and drum-type controllers. With drum- 
type controllers modification of the contacts is required for 
field control. With unit-switch control a portion of the field 
may be cut out either by the use of a field change-over 
switch of the drum type, similar to an ordinary reverser, or 
it may be effected by using additional unit switches. In some 
instances the standard number of resistance notches for a 
given equipment capacity has been used and an additional 
notch provided for normal field in series and in parallel. 
In other cases the normal field point has taken the place of 
the last resistance step in series and in parallel. The latter 
scheme (cutting out one resistance notch in series and one 
in parallel) is possible because the speed of the motor on 
full field is much less than that of the corresponding motor 
without field control when developing the same tractive 
effort. The speed on normal field is somewhat higher than 
that of the corresponding motor without field control when 


I 2.U30 

July 5, 1913.] 

developing the same tractive effort. However, the manipula- 
tion of the controller by the motorman is the same as with- 
out field control. 

The characteristic curves of typical 50-hp, 6oo-vo!t motors 
built on the same frame and geared the same are shown in 
comparison, with and without field control, in Fig. 2. With- 
out field control the speed curve lies between the normal 
and full field speed curves with field control, and the tractive 
effort without field control is between the tractive effort 
curves on full and normal field with field control. The 
curves show that the field-control motor will develop a large 
tractive effort in starting on full field a f a current much 
below that required without field control, because the corre- 
sponding speed with full field is lower. This produces econ- 
omy in starting, and the more frequently stops are made the 
greater will be the benefit derived therefrom. At light loads 
also the field-control motor on normal field will develop a 
given tractive effort at a higher speed than without field 
control. This, of course, requires an increased current with 
normal field. However, it gives the field-control motor a 
greater opportunity for making up lost time. 

The characteristic curves of typical 90-hp, 600-volt motors 
built on the same frame, with and without field control, 
and geared to operate a 35-ton car at the same free running 

Speed In Miles per Hour 
5 10 15 20 25 


in operation series-parallel control with resistance is used. 
Starting from rest with the motors in series, the resistance 
is gradually cut out of circuit until the motors are running 
on full field without resistance. Then a portion of the field 
turns is cut out of circuit at a single step, thus weakening 
the field and increasing the car speed. The next point on the 
control connects the motors in parallel with full field and 
resistance. The resistance is gradually cut out until full 
voltage is applied to the motors with full field. Then a por- 
tion of the field turns is again cut out and the car runs on 
normal field. A portion of the field is cut out by discon- 
necting the lead at one end of the full field and connecting 
in the lead from the point common to the full and normal 
fields. That portion of the field which is to be cut out is 
temporarily short-circuited in passing from full to normal 

The number of turns used on the motor field is for full 
field greater and for normal field less than is the case with 
the corresponding motor without field control. Therefore 
the field-control motor has on full field the lower and on 
normal field the higher speed. The result of the lower speed 
and higher tractive effort on full field is that the field-con- 
trol equipment wastes less energy in heating the grids than 

Speed in Miles per Hour 
10 20 30 40 50 

500 1000 1500 1000 2500 

Tractive Elicit in Lb. "Jectrfe Ry Journal 

Fig. 2 — Comparisons of 50-hp Motors With and Without 
Field Control 

speed on 1.25 per cent grade, are presented in Fig. 3. These 
curves show that at all loads to which the motor is sub-; 
jected in starting and getting up to the maximum speed a' 
motor without field control takes as great a current, or a 
greater one, to produce a given tractive effort as does the 
field-control motor on either full or normal field. This indi- 
cates that a very great economy may be attained from the 
use of a field-control motor in frequent-stop service. At 
the same time, as the field-control motor is geared for the 
same or higher balancing speed on grades of 1.25 per cent or 
less, its suitability for maintaining fast limited schedules 
is at least equal to that of the motor without field control. 

An alternate method of securing a part of the advantages 
accruing to equipments making use of the foregoing motor 
with fields wound in two parts is to use an ordinary com- 
mutating-pole motor and secure higher speed by weakening 
the field by connecting an inductive shunt in parallel with it. 
Several installations of this sort are now being made. While 
this scheme has an advantage in avoiding modification of 
existing commutating-pole motor field windings and wiring, 
yet it suffers from the disadvantage of extra weight (ap- 
proximately 300 lb. for a 400-hp equipment) and, as will be 
shown later, loses a large part of the benefit of field con- 
trol because it provides no means of securing speeds lower 
than with the same motor not shunted. 

T iCtive EUort in Lb. Electric Ry JoumSi 

Fig. 3 — Comparisons of 90-hp Motors With and Without 
Field Control 

jgojs the ordinary equipment, and this is accomplished by a 
: deduction in both the amount and duration of peak currents. 
■-Trie result of the higher speed on normal field is that the 
field-control equipment may use a greater gear reduction 
with the same car speed and get the full benefit of field-con- 
trol economy, or, with the same gear reduction, may attain 
a higher car speed and thus give up a portion of the field- 
control economy for the sake of more speed margin. It is 
also often feasible for a field-control equipment to perform 
a service which would require the next size larger equipment 
without field control. 

Field control has been applied to many different sizes of 
equipments from the smallest railway motors to these used 
on the Pennsylvania Terminal locomotives. The limitations 
of space in a car truck largely determine the motor revolu- 
tions per minute for a desired horse-power and the gear- 
center distance. The minimum pinion is determined by con- 
siderations of mechanical strength. The maximum gear is 
fixed by the wheel diameter and the clearance which may 
safely be allowed between the gear case and the roadbed. 
In most cities the local schedules can be maintained with 
motors without field control having the minimum armature 
speed and the maximum gear reduction. For such applications 
field control offers the opportunity to give the same service 
with decreased energy consumption, an equal or greater mar- 



[Vol. XLII, No. i. 

gin of speed for making up lost time, and frequently a 
smaller and lighter equipment. 

' In combined city and interurban service motors worked 
at the proper load for the entire service may be over- 
loaded on the city section and underloaded in the suburbs. 
Field control applied to such cases, without increasing the 
capacity of the equipment, often eliminates the overload in 
the city section, and at the same time, on account of the 
high speed on normal field, permits a faster suburban 
schedule to be inaugurated without overloading the equip- 
ment on that portion of the run. 

In interurban service the use of field control is equiv- 
alent to providing two gear ratios on the same car. The 
full field connection corresponds to the low-speed gearing 
with its high tractive effort for starting with small cur- 
rent. The normal field corresponds to the high-speed gear- 
ing with its greater free running speed. Hence an equip- 
ment with field control is better adapted to operating in- 
terchangeably in local and limited service than is an equip- 
ment without field control. The high tractive effort on full 
field at starting improves the equipment for local service 
with frequent stops, and the high speed on normal field 
makes it more adaptable for limited service than it would 
be without field control if properly geared for local ser- 

The full field also gives efficient running points both in 
series and in multiple for hill climbing and operating in- 
terurban cars on the streets of towns and cities. This fea- 
ture should be found particularly beneficial where severe 
grades occur on a road which is limited in capacity of 
substation and amount of trolley feeder and for high-speed 
interurban cars following slow-speed city cars through the 

To summarize, field-control equipments possess the fol- 
lowing advantages: lower energy consumption, equal or 
greater ability to make up lost time, reduced peak loads, 
improved line-voltage regulation, better load factor, greater 
suitability for combined city and suburban service, wider 
range of local and limited schedules maintained with the 
same gearing, additional running speeds for use in towns 
and on grades, and smaller, lighter and cheaper equip- 
ment (at times). 

All of these advantages may not be secured simul- 
taneously in each individual application, but their variety 
shows that there is a wide field for the proper application 
of field-control equipments 



Among the Chinese there were those who plucked out 
their two eyes in order that they might have a thousand 
eyes of wisdom. We have greater need than the Chinese 
in the claims department for the thousand eyes of wis- 
dom, so that we may solve the many problems encountered, 
which are so diversified and so difficult. We must not 
only analyze our immediate problems but we must have 
a clear insight into the future to be able to conduct our 
part of this thankless job understandingly and eventually 
do away with the enormous sacrifice of human life and 
human limb. We also need the thousand eyes of wisdom 
in the adjudication of claims in personal injury cases. 
No sentiment should be allowed to bias our judgment, 
but a pu-ely scientific business principle should govern, 
and this principle at the outset can be practically summed 
up in the one word "settle." 

We have frequently stood in our own light by allow- 
ing our judgment to be swayed by the effect our actions 
in the claims department might have upon the public. 
Theoretically, we ought to figure upon this, but prac- 

tically there is no direct benefit resulting from a liberal 
policy. In recent years steam railroads have changed 
from the old policy of fighting all cases to the limit to 
that of settling all cases, but the settlements they make, 
from my viewpoint, are entirely out of proportion to the 
injuries received. The public, instead of appreciating 
the fact that steam railroads invariably settle passenger 
cases, use that fact to obtain large sums in settlement, 
so that to-day the prices paid in the adjustment of pas- 
senger cases are practically any sum that the injured 
party may ask. However, the other proposition stares 
you in the face, that if you do not settle the jury will 
undoubtedly "soak" you. 

No general policy can be outlined in the claims depart- 
ment. Each case is its own problem, and the solution, 
so far as the company is concerned, is merely the question 
of getting rid of a most troublesome matter with the least 
amount of money and time. 

If there is a question regarding the liability or of 
mixed liability, there is almost always a chance to cut 
down the figure to a comparatively reasonable amount. 

A stock or other property damage can almost always be 
adjusted by dividing the appraisal value. 

If there is no liability, then it is a question of paying 
approximately the amount of money it would cost to try 
the case, it being better to swallow the injustice in order 
to get the case off your books and off your mind ; there 
is also always a chance of your case going wrong some- 
where if you try it. Every one thinks his own method 
is the best, but the adjuster who actually does settle and 
keeps his company out of the courthouse is, in my esti- 
mation, the competent man. 


The average claims department is an expensive, ineffi- 
cient, cumbersome, unscientific and much neglected and 
less understood department of railroad work. 

You will all admit without much argument that the claims 
department is an expensive luxury. It is inefficient be- 
cause time is not given to the close study of individual 
cases ; hence the prices of settlements and adjustments are 
continuously on a higher basis. It is unscientific because 
the operating department does not give the same thought 
and study toward reducing the cost here which it does 
in the mechanical or power department. It is neglected 
because the management does not take the time to analyze 
the causes or the results of accidents, and it is not under- 
stood because it is looked upon as a necessary evil. 

When a management does try to study the conditions 
\t resolves itself into more rules for the rule book and 
recommendations for more safety devices and appliances. 

We are being continuously dosed with such all-impor- 
tant questions as instruction for trainmen, a car fitted up 
in order to show the trainmen the mechanical and elec- 
trical arrangement of the car he operates so that he may 
understand the machinery and electrical ■ appliances he is 
handling, examination on the book of rules, card indexes 
for discovering fraudulent claims, the subject of expert 
medical testimony and of expert electrical testimony, the 
ethical relation of the company surgeon, the ethical re- 
lation of the company to the attorney, the ethical relation 
of these two branches to each other, the duty we owe the 
public (never the duty the public owes us) ! 

To me this stuff is all bosh. I do not believe in trying 
to make mechanics, machinists or electricians out of train- 
men. An intelligent motorman is a grand man, and he 
has all he can do, and it is all you ought to ask of him, to 
operate his car properly. The handling of a car is a 
science of itself. If your car doesn't run, it is up to your 
master mechanic and your shop force. If a lead should 
burn off or a controller finger get stuck or a trolley wheel 
need changing, your trainman can easily do that. But 
don't trv to load him up with all the intricacies of the 

.K'i.v 5, 1913. J 



machinery lie is operating, because lie will only get con- 
fused. Let him absorb what he naturally will, but be in 
position to change his car for him when he feels it is 
not acting right. You are filling this trainman's head 
with so much extraneous matter that he will be speculating 
upon how the current, after leaving the trolley wire, goes 
through the controller to the motor, and how the energy is 
used, instead of having his mind upon the operation of his 
car, which is his primary and only business. 


How many accidents have happened upon your road 
because the trainman did not know the rules of the com- 
pany? I am sure they are few and far between. Rules, 
of course, should be drilled into men, but men, thinking 
railroad men, naturally know what is the right thing to 
do, and if you have their actual co-operation from a 
humanitarian standpoint, you will have very few acci- 
dents traceable to the lack of knowledge regarding the 
book of rules. 

You can find instances where card indexes on fraudu- 
lent cases have been of value, but in a comparative sense 
they are so relatively few, especially on interurban roads, 
that they are not worth the time, money or consideration 
which this matter is receiving. 


The question of surgeons is one that has had a great 
deal of thought and study from the claims department. 
I have simplified the matter a great deal on our road. 
Whenever an appointed surgeon dies or moves away from 
the town he is in, I do not reappoint one in that town, so 
that at the present time, out of twenty towns and vil- 
lages, I have only six regularly appointed surgeons. I 
would abolish them were it not for the fact that it would 
undoubtedly react against us. I find I can do better to let 
the cases get into the hands of the regular surgeons or 
family physicians, and by then employing some surgeon 
who is friendly to, or acquainted with, the family phys- 
ician or surgeon to make an examination for the com- 
pany, I can get even better results than to have a regu- 
larly appointed surgeon who advertises himself as the com- 
pany surgeon and displays the transportation he rides 
upon with a certain gratified superiority over his less 
fortunate colleagues. 

The same is true of attorneys. We have the same 
policy regarding them. We do not reappoint when they 
drop out, and as a result we have, outside of our gen- 
eral counsel, only a very few attorneys whom we retain. 


The selection of trainmen is one of the most important 
items governing safety in railroad operation and one 
which at times receives very little consideration, while 
at other times great difficulty is experienced in obtain- 
ing good men at the established rate of wages. One of 
my superintendents employs only men as motormen who 
have had railroad experience, preferably steam railroad 
experience. There is a drawback in this method, how- 
ever, and that is the liability of employing a man who is a 
"floater" or one who has been discharged from some other 
road on account of being careless. When impossible to 
find experienced men, he selects conductors who in his 
judgment are fitted for motormen and transfers them to 
the front end. We have less trouble in getting conductors 
than we do in getting motormen. 

It is impossible for me to say that his method is correct, 
as some of our worst accidents have happened on account 
of the carelessness of experienced men. One man espe- 
ciallv whom T have in mind was the cause of a wreck 
costing about $75,000. His experience covered a period 
of over fourteen years on both steam and electric roads. 
He was an honest, sober and industrious man. On the 
other hand, some of our best trainmen are of those who 
never had railroad experience before we employed them. 

My one idea is that a young man of from twenty-two 
to twenty-five years of age, if he has the right make-up, 
is preferable to an older man who has shifted several 
times and is set in his ways. 

It is the opinion of some managers that the motorman 
should receive more money for his work than the con- 
ductor, and they believe that the promotion of conductors 
especially selected by the superintendent would not onl\ 
be an encouragement to conductors to strive for this ad- 
vancement, but would by this method produce better and 
more careful motormen. There is, of course, this feeling 
that one had better not spoil a good conductor in order 
to make a poor motorman. I can find no reason for this 
feeling, but I have myself been loath to change a conductor 
whom I knew to be honest and careful to the position of 
motorman. This is probably a narrow-minded viewpoint 
and one which we ought to get out of our system. 


What can railroad managers do to prevent the recur- 
rence of disastrous accidents, such as we all know about!" 
Are we entirely helpless? Is it right to feel that a cer- 
tain percentage of the gross receipts set aside to take 
care of the injuries and damage account is the only method 
we have of conducting this branch of the business? Are 
we, who are individually responsible for the management 
of a road, compelled to shoulder the responsibility of those 
who err in judgment? It has been the custom to do away 
with the human element, the human agency, to the great- 
est extent possible and to rely to the greatest permissible 
extent upon all the safeguards which engineers and others 
have been aide to contrive. Have you got relief from 
them? The experience of one road or the experience of a 
given road does not materially affect that road or any 
other road so far as the individual employee is con- 
cerned. He takes no lesson from it. This has often been 
illustrated by one disaster following another in rapid 

The greatest trouble, I think, is that railroad employees, 
after an accident has happened, have in mind only the 
commercial idea of the value to lives and limbs. This 
they have got largely from the management, or claims de- 
partment, perhaps, who are wont to boast of the good 
settlements they have made, and the adjusters of these 
things are looked upon by the employees, and the public 
also, in the light of shrewd and unscrupulous shysters 
whose only thought is the conversion of human life and 
human limb and human suffering into the least possible 
number of dollars and cents. This conversion into dollars 
and cents of life and limb is naturally reflected in the 
percentage column, and as long as the percentage to gross 
receipts is kept reasonably low practically no attention is 
paid to the primary causes. 

We do not stop long enough in our hasty search for 
more safety appliances and more discipline to consider 
the individual employee, the motorman, the conductor, the 
trainman, the employee. You can reach their hearts. 
Some naturally are harder to reach than others, but all of 
them are readily influenced when you apneal to the good 
and the true which is within them. Some have scoffed 
and made fun and tried hard to be smart and appear not 
to take the things presented to them in this line seriously, 
because they feared they might not appear of the old 
school of rough-and-ready railroad men and because they 
did not want to appear chicken-hearted. But their hearts 
are susceptible to the better things, the truer impulses, 
the loftier ideals of life. 

Do not misunderstand me. I have not advocated doing 
away with discipline and safety devices but using them 
merely as necessary adjuncts. They do not lessen the per- 
centage column. The main and the vital thing is so to 
educate and impress each employee that he will safe 
guard human life and human limb, not from any fear of 



[Vol. XLII, No. i. 

punishment, not from any hope of reward, but from the 
natural inherent, hitherto in him undeveloped, principle that 
it is a prerogative, it is a privilege, it is a duty to save 
human life and human limb and human suffering, and he by 
his environment can take advantage of this privilege to a 
greater extent and a greater degree than those in other 
employments and other walks of life. 

I have wasted in years gone by all the time I am going 
to in considering the ethical relation of the surgeon to the 
attorney. I have had too many passengers butchered by 
so-called surgeons, and I have got to a point where I am 
willing that the professions themselves shall take care of 
their own ethics, either among themselves or in relation to 
one another. I am going to try to find the true ethical 
relation between the trainman and the public, and I am 
going to try to have the trainman understand this relation. 
I am going to try to have him cultivate this relation, and I 
am going to try to have him a bigger man and a truer 
man and a better man than the public he is thrown in con- 
tact with. 1 am going to hope that this honorable man, this 
true man, this safe man, this big-hearted man, will truly 
represent me and my road, and so forcibly that the public 
will take cognizance of him and credit him with the spirit 
of faithfulness, intelligence and carefulness. 



As no subject was suggested to me when I was requested 
to prepare a paper for this conference, I concluded to 
present for your consideration a few of the nuts it is neces- 
sary for a traveling auditor to crack from time to time. 


It is the rule and not the exception for those outside 
the pale of the accounting and treasurer's offices to think 
(sometimes with a great deal of reason) that accounting 
officers are "cranks," because many of the little things they 
have to dwell upon in correspondence often seem to others 
unnecessary. But, for a complete espionage over the doings 
of those intrusted with different kinds of work at agencies, 
offices and storerooms, it is absolutely necessary to watch 
closely all payrolls, distributions, collection vouchers and 
every form of report to prevent leakage and to make 
accuracy the rule. Hence correspondence with those who 
are derelict is the only means the accounting officer has 
in most cases to get into line the halt, the maimed and the 
blind. I wish it was not so, but with the proper imple- 
ments, suavity and kindness on the part of the auditor, the 
correspondence nut becomes so soft you can break it with- 
out trouble. 


In agency work, especially on electric lines, the travel- 
ing auditor is expected to have a thorough knowledge of 
official classifications and tariffs, both freight and pas- 
senger, so as to be in a position to assist agents in their 
peculiar difficulties. Many times questions in classifica- 
tion are put up to me which require no little ingenuity to 
answer quickly. 


At one of my visits to one of our larger agencies I found 
some sacked flour on the floor of the freight house with 
no marks on any of the packages except one. The depot 
foreman told me he was having all kinds of trouble on this 
account, the flour being delivered to wrong consignees 
when there were shipments on the same day to different 
consignees. At once instructions were issued to accept no 
more flour unless each sack was plainly marked. I was 
questioned at once as to my authority, as the agent claimed 
that only one in every ten had to be marked- — a simple error 
in reading Rule 3, Section 2, providing for articles not 
boxed, barreled or sacked and shipped loose. 


At one of our agencies a shipment of dressed meat was 
made to Fort Wayne by a farmer, but inquiry of the agent 
developed that the certificate required by the act of Con- 
gress of June 30, 1906, in cases of this kind had not been 
filled out. This certificate calls for the name of common 
carrier, name of shipper, name of consignee, point of ship- 
ment, destination, and a statement that the meat was unin- 
spected, was from an animal slaughtered by a farmer on the 
farm and was offered for transportation as exempted from 
inspection, that on date of shipment meat was sound, health- 
ful, wholesome and fit for human food and that it con- 
tained no preservative, etc., prohibited by the Secretary of 
Agriculture, governing meat inspection. Later I found that 
many of the smaller agencies had no knowledge of the 
requirements of the law on this point. 


The purpose of the bill known as the Webb law (effect- 
ive March 3, 1912) is to withdraw all interstate ship- 
ments of liquors from federal jurisdiction and to place them 
under the jurisdiction of the states to which they are con- 
signed immediately upon arrival within the boundary of 
such states. 

The Webb law in substance puts the jurisdiction on liquor 
shipments squarely up to the states, and no shipment of 
liquor can be delivered in any state: (1) to any person 
other than a bona-fide consignee; (2) to minors, drunk- 
ards, incompetents or Indians; (3) on Sunday; (4) be- 
tween 6 p. m. of any day preceding an election day and 
6 a. m. of the day following an election day; (5) if the 
nature of the contents is not marked on package; (6) if 
shippers order "notify"; (7) if consigned to prohibition 
territory and intended to be received, possessed or sold 
in any manner in violation of law of the state in which 
the agency of destination is located. 

Another thing I am impressing upon agents is that no 
orders by consignees to draymen who haul their freight 
will be permitted on liquor shipments. The consignee must 
sign for shipment, and it does not matter who drays it. 


The question frequently arises as to what is necessary 
where a consignment of freight is received at the ware- 
house and a part of the shipment is short from the shipper. 
I have always instructed our agents to compel the drayman 
delivering to "O K" the shortage, as it is sheer folly simply 
to draw a line through the article short and sign the orig- 
inal memorandum, because at any time the question may 
arise as to when the erasing line was drawn, and a claim 
will put the burden of proof on the railroad company. 


There is not a day that questions do not arise as to the 
interpretation of tariffs, and some of them are knotty to 
the uninitiated, especially where the rates are published in 
connection with steam roads, where the proper routing to 
protect the published rates must be observed and the use 
of fast freight line guides, etc., is necessary. Some of these 
questions arise on routing, others on percentages, others 
on rates, and I need not enlarge by giving specific cases. 
You will understand that on the Ohio Electric Railway 
the traveling auditor checks all tariffs twice a year and 
sees that they are properly filed, so that he is in touch with 
all new issues of tariffs and the cancellation of others. 


While a railroad company is exempt from claim for value 
of property destroyed in a freight warehouse after forty- 
eight hours have elapsed from the date and hour of proper 
notification, I have seen cases where freight was destroyed 
by fire which had been in the freight house unclaimed for 
weeks and no unclaimed report had been made so that 
shipper would have no notice of same. I therefore im- 
press on agents the importance of reporting on proper 
O. S. & D. form all freight unclaimed for any unreason- 

July 5, 191.3.] 



able time so as properly to protect the company in every 


We have recently experienced a flood in Ohio and else- 
where that found thousands of dollars of freight in transit 
and in warehouses of railroad companies, and there can 
be no reasonable doubt as to the liability of the com- 
panies where agents and employees, through neglect, failed 
to notify the consignees properly of the arrival of freight. 
This negligence will cost some companies considerable 



By the very nature of his training and his business rela- 
tions, the manufacturer has certain duties in the electric 
railway field. These duties embrace a twofold obligation to 
the electric railway: First, that definite contractual rela- 
tion that is created ami maintained between them as vendor 
and vendee; second, a broader and less defined but more 
binding union of sympathy ami co-operation which should 
exist between those engaged in the same craft. 

The electric railway is still in its adolescence, if not 
infancy. Many fields are vet untouched, and many are. for 
various reasons, inadequately served. Many more oppor- 
tunities will come into existence with increasing density of 
population. The attendant problems of construction and 
operation concern the manufacturer as well as the operator. 
In design of construction and equipment he has a duty lit- 
tle less than the operator who directly undertakes the work, 
and. while it is quite probable that the operator and engi- 
neer, on account of familiarity with requirements, will 
solve most of the needs in construction, mechanical and 
transportation development, nevertheless, the manufacturer 
has an active part to perform. Better rails, bigger and 
stronger cars to be run entrained under one control, more 
stable line material and construction, more efficient and 
economical production and transmission of current, the 
appliances for safe operation of cars and trains — all of 
these and many other problems confront us now. The 
manufacturer should prepare to do his part in answering 
these questions. 

Service is the test of efficiency and the measure for suc- 
cess. With exacting railways it must include safety, com- 
fort and dispatch to traveler and shipper. 

In his labors to serve satisfactorilv and safelv a more 
and more exacting public, the railway operator must neces- 
sarily rely on the manufacturer to furnish that design of 
material or equipment which at a fair price will give the 
best operating service. In other words, the manufacturer 
should deliver to his patron a truly serviceable article. 

In his dealings with the electric railway, the vision of 
the manufacturer should extend beyond the railway to that 
field, the public, upon whose patronage public utilities de- 
pend. The manufacturer, by the grace of his customer, is 
a public servant once removed. The quality of his product 
should be the best he can produce and he is in duty bound 
to use every means and to take every precaution possible to 
make his product 100 per cent good. 

Making allowance for possible abuse or misuse of an 
article by the purchaser, the responsibility of its perform- 
ance rests on the head of the manufacturer. In many cases 
one small piece of car or line equipment, if defective or of 
inferior quality, may cause damages a thousand times its 
original cost or it may be the remote or proximate cause 
of loss of life. Of course the railway man has the right 
and usually the desire to know what he is buying, yet there 
comes to be in the course of continued business a feeling of 
trust and confidence; for this reason, in his contractual 

relation the manufacturer should offer no article fur use 
that is an untried or theoretical one, nor should he attempt 
to sell, without due notice that it is such, an article known 
tn him to be imperfect in design, inferior in quality or faulty 
in operation. 

If he does not ileal with his customer on the dead level 
of truth, he nut only fails to perform his duty, but is guilty 
of a breach of trust. On the other hand, if the service of 
his organization and the quality of his product is up to the 
highest attainable standard, he has discharged his obliga- 
tion tn his customer and his customer's customer, the 

Since the manufacturer and the railways have a common 
purpose and serve, ultimately, a common patronage, there is 
a duty on the part of the manufacturers to extend their aid 
and co-operation along lines not strictly technical or com- 

The manufacturers should be on the alert to aid in 
removing public or political prejudice and, wherever pos- 
sible, to correct unfair or hostile impressions or attitudes 
in their respective communities. 

W hile the public is coming to appreciate more clearly the 
true worth of public utilities, it is at the same time more 
critical of the service of these companies. 

The manufacturer, as a lay member of the profession, 
with a well-directed argument here, or a suggestion there, 
can do much toward gaining favor for, and removing preju- 
dice against, these companies. 

Being, in a general sense, a fellow servant in a common 
calling, the manufacturer should do his utmost to provide 
that which is of the highest quality and therefore the most 
useful and serviceable to his customer to the end that his 
customer may supply a better and safer service, and. after 
doing his contracted duty, laying aside selfishness, he should 
take pains to continue the advancement and improvement 
of the industry, bearing in mind those broader principles 
that make for true progress. He should be ready to em- 
brace every opportunity to promote the interests of the 
industry as a whole. 



Your committee held a meeting at Lima, Ohio, on June 4, 
1913, and submits the following report : 


The gross revenue from transportation of electric rail- 
ways in the territory embraced by this association is de- 
rived principally from the passenger business, which aver- 
ages approximately 85 per cent of the total. The major 
portion of this revenue finds its way to the treasury in the 
form of cash from ticket sales. It is important, therefore, 
that all tickets be audited carefully and systematically from 
the time the order is placed for their purchase until they 
are finally destroyed. 

It is the consensus of opinion of your committee that a 
system of monthly accounts is preferable to a daily system 
regardless of the size of the road or the number of agen- 
cies. The handling of agent's daily ticket reports, checking 
opening numbers, rates, extensions, etc., creates a large 
volume of unnecessary work in the auditor's office and 
greatly increases the liability for mistakes. The ticket 
agent is able to keep a much better record and consequently 
a more accurate check on his station accounts under the 
monthly plan than it is possible for him to keep under the 
daily plan. We will, therefore, outline a method of hand- 
ling passenger records and accounts at agencies and the 
auditor's office under the monthly plan. 



[Vol. XLII, No. i. 


Ticket orders on printer; ticket requisitions; ticket stock 
ledger; agent's daily record of ticket sales; agent's daily 
summary of sales ; agent's cash book ; agent's monthly re- 
port of local sales; agent's monthly report of interline sales; 
agent's balance sheet ; auditor's correction on report of 
local sales ; auditor's credit advice ; auditor's record of dis- 
tribution of sales; auditor's report of daily earnings; au- 
ditor's statement of interline ticket sales to foreign roads; 
auditor's statement of interline revenue, baggage checks to 
foreign roads ; auditor's statement of interchangeable mile- 
age lifted of foreign road's issue; auditor's correction on 
interline ticket and baggage reports ; auditor's statement of 
interline account ; auditor's form for checking tickets lift- 
ed; ticket redemptions. 


Orders for tickets on forms furnished by printers are 
made by the department in whose custody the tickets are 
placed. This form is merely a request for certain consecu- 
tively numbered tickets, described according to stations, 
from and to, form, commencing number, closing number 
and quantity. Usually four copies are made ; the original 
copy is sent to the purchasing agent and is subsequently 
forwarded by him to the printer, one copy is sent to the 
auditor and one is retained by the department making the 
order. It is the auditor's duty to check these orders against 
the ticket stock ledger in order to avoid duplication of 
tickets and against the printer's bills as rendered to make 
sure that the quantities ordered have been received. 


Agents are supplied with printed blank forms to be used 
for the purpose of ordering tickets as their requirements 
demand. It is the usual practice to require agents to keep 
at least one month's supply of each form of ticket on hand 
at all times. Requisitions must be made in ample time to 
reach the ticket stock department not later than the first 
and fifteenth of each month. Four copies of the requisition 
are made; the first three are forwarded to the ticket stock 
department and the fourth copy is retained by the agent 
as his record. In making up requisitions the agent is re- 
quired to state, as provided by the blank, quantity required, 
commencing number on hand, closing number on hand, 
form and destination. The commencing and closing num- 
bers of tickets in hands of the agent serve as a guide to the 
ticket stock department in supplying only such quantities 
as the sales of previous months indicate are needed. The 
tickets sent the agent, which in some cases may vary from 
the quantity ordered, are shown at the right-hand side oi 
the blank in a space provided, the commencing number, 
closing number and number of tickets being filled in by the 
clerk who makes up the requisition. As the orders are 
filled, the tickets, accompanied by the original requisition, 
are forwarded to the agent by registered train mail. The 
second copy of the requisition is sent to the auditor's office 
as a notification of tickets supplied and is held on file until 
the original, which is receipted by the agent, has been re- 
ceived. The ticket stock department retains the third copy, 
from which postings are made to the stock ledger, and the 
fourth copy, as stated, is retained by the agent. 


This record is usually loose-leaf form, so arranged that 
accurate account may be kept with each form of ticket 
according to the selling station. The account is subdivided 
under three heads, viz., "stock," "supplied to agent" and 
"sales." Under "stock" entries are made from the printer's 
invoices, as the tickets are received, of the date, from 
whom purchased, opening number, closing number and 
number of tickets received. As the tickets are sent out 
to agents on requisition, entries are made in the column 
headed "supplies to agent," of the date sent, opening num- 
ber, closing number and number of tickets. This repre- 
sents the charge against the agent at the selling station in- 
dicated in the heading of the sheet. The difference be- 

tween the number of tickets in the stock column and the 
number supplied to the agent represents the tickets on hand 
in the ticket stock department. When the. agent's monthly 
ticket reports have been examined, the sales for the month 
are posted to the ticket ledger in the space provided under 
heading of "sales." Entries are made of the date, opening 
number, closing number and number sold. The difference 
between the number of tickets shown as being supplied to 
the agent and the number shown as sold, represents the 
tickets in the hands of the agent. Book, inter-division, 
mileage and commuter tickets, baggage, parcel, storage 
checks, etc., are handled in different manner in order to 
maintain a consecutive record of stock. These tickets are 
skeleton form, not being printed for use at any particular 
agency. The entries for stock and tickets supplied to agents 
are the same as previously described, but the sales column 
in this instance is used for entry of the name of the station 
supplied. This serves as a stock record only ; therefore, it 
is necessary to open an account with the various agencies 
for each form of this class of tickets, posting from the 
stock account the tickets supplied to the agent, followed 
by posting of sales at end of month. This record should be 
kept by the auditor, if possible to do so, but if not he should 
audit the same at frequent intervals. 


At the close of each day's business the sales of all forms 
of tickets, as indicated by the highest numbers remaining on 
hand, are entered by the agent in a sales record. In opening 
this record and at the first of each month all forms of 
tickets in stock are entered according to form and destina- 
tion. Card and other tickets having a printed destination 
are entered first by writing in the various destinations in 
station order, the form, tariff rate and commencing number. 
Book and miscellaneous tickets (without a printed destina- 
tion), baggage checks, etc., are designated by form and are 
usually entered in order of their importance from a stand- 
point of sales. As sales are made each day, the closing 
numbers, number sold and the amount of sales of each 
form are entered under the proper date and a total made of 
the amount of all sales, which is used in balancing against 
cash on hand. Provision is made for balancing this record 
at the end of each week and at the end of the month, the 
latter figures forming a basis for the monthly report. 


In compiling daily earnings by operating divisions from 
ticket sales, which is required by the majority of electric 
lines, it is necessary for the agent to furnish the auditor a 
daily summary of sales from the daily sales record. The 
sales of mileage and commutation tickets do not enter into 
the daily earnings on a sales basis, yet it is good practice to 
require the agent to make a full report of all sales and see 
that he makes his remittances accordingly. The sales of all 
single and round trip tickets are credited to the division on 
which the selling station is located, but the coupon card, 
interline, book and miscellaneous tickets must be reported 
in detail as to number sold and destination in order that 
each division may receive proper credit for its proportion of 
such sales. Distribution according to divisions is made on 
the face of this report and a final summary is then made 
of all the reports from the various agencies. 

agent's cash book 

One entry each day in the cash book of the total amount 
of money taken in from the sale of tickets is all that is 
required of a ticket agent. Other cash items, however, 
such as receipts from vending machines, etc., must be 
written in the cash book with full explanation as to the 
source of such collections. If the agency handles both 
passenger and freight business, the cash book would show 
receipts from freight collections as well as ticket sales. 


Roads differ in respect to form of reports, but all re- 
quire report from each station of ticket sales to all other 
stations on its own and foreign lines, by forms, commencing 

July 5, 1913.] 



and closing numbers, number sold, ticket rates and exten- 
sions into money. This report is made by the agent from 
his daily sales record, and from the audit stubs of books 
and miscellaneous tickets, baggage checks, etc. Tickets 
having audit stubs have no printed destination and it would 
not be practical to attempt to show the various destinations 
of such tickets in the daily sales record. When the details 
of sales of all forms of tickets have been written in the 
report, the agent makes a recapitulation of the total sales 
of the various forms, including collections from vending 
machines and other miscellaneous items, of which the grand 
total represents the charge against the agent's account. 
Items other than ticket sales are handled by some com- 
panies through "debit advices;" however, this is a mere 
matter of choice. 


In addition to the monthly report of local sales, agents 
are required to furnish a separate report of interline sales. 
The information required in this report is the same as that 
required in the local report, except that the junction point 
via which the ticket is sold is shown in cases of more than 
one junction with foreign road. This information is neces- 
sary in verifying rates as the destination of two tickets may 
be the same but the route traveled by the passengers may 
be entirely different. Statements of interline sales to 
foreign roads are written up from this report. 


After all reports have been made for the month, the 
agent prepares a monthly balance sheet, taking up all debits 
and credits appearing on the monthly ticket report ; also 
all debit and credit advices through which all miscellaneous 
items are handled. If the agency handles both passenger 
and freight business, all debits and credits from the monthly 
freight reports are included in the same balance sheet. 
Roads making a daily distribution of their revenue from 
cash receipts usually require a separate balance sheet of 
passenger and freight accounts and a consolidated balance 
is made in the auditor's office, but your committee recom- 
mends a combined balance sheet made by the agent. 
auditor's corrections 

In checking agents' reports, errors are quite frequently 
found, and in order to facilitate adjustment, the auditor 
advises the agent of the errors made through a correction 
statement. This statement shows the items in question "as 
reported" and as they "should be;" also the net debit or 
credit to the agent's account. 

auditor's credit advice 

There are numerous occasions for giving agents special 
credit in connection with their freight accounts, but it is 
seldom necessary in connection with passenger accounts 
There are a few items, however, such as ticket refunds or 
exchange of tickets by agents, which are authorized in 
isolated cases, also government orders when accepted in 
large numbers, thereby eliminating the possibility of listing 
them in detail on the balance sheet, that can be most con- 
veniently handled through the credit advice. These advices 
are numbered consecutively by the auditor as issued ; a rec- 
ord is kept of the same and at the end of the month a jour- 
nal is made covering all of those taken up by agents, 
debiting the general ledger accounts affected and crediting 
the agent's account. 

auditor's record of distribution of sales 

In order to arrive at a total of sales of all stations, the 
distribution appearing on the face of the daily summary is 
posted to a sales record which has all stations on the road 
printed on the left-hand side of the page and the various 
operating divisions across the top. Postings are made 
under the proper divisions opposite the selling station and 
the total sales are credited accordingly in compiling the 
daily earnings. 

auditor's report of daily earnings 

It is the practice of electric railways to prepare daily 

comparative statements of earnings, in order that the 
directors, managers and others may keep constantly in- 
formed of the volume of traffic. This report is more par- 
ticularly a source of valuable information for those directly 
in charge of operation, as it often happens that a certain 
line will show a marked decrease in earnings for a given 
period, due to some disturbance of business conditions. 
This decrease, appearing daily, attracts attention of the 
manager, consequently the service is reduced and a saving 
in operating expenses effected. The earnings are made up 
of conductors' cash collections, agents' ticket sales, except 
mileage and commuter tickets, which are valued as lifted, 
the proportion of ticket sales on foreign lines, the proportion 
of tickets lifted sold by foreign lines and freight and ex- 
press earnings computed from the auditor's copies of way 
bills. Comparisons are made of the earnings of the same 
day of the week last year, and the same number of days of 
the month and year. Increases and decreases are shown 
for each line or division, percentage of increase or decrease, 
cars in service, weather conditions, temperature and special 
events affecting traffic. 

auditor's reports to foreign roads 
The association forms indicated under the heading of 
"Forms Needed" were adopted at the meeting of this asso- 
ciation held in Toledo, Ohio, on Dec. 16, 191 1. [Published 
in the Electric Railway Journal of Dec. 23, 191 1. — Ed.] 


Agents are supplied with prepaid ticket orders for the ac- 
commodation of anyone who wishes to buy a ticket for an- 
other at a distance. The money is paid to ticket agent of 
Road A, the ticket order with full specifications on the 
ticket agent of Road B is given to the payee, who sends it 
to the person at a distance proposing to make the journey. 
When the order is presented to the ticket agent of Road B, 
he issues an interline ticket to the person named in the 
order and takes a receipt therefor in the space provided. 
Settlement between the roads is made as follows : Road A 
reports in the interline ticket report to Road B the full 
amount of money received, and Road B, the actual seller of 
the ticket, apportions in its interline reports to the roads 
over which the ticket is sold their proportion of its value. 
Road A credits "passenger earnings" with the entire amount 
received by its agent and charges that account with the 
same amount reported to B in interline account. Road A 
afterwards receives and credits to "pasenger earnings" its 
share of the through rate by way of the interline report of 
Road B. Road B credits "passenger earnings" with the en- 
tire amount received through A's interline report, and 
charges thereto all the other lines' proportions reported to 
them in the interline account, leaving in passenger earnings 
exactly its own share of the through rate. Prepaid orders 
are equally serviceable between local agents of the same 
line, in which case the agent issuing the order reports the 
same at the amount received and remits to the treasurer, 
but the agent issuing the ticket reports it without value, as 
issued on account of such a station's prepaid order. 


The monthly report, accompanied by audit stubs of book 
and miscellaneous tickets, is usually received in the auditor's 
office on the second or third of the month following that 
in which the sales are made. A record is made of their 
receipt in order that missing reports may be traced for. 
The first operation in verifying the report is that of check- 
ing the commencing numbers against the closing numbers 
reported in the previous month. One road in particular 
checks against the closing numbers entered in the ticket 
ledger, which entries have been made from the previous 
month's report. The latter plan not only verifies the sales 
entries but it has a strong tendency toward keeping the 
sales record up to date. The checking of commencing and 
closing numbers is followed by verification of the number 
sold, rates and extensions into money. A further check 



[Vol. XL] I, \'u. i. 

than that of making separate substracticns of the commenc- 
ing from the closing numbers of each form in verifying 
the number sold can be had by adding the commencing 
and closing numbers of all forms and arriving at the dif- 
ference, which will represent the total number sold. In 
checking rates it has been found advantageous in many re- 
spects to compile a tariff for the use of clerks, naming pas- 
senger rates, both one-way and round trip, baggage rate and 
mileage from each station to every other station on the road, 
arranged alphabetically, separate sheets being provided for 
each selling station. Book and miscellaneous tickets re- 
ported by the agent are checked as to destination by .com- 
parison- with tickets lifted of the same number. This has 
proved to be tlie most reliable method of auditing this class 
of tickets as any attempt at manipulation can be readily 
detected. Too much stress cannot be placed upon the im- 
portance of accurate checking of agents' ticket reports, as 
it is through these reports that a large volume of revenue is 
accounted for. Reports of sales of foreign roads are 
checked against coupons of interline tickets and baggage 
checks lifted. 


It frequently occurs that the purchaser of a ticket is 
unable to use it as expected and wishes it redeemed. Agents 
are supplied with a printed form for this purpose, which the 
purchaser is required to fill out, certifying as to the genuine- 
ness of his claim and that he has received no service either 
in transportation or checking of baggage. This certificate, 
with the ticket, is forwarded to the general passenger agent 
for approval and he in turn forwards it to the auditor, who 
approves for the amount of the refund. A special form of 
check, printed so that its indorsement constitutes a receipt 
for the ticket in question, is then drawn by the treasurer 
upon his petty cash fund. A blanket voucher, reimbursing 
the treasurer for the amounts so expended, is drawn at the 
end of each month, charging the passenger revenue with 
the amount of redemptions of card and other tickets wdiose 
value has been included in the earnings account on a sales 
basis. The redemption value of unused mileage and com- 
mutation tickets is charged to their respective liability 


If it is desired to ascertain with What regularity tickets 
are sold by agents and lifted by conductors, it is necessary 
to keep a record of tickets lifted. A form has been tried 
out by the chairman of your committee and it is recom- 
mended to anyone who may desire to take up this phase of 
ticket auditing. The form is printed with ticket description 
at the top and with as many parallel columns of the num- 
bers i to 50 as the width of the sheet will accommodate. 
Space is provided at the top of each column for entering the 
first number. For example, if the agent at Chester is at 
present selling tickets to York numbered 5000 to 6000 the 
first number will be entered at the top of the column and 
that column will then represent all the tickets numbered 
from 5000 to 5049 inclusive, and so on. Tickets must be 
sorted first according to form and selling station, then 
according to destination. It is not necessary, however, to 
sort tickets numerically, as the ticket numbers can be 
checked very readily without that extra work. The tickets 
being sorted, the record can now be made by entering the 
date opposite the various numbers lifted, in the column 
headed "G," indicating going portion, if a single trip or 
going portion of a round-trip ticket, and in column headed 
"R" if return portion of round trip. The result of the 
check is apparent at once. If a large number of tickets are 
found missing you will reach the conclusion that the agent 
is selling out of order or that some conductor is holding 
out from his collections for the purpose of manipulation. 
An unexpected visit of the traveling auditor to the agency 
in question and a secret inspection of train collections would 
naturally follow. 

auditor's accounts 
As soon as the agent's monthly ticket reports are checked 
a grand recapitulation is made of all reports, which is jour- 
nalized, as shown in the accompanying table: 

Recapitulation of Auditor's Accounts 

Debiting Crediting 

Agents and conductors. Revenue accounts. 

Foreign roads (balance due this Ticket liability accounts. 

company). Foreign roads (balance due them). 
United States government (account 
^transportation orders). 

Following the closing of accounts the compilation of 
statistics is taken up. 



The committee recommends the following additions to 
the interline freight agreement: 


Freight found astray in cars or warehouses of one road, 
showing destination marks to a point on the line of another 
company, will be billed out to the marked destination on an 
interline free-astray way bill and reported in the regular 
manner. The agent at destination, before delivering the 
shipment, will require the surrender of the bill of lading or 
original paid expense bill covering the bill on which the 
shortage is due, as evidence of ownership, and in case the 
shipment has been covered by a regular way bill, the desti- 
nation agent will issue corrections, making the free-astray 
way bill void, and referring on the correction to revenue 
billing. In the absence of a revenue way bill, freight 
charges must be assessed on proper weight, based on pub- 
lished tariffs from point of origin to destination, a request 
being made on the originating agent for a way bill to cover, 
and after that is received, a correction will be issued to 
void the free-astray way bill, or if it is impossible to get 
a revenue way bill from the originating point, a correction 
should be made to change the free-astray way bill to a 
revenue bill. 

We also desire to recommend the following plans and 
forms in connection with interchange of equipment and 
per diem accounts, inasmuch as several member companies 
now have use for a system to take care of this class of 


If the patented "Betz system" is used, it will be necessary 
for this form to be made in duplicate. 


If the patented "Betz system" is used, five copies of the 
report must be made. One copy of each form will be 
furnished to the auditor of each line and the agent will 
retain the last copy for his file. If there are two agents 
(not joint agency), it will be necessary to make an addi- 
tional copy in order that each agent may retain a copy for 
his file. 

In the case of roads handling a great many cars, the pat- 
ented system is very desirable for the reason that the short 
forms may be cut with a machine paper cutter along the 
heavy horizontal ruling and assorted in road order so that 
the ledger clerks may handle the posting with greater facil- 
ity. Each clerk will have only such cars as he is required 
to look after. 

The large sheets are filed in date order so as to furnish 
a chronological record of cars handled by conductors and 
delivered to and received from connecting lines. Small 
roads may use these sheets for posting directly to the ledger. 

July 5, 1913.] 



ledger Record of movement of local cars 
This form is so arranged that each page will show a 
complete record of fifty cars. In posting, the reference 
used is the last two figures or "two terminals," and the 
figures to 9 are printed on the outside margin, five times 
to the page to provide for the fifty numbers. The sheets 
are cut on the margin and indexed, showing the series. For 
example, 300 would indicate that cars 300 to 349 would be 
found on that page. Two sheets are required to make one 
page, or what is sometimes called a "double page." Days 
of the month are printed at both top and bottom of one 
portion of the page. On the other part of the page the 
initials of roads whose cars are handled are shown in the 
same manner and in the same relative position as the date 

The entries to this form are made from the assorted 
slips or from the large sheets. For convenience, all rec- 
ords may be made in pencil, using black only. All stations 
and sidings should be numbered. Junctions should have a 
distinguishing series when recording an exchange between 
the local road and a connecting line; also an odd number 
should be used to show "received from" and an even num- 
ber for "delivered to" in connection with interchange re- 
ports from and to a foreign line. For example, local sta- 
tions (including junction points for local business) should 
be numbered I to 500, and junction stations, in connection 
with interchange with foreign lines, 501 to 600. If there 
are two or more foreign line connections at one junction, 
use separate numbers to designate each road. By using 
separate series of numbers it is not necessary to use various 
colored inks or key letters. Empty cars are designated by 
a dash after station number. New books should be opened 
the first of each month. 

At the close of each month, on the right side of the 
double sheet under the column "total days on line" a record 
of the total number of days on the local line is shown. The 
column opposite the car number is double-ruled for a por- 
tion of this space and just above the faint ruling is given 
the record under each foreign road initial of the number of 
days on that line during the current month. Discrepancies 
are recorded at the extreme right of the sheet. Such dis- 
crepancies are taken care of by a tracer. 

A form is used for keeping a record of the movement of 
various foreign cars on a local line. In case there are a 
great many foreign cars on the line, it will be necessary to 
allot a number of sheets to a line and show- the car numbers, 
using the last two figures, or indexing by terminals in the 
same manner as for local cars. However, if the business 
is light, a sheet may be shown for each road and cars 
entered as received. At the left of the sheet under a column 
"transferred" the location on this company's line and the 
date of the last movement will lie shown as transferred 
from the last month's record. At the end of the month the 
per diem days will be shown under that heading in the 
column at the left. In entering the movement of the cars 
under the proper date, empty cars are designated by a dash 
after the station number. Entry should be made at the 
right under the heading "mileage," showing the mileage of 
loaded and empty cars. 

From these records three forms are made and may be 
either carried into an analysis journal, showing the name 
of the company on the left and the various heads, subdivi- 
sions, etc., at the top, so as to get the total footings, or the 
various classes may be posted directly to the ledger. In 
the same manner, a record on these forms rendered by 
foreign lines for per diem and mileage to be paid to the 
local company will be set forth. It is well to have a journal 
form, showing headings and various roads to provide a sum- 
mary of the monthly business of the various classes. 

A postal card notice is mailed to private line companies 
and to roads not in the per diem agreement, showing the 
amount to which a company is entitled for the use of its 

In connection with accounting for local freight business, 
we desire to recommend that the association go on record 
as favoring the monthly plan in all reports except cash 
statements and such skeleton daily reports as may be nec- 
essary for compiling daily earning statements. Therefore, 
we would suggest that the report of this committee previ- 
ously adopted be revised so as to eliminate daily report plan 

Two new loose-leaf forms were submitted for summariz- 
ing reports. These forms would take the place of some of 
the forms mentioned in the report of June 13, 1912. 


The totals as shown by agency abstracts are summarized 
mi this form. The form is balanced as follows: 

The total received, added to the total interline forwarded 
by a company, plus unadjusted or transit accounts, must 
equal the total forwarded, as shown by agency abstracts 
plus the interline received. 

After this balance is proved the interline settlement sheet 
may be made up. 


All freight accounts from the various sources are entered 
on this sheet and the balances for all agents, as well as 
each company, are shown. The "unadjusted accounts" 
totals for the previous month are deducted and totals for 
the current month are added. If the proper figures have 
been taken into account the advances received and for- 
warded will also balance. The amount of the foreign roads' 
proportion of revenue deducted from the total revenue 
freight column will give the net freight earnings of the 
company, and this amount carried to the credit in the "bal- 
ance" column will make the debit and credit footings equal. 

There are several forms, among them balance sheet and 
debit or credit advice, which are used for both passenger 
and freight business. Therefore, it was thought advisable 
that such forms be submitted as the joint recommendation 
of the passenger and freight committees. These are set 
forth in the report submitted by the passenger committee 
and are concurred in by this committee. 



A meeting of the standardization committee was held in 
the office of the secretary on May 31, 1913, the following 
members being present: R. N. Hemming, H. H. Buckman 
and L. M. Clark. There were also present the following- 
representatives of manufacturers: H. S. Williams, Peter 
Smith Heater Company: B. M. Hartsock, Westinghouse 
Traction Brake Company ; H. E. Laveile, Automatic Ven- 
tilator Companv. 


The first subject taken up was that of the controlling 
dimensions of trolley wheels. It was voted to recommend 
to the association that the dimensions shown on a dia- 
gram submitted by the committee be adopted as recom ■ 
mended practice. 


The next subject taken up was that of the standard 
train signal system, which was discussed at length, both the 
pneumatic and electro-pneumatic and the present hand-bell 
systems being considered. 

In view of the added complications of the pneumatic 
system, the discussion was confined chiefly to the electro- 
pneumatic system, which appears to possess the necessary 
qualification to meet satisfactorily the requirements of inter- 
urban train operation. 

As a resu't of the d'scussion, your committee submits 
the arrangement of the electro-pneumatic signal system 
shown in the accompanying illustration (Fig. 1). This ar- 
rangement does not go into detail regarding the location of 
certain accessory apparatus, which will necessarily have to 


[Vol. XLII, No. i. 

be determined by the local conditions, but does define the 
location of the signal whistles proper, which should be such 
that all signals can be readily heard by trainmen from any 
part of the car. 

In accordance with the foregoing it was considered ad- 
visable to utilize a connector between cars for the signal 

® - Signal Whistles, located 
to be audible on both 
sides of the bulkhead 

formulate a report, and therefore recommends that the 
subject be continued. 


The last subject taken up was that of the paper entitled 
"Mounting of Radial Couplers," by A. L. Price, of the Ohio 
Brass Company, which was read before the association at a 

Y m Signal Line Connector 

(formerly Trailer Light Connector) 

Motor Cor Trailer 
Fig. :— C. E. R. A. Standards— Location of Signal Whistles 

line, which would not inter-couple with the trailer light con- 
nector; and, furthermore, as the present standard trailer 
light connector has been found of insufficient current-carry- 
ing capacity, especially when electric heaters are employed, 
it is recommended that the present standard trailer light 
connector, as shown in the Electric Railway Journal, 
page 32, July 1, 191 1, be adopted as a standard signal line 
connector, and that the connector, of which the details are 
illustrated in Fig. 2, be adopted as a standard trailer light 

The committee further recommends the adoption of the 
revision of the location of the signal line connector, as 
shown in Fig. 3, the illustration reproduced below giving 
the standard locations of signal, lighting circuit, and main 
motor control connectors at the ends of interurban cars. 
heating and ventilating of cars 

The next subject taken up was that of the heating and 
ventilating of cars. Following a lengthy discussion of this 

/ t=^r - Mu ltiple Control Rece ptacle 
Headlight Hanger BrackeT^? 

Doub Headlight , ,. ^ Jf yj) 

Plug Receptacle ZT^% ^~^Ji 

Trolley Retriever 

M. C. B. Radial Coupler 




Fig. 3 — C. E. R. A. Standards — Location of Signal, Light 
and Control Connectors 

subject, your committee feels that the question of the heat- 
ing and ventilating of cars involves car construction, radiat- 
ing systems, heating units, fuels, etc., in connection with 
which some tangible data should be collected in order to 

meeting held in Indianapolis Feb. 28, 1913, and was referred 
for consideration to the standardization committee of the 

The discussion of the subject which followed brought to 
light the fact that not only should the present standard 
specifications for radial couplers be modified, but also the 




-it 2i'——f-i"-^\ 

To be sealed 

H- — - -//§'- H ^-Molded Insulation 

Drill for Coble End 

Contact Spring 
(*20 CagePhos. Bronze) 

Ex. Flex. Cable equivalent 
to *I0 B&S Gage 

Fig. 2 — C. E. R. A. Standards — Details of Construction of 
Standard Connector for Trailer Lights 

necessity of establishing certain limitations for the control- 
ling dimensions of cars, such as over-all lengths, truck cen- 
ters, widths, steps, etc. 

Your committee therefore recommends that the subject be 
continued to the end of revising the present coupler specifi- 
cations and formulating limiting controlling dimensions for 
cars so as to permit of the satisfactory operation of radial 


The concession for the proposed Naples underground 
and elevated system was granted early this year to a com- 
pany starting with a capital of $3,200,000. This project 
covers a city line with fifteen stations and a suburban line. 
The main suburban line will follow the coast to Camaldoli, 
and a second line will follow the Milano Agnano Road to 
the Agnano baths. All sections will be double-track. The 
line will be operated with trains of three cars each, the first 
and last motor cars and second-class, while the trailer will 
be a first-class car. The electric equipment of the motor 
cars will consist of four motors with multiple-unit control. 
Current is to be used at 1000 volts or more. The total out- 
lay, not including administration expenses, directors, etc., 
is expected to reach a sum between five and six million 

July 5, 1913.J 




The Santa Barbara & Suburban Railway has just been 
furnished by The J. G. Brill Company with five center- 
entrance cars of low-step design. This type has been 
adapted for the mild California climate by installing swing 
gates instead of doors at the center, while sliding doors are 

to the 15-in. x -%-in. side sill plate at each end. The side 
sill plates extend the length of each compartment. Two 
center stringers of 3-in. I-beams extend the full length of 
the car from bumper to bumper, to which they are fastened, 
'the 2>..-in. x 10^6 -in. end sills, the 3-in. x 3-in. diagonal 
braces and the i^-in. x 3-in. and 4' .--in. x 4/j-in. crossings 
are of oak. 

Each compartment has five windows on one side and 

— ! 

Santa Barbara Car — View Showing Low Center Entrance and Exit Door at End 

provided to close one compartment. The car seats a total 
of forty-four passengers, cross seats being used except at 
doorways and sliding seats opposite the center door. The 

four windows and a folding door on the other. The win- 
dows are of the double-sash type arranged to be raised 
into the roof. They have cherry sash with brass stiles. 

Electric Ity. Journal 

Santa Barbara Car — Plan View Showing Arrangement of Seats and Entrance Well in the Center 

accompanying plan shows that the car is 41 ft. long and 
8 ft. 6 in. wide over the posts. The center platform is 5 
ft. 7 in. wide. The cross seats are 36 in. wide, thus leav- 
ing a 26-in. aisle. There are no cabs or curved end seats. 

The body is mounted on No. 62-E trucks with 30-in. 
driving wheels and 19-in. pony wheels. These wheel di- 
ameters and the ramps permit the following easy grada- 
tions: 9-in. rise from ground to folding step, 8-in. rise 
from step to edge of well, 2-in. ramp to center of well, 8-in. 
step to aisle of either compartment and 6-in. ramp from 
edge of well to bolster center line. The gates at the center 
platform are hinged to one stanchion and swing inwardly 
back to back when opened to form an exit and entrance. 
The gates are kept open by means of door locks. An ad- 
ditional exit for passengers is provided by a 26-in. door 
and folding step at diagonally opposite ends of the car. 
These doors, which are operated by the motorman, fold 
against the vestibule windows. All side doors operate in 
conjunction with the steps. 

Each compartment has a 3^-in. x 7^4-in. side sill, ex- 
tending from the center platform to the end of the car 
body. At a point about 3 ft. from the center vestibule there 
is attached to the inner side of these side sills a 6-in. chan- 
nel which extends across the center platform. Tt is re- 
inforced with a 10-in. x %-'m. steel plate which is gusseted 

The seats are made of cherry slats. Special seats are also 
provided for the motorman and the conductor. 


Following fourteen years' agitation, both houses of the 
Prussian Diet finally approved on April 22 and May 5 the 
electrification of the Berlin city and several suburban lines 
of the Prussian State Railways. The original project of 
the railway administration called also for the electrification 
of some of the longer suburban lines, which would have in- 
volved 268 miles of route or 592 miles of single track. The 
cost of way changes was placed at $12,500,000 and of roll- 
ing stock (electric locomotives and modified steam trailers) 
at $1,825,000. Power was to be purchased from a private 
plant. The electrification now approved covers 126 miles 
of route or 293 miles of single track. The initial appropria- 
tion of $6,250,000 is accompanied by a request from the 
Diet for data on the results of future tests with different 
kinds of current and rolling stock, an estimate as to whether 
the electrification of additional lines would be profitable, 
and the preparation of a schedule of increased fares to 
cover fixed charges and amortization of the Berlin city, 
belt and suburban lines. The question of public or private 
ownership of power plants has been left in abeyance. 



| Vol. XL1I, No. i. 


The sixteenth annual meeting of the American Society 
tor Testing Materials was held on June 24-28 at Atlantic 
City. During the meeting several reports of committees 
on specifications of special interest to electric railways 
were presented, and these are given in abstract in the 
following paragraphs. 

The specifications for splice bars were elaborated to 
cover three grades, namely low, medium and high carbon 
steel. The former grade makes the use of Bessemer or 
open-hearth steel optional with the purchaser, the carbon 
content with Bessemer steel being limited to 0.10 per cent 
and that with open-hearth steel to 0.05 per cent. Open- 
hearth steel only is permitted for both medium-carbon and 
high-carbon bars, the carbon content for the former being- 
specified to be not under 0.30 per cent and the phosphorus 
content not over 0.04 per cent. For high-carbon bar.s the 
carbon must be at least 0.45 per cent and the phosphorus 
not over 0.04 per cent. 

In manufacture, the medium-carbon bars are required to 
be annealed in case they are shaped when cold, but high- 
carbon bars must be worked at a temperature not less than 
750 deg. C. In all cases analyses made from finished bars 
representing each melt are permitted to show phosphorus 
25 per cent in excess of the limits specified for the test 
ingot. Variations of 1/32 in. from the specified size and 
location of holes and of Fs in. from the specified length are 
also permitted in all cases. The maximum camber must 
not exceed 1/16 in. in 24 in., and any variation from a 
straight line in the vertical plane must make the bars high 
in the center. Cold bending tests on the low-carbon splice 
bar require that the test specimen shall bend flat upon itself 
without fracture on the outside of the bent portion. The 
medium-carbon and high-carbon bars are required when 
cold to bend without cracking on the outside through 90 
deg. around pins the diameters of which are respectively 
two and three times the thickness of the test specimen 
Optional bend tests of less severity were included. 

The specifications for carbon-steel car axles were 
changed in a number of instances, among which were the 
requirements as to chemical composition. These involved 
contents of carbon from 0.35 to 0.55 per cent, manganese 
not over 0.70 per cent, phosphorus not over 0.05 per cent 
and sulphur not over 0.06 per cent. The paragraph relat- 
ing to tensile strength was omitted complete and the list of 
drop tests was expanded to include axles of 6 7/16-in. 

Idie specifications for steel tires were changed to require 
that analyses made by the purchaser from the finished ma- 
terial should agree with the limits of 0.05 for phosphorus 
and 0.05 for sulphur as specified for the manufacturers' 
test, and not, as in the original specifications, be permitted 
to be 25 per cent in excess of those figures. 

New specifications for cold-rolled steel axles were 
adopted which included the use of a process optional with 
the purchaser and cold-rolling to finished size from 
hot-rolled bars. The chemical composition limited carbon 
to 0.40 per cent and phosphorus and sulphur to not over 
0.05 per cent. Manganese was called for to a percentage 
between 0.40 and 0.80. A tensile strength of 70.000 lb. per 
square inch and an elastic limit of 60,000 lb. per square 
inch were specified, together with an elongation of 18 per 
cent and a reduction of area of 35 per cent. Cold bending 
of a J-4-in. square test specimen around a i-in. pin was 
required. The allowable variation in finished size was 
limited to 0.002 in. 

New specifications for wrought solid carbon -steel wheels 
for electric railway service were adopted substantially in 
accord with the recommendations of the American Electric 
Railway Engineering Association committee on equipment, 

presented at the 1912 convention and published in the 
Electric Railway Jour nal for Oct. 12, 1 912, page 851, 
but with the exceptions noted below. 

The chemical composition involved the following re- 
quirements : 

Acid, per Cent Basic, per Cent 

Carbon 0.60—0.80 0.65—0.85 

-Manganese 0.55 — 0.80 0.55 — 0.80 

Phosphorus Not over 0.05 Not over 0.05 

Sulphur Not over 0.05 Not over 0.05 

Si'icon 0.15 — 0.35 0.10—0.30 

Analyses by the manufacturer were required to be made 
on a test ingot from each melt, and a check analysis made 
by the purchaser was permitted from one wheel represent- 
ing each melt, the sample to be taken from any point or 
from two diametrically opposite points in the plate but 
bored parallel to the axis completely through the sample 
in such a manner as not to impair the usefulness of the 

1 he thickness of plate was permitted to vary not more than 
F in. over or not more than % i»- under the thickness 
specified in the purchaser's drawing. The hub diameter 
was permitted to be s/g in. more than that specified, but 
not less, with a minimum wall thickness of I in. for bores 
6 in. or less and Ij4 in- for bores over 6 in., the thickness 
of wall to vary not more than i/g in. on any one wheel. The 
variation found with the ring gage was limited to 1/16 in. 
with rolled and r/32 in. with machined wheels. Mating 
was specified for size only and not for carbon. Xo con- 
sideration was given to weight. The matter of free re- 
placement of delivered wheels which proved defective by 
reason of cracks, breaking or defective material or work- 
manship was replaced by a clause to the effect that the 
wheels should be free from injurious seams, cracks, lamina- 
tions or other defects detrimental to their strength or 
service, and that wheels offered for inspection should not 
be painted or rusted or covered with any substance to 
such an extent as to hide defects. 

During the discussion on splice bars Norman Litchfield 
presented the objections to the specifications which hail 
been raised by the members of the American Electric Rail- 
way Engineering Association committee on way matters in 
regard to tolerances and camber. In the discussion it was 
brought out, however, that no objections had been received 
to the specifications in a canvass of the members of the 
A. S. T. M. committee on standard specifications for steel, 
and in the judgment of the convention the objections to the 
specifications were not vital enough to prevent it going- 
forward. The resolution was therefore passed that the 
specifications should be submitted to letter ballot to the 
members of the American Society for Testing Materials. 

Mr. Litchfield also presented the objections made by the 
committee on equipment of the A. E. R. A. to the proposed 
specifications for wrought-steel wheels for electric railway 
service, and to these very much the same objections were 
brought up by the members of A. S. T. M. committee as in 
the case of splice bars. It was stated that the matters 
which the A. E. R. A. committee on equipment wished to 
have put into the specifications were somewhat experi- 
mental and were being investigated at the present time by 
the committee of the A. S. T. M., and it was thought that 
it was desirable to adopt the specifications which would 
harmonize the existing discrepancies in the various specifi- 
cations now in use. Mr. Litchfield pointed out that the 
American Electric Railway Engineering Association was 
not ready to adopt any specifications for wheels, as it had 
not approved those which were presented at its last con- 
vention. With a view to further investigation, more espe- 
cially in connection with the A. S. T. M., he therefore 
requested that the proposed specifications be held up for 
another year. The matter was put to vote, and it was de- 
cided to submit the snecifications to letter ballot of the 
members of the A. S. T. M. 

July 5. [913. 



The Mitten wald Railway 

A 15,000-Volt, Single-Phase Railway with a 50,000-Volt Transmission System from Hydroelectric Stations 

Dr. E. E. Seefehlner has described in two recent issues 
of the A. E. Q. Journal the Mittenwald Railway, a new 
line in the Austro-Bavarian Tyrol mountain region which 
was opened on Oct. 28, 191 2. Under the collective name 
"Mittenwald Railway" all the railway connections between 
Innsbruck, Scharnitz, Garmisch, Partenkirchen, Griessen 
and Reutte are included, although this railway is subdivided 


I 'art of the energy for operation is obtained from the Sill 
hydroelectric development at Innsbruck. This plant enjoys 
a peculiar record inasmuch as it also supplies the 2500-volt, 
forty-two-cycle Stubaital Railway, opened in 1904 as the 
first of single-phase lines, and the Innsbruck-Hall 1100- 
volt interurban railway, the first Austrian railway system to 
use high-tension direct current. The same station further 

ElMtric Ry«Jem mil 

Mittenwald Railway — Map 

Mittenwald Railway — Light Bridge Construction 

into four lines. As shown in the accompanying map, the 
eastern line from Innsbruck to Scharnitz, which is 21 miles 
long, and the western line from Reutte to Griessen, which 
is' 20 l / 2 miles long, pass through Austrian territory. The 
intermediate Scharnitz-Garmisch-Partenkirchen-Griessen 
section, which runs through Bavaria, is about 25 miles long. 

The Alpine character of the territory is indicated by the 
fact that on the two Austrian sections there are eighteen 
tunnels with a length of 1412 ft., in addition to many 
bridges aad viaducts. The difficulties offered by the nature 
of the ground formed one reason for selecting electric trac- 

supplies energy to the 600-volt d.c. city lines of Innsbruck. 

The Mittenwald Railway also has a power station of its 
own situated about 3.8 miles to the south of Innsbruck in 
the vicinity of the Sill works. This station contains two 
3000-volt, single-phase, fifteen-cycle generators, having a 
continuous rating of 3000 kva and a maximum output of 
4500 kva each. The energy from each generator is led to 
a 50,oco-volt oil-and-water-cooled transformer which 
forms an inseparable unit with its generator. No 3000- 
volt busbars or switches are therefore needed, thus insuring 
extreme simplicity in all switching operations. The two 

tion because it permitted the most economical ruling grade, 
namely, 3.64 per cent. The railway reaches a height of 
3786 ft. above sea level at Seefeld, a difference in level of 
1968 ft. being overcome within 13. 1 miles. The saving 
effected against steam by shortening the constructional 
length at least 2 l / 2 miles at the most difficult part, without 
losing possible traffic, amounts alone to more than the total 
cost of the electrical equipment. 

transformer stations, which will also supply current to the 
Bavarian lines until the completion of the Walchensee 
plant, are located at Reith, 12 miles from the eastern, and 
at Schanz, 2 miles from the western boundary of Austria. 


The 50.000-volt transmission line is carried principally 
on the poles of the overhead contact line and consists of 
two wires each of 35 sq. mm ( approximately No. 2 B. & S.) 



["Vol. XLII, No. i. 

section. As part of it is in a district which is difficult of 
access in winter, great care was necessary in design and 
construction. On this account a portion of the line consists 
of three wires, two of which are usually in service, the third 
serving as a reserve. The latter can be switched in as re- 
quired to replace a defective wire. As a protection against 

stresses caused by the rapid passage of the current col- 
lector. The Allgemeine company found that a special form 
of disk link suspension insulator was the only suitable type 
for these conditions. As is well known, porcelain can 
be regarded only as a perfect material for compression 
strains because it possesses little tensile strength and has 

Mittenwald Railway — Plain Catenary Suspension and Bridge at the Scharnitz Station 

atmospheric discharges a copper wire is mounted above 
the high-tension line on the tops of the poles and is 
grounded to the depth of ground water at each pole. The 
steel lattice poles employed exclusively for carrying the 
line are erected 262 ft. apart. 

Insulators for transmission lines are as a rule subjected 
to comparatively little mechanical strain, since severe vibra- 

no flexibility. These conditions can be met satisfactorily 
only by the link suspension insulator, which is not subjected 
to a tensile or bending strain in any part. The insulator 
selected is especially suitable for anchoring the contact 
line, and although it weighs only 6.2 lb., it possesses a 
breaking strength of 17,160 lb. to 17,600 lb. 

A fundamental difference as compared with other sus- 

Mittenwald Railway — Span and Bracket Construction for Tunnel and Open Line; Transmission Pole Construction 

tions are no longer set up when the line is once com- 
pleted, but when the transmission line is carried on railway 
poles the conditions are different. Then the direction of 
the line is determined by the situation of the railway, as in 
this case, it may have to follow an uninterrupted series of 
sharp curves. In adddition, the poles are subjected to the 

pension insulators, particularly the American types, is that 
the grooves have no round section; also, in place of the 
wire ropes which rust under exposure, steel bands, which 
lie with their entire surface flat on the porcelain and do 
not injure the glaze, are employed for attachment. When 
the work of erection is finished the grooves are filled up 

July 5, 1913.] 



in order to prevent the penetration of water and freezing. 

The insulators have jointed fittings which take up all 

movement and thus prevent the wear of the grooves and 
the injury of the glaze. 


The contact line is carried entirely on lattice poles which 
are placed 262 ft. apart on tangents. Catenary suspension 
is used but without automatic tension take-up devices, be- 
cause the many sharp curves entail much friction and 
make it impossible for the customary tightening devices to 
work with reliability. Such arrangements are superfluous 
in this case as the poles are flexible and thus tighten the 
contact line themselves at the curves. 


The Mittenwald Railway has nine 800-hp locomotives 
for service on the Innsbruck-Landesgrenze and Bayern- 
Garmisch-Partenkirchen lines (35.3 miles). The maxi- 
mum grade of 3.64 per cent occurs frequently. A locomo- 
tive can draw a gross car weight of 125 metric tons on 
this grade at a speed of about 18.6 m.p.h. This corre- 
sponds to a tractive effort of approximately 16,500 lb. The 
small train weight may give rise to the impression that 
large outputs do not come into question. Nevertheless, 
one of these locomotives was in service for trial purposes 
for several months on the Dessau-Bitterfeld line of the 
Prussian State Railroads, during which period it drew 
freight trains of 1100 metric tons in the regular scheduled 

Each locomotive has a service weight of 53 tons. The 
current is taken from the contact line by means of two 
bow collectors with sliding contacts and is led through a 
bare high-tension conductor carried over the roof to a 
lightning arrester choke coil and then to the transformer 
compartment, where it is connected to a high-tension oil 
switch which is operated directly by means of a knife 
switch from the motorman's front cab. Between the light- 
ning arrester choke coil and the oil switch a grounding- 
switch is connected up to close automatically as soon as the 
protecting cover of the oil switch is removed. The cur- 
rent passes from the oil switch to the primary winding of 
the power transformer and flows thence through a high- 
tension current transformer connected in series directly to 
ground. The secondary winding of this current trans- 
former feeds the maximum cut-out coil of the oil switch 
and two ammeters in the engineer's cab. 

The traction motor is a twelve-pole single-phase commu- 
tator motor of the repulsion type, with a normal rating of 
800 hp when running at a speed of 18.6 m.p.h. The motor 
is regulated by means of contactors which are connected 
to the taps of the power and exciter transformers and 
operated by the 300-volt control current. 

Each of the two controllers has two separate drums, one 
to operate the contactors for the power transformer and 
thus regulate the output and the second to operate the 
exciter contactors for the control of the excitation. Each 
position of the output drum can be combined with all the 
positions of the exciter drum. Owing to this separate 
pressure and field regulation, the field can be adjusted for 
any speed with the lowest possible kva consumption of the 
motor. The locomotives can be run in pairs on the mul- 
tiple-control system to draw train weights up to 250 tons. 

In honor of the visit made to Germany this summer by 
the American Society of Mechanical Engineers upon invi- 
tation of the Verein Deutscher Ingenieure, the latter or- 
ganization has prepared a guide book of 171 pages. This 
book, which is printed in English and German on facing 
pages, describes the points of interest in each locality to 
be visited, laying particular stress, of course, on matters 
relating to engineering and technical education. The itin- 
erary shows that the American delegates arrived at Ham- 
burg on June 19 and that the official visits and receptions 
will terminate at Munich on July 8. 


The Consolidated Ascessories Company, London, Eng- 
land, is building the "Norwich" grinder, shown in the ac- 
companying cut. The grinder is light enough to permit 
two men to remove and replace it on lines with a five- 
minute headway, yet its weight of 1100 lb. is so distributed 
that practical freedom from vibration is assured. The 
truck of this grinder has two flanged wheels, which run 
on the rail 6 ft. apart at centers, and a third wheel which 
has no flange. This enables the machine to be moved more 
easily from the track and to run around curves with but 
little friction. 

The 4-hp, 1500 r.-p'.m. motor used for the drive is fur- 
nished with a sleeved shaft bearing which carries a toothed 
quadrant. One end of the double cantilever arm bolted 
to the quadrant carries the grinding wheel and the other 
end a counterweight. The arm is swung into and held 
firmly in any required position by the rotation of a hand- 
wheel attached to a worm which engages with the teeth 
in the quadrant. The lowest end of the arm carries a 
spindle having a sprocket wheel at its inner end and a 
grinding disk at its outer end. This disk is driven at 
motor speed by means of an adjustable endless silent- 
chain drive between the sprocket wheel and a similar wheel 
on the armature shaft. 

The 14-in. diameter grinding disk has a lead-bushed cen- 
ter and is clamped between thick rubber washers by two 

Side View of Portable Rail Grinder with Wheel in Position 
for Grinding 

steel flanges. The inner flange is fixed to the spindle, but 
the outer flange is detachable so that disks are easily ex- 
changed. Smaller disks are used for deepening grooves in 
the rails and other special purposes. Cutters are so in- 
stalled that the disk can be trued up while running in place. 

The drilling attachment enables holes to be drilled and 
reamed in rails, switches, etc., either when in position 
in the track or when lying in the yard. Holes may also 
be readily drilled in trucks, etc., without removing or dis- 
mantling them. Bevel gearing permits a drill speed of 
775 r.p.m. 

While the motor is running one operator moves the truck 
to and fro along the rails a distance of 6 ft. to 9 ft. at a 
speed not exceeding 6 ft. to 8 ft. per minute. The second 
operator walks by the side of the machine adjusting the feed 
until the surface of the rail reaches the required condition. 
It is not necessary to pour water on the grinding disk, but 
in dry weather it is considered advisable to water the rails 
in order to get a good ground return for the motor. 

A passenger car may be allowed to approach within about 
300 ft. of this grinder. The disk must then be raised, 
the motor stopped and the current collector pole laid 
in the crutches. One operator, by placing his arms under 
the T-handle and crossing his hands over the sloping part 
of it as low down as possible, can then lift the nearest 
flanged wheel out of the groove of the rail and slew the 
truck, after which it may be drawn to one side of the road 
in time to enable the car to pass without any interference 
with its schedules. 



[Vol. XLII, No. i. 


The London County Council Tramways has recently 
placed in experimental operation three petrol or gas-electric 
double-deck cars for use on lines in the East End where 
overhead operation is not permitted and conduit construc- 

London Gas-Electric Car — Part of Dash Removed 
to Show Generating Set 

tion would be too costly. The car is 27 ft. long over all, 
the platforms alone requiring 6 ft. 3 in. each. The present 
equipments, according to A. L. C. Fell, chief officer of the 
tramways, are converted horse-car bodies which were used 
in order to save time. These cars were stripped to their 
wheels, platforms, staircases and canopies. They were 
mounted on new underframes and platforms, constructed 
of standard rail steel sections and arranged to take the 
engine, generator, radiator and other parts of the gas- 
electric equipment. The canopies were rebuilt as far as 
possible in line with the corporation's standard electric 
cars, and the upper deck seats were rearranged accordingly. 
The new stairways have removable bottom treads and risers 
to give access to the engine magneto. The car is carried 

London Gas-Electric Car — Radiator 

on two axles runnning in ball bearings through long lami- 
nated bearing springs which are fitted with auxiliary coil 
springs and rubber cushions. A light sub-truck supported 
directly from the journal boxes through the medium of rub- 
ber pads carries the brake rigging and other details which 
are required to maintain practically constant relationship 

with the track level. The sub-truck, however, does not 
support any of the weight of the car body or passengers. 
The platforms have spring control fenders to protect the 
engine and equipment from shocks arising in the event of 
contact with other vehicles. Each car seats twenty pas- 
sengers on the lower deck and twenty-eight on the upper 


The electrical equipment and 40-hp engine were designed 
and manufactured by W. A. Stevens, Ltd., at Maidstone. 
The two electric motors, geared 6:1, are of the series inter- 
pole type. The maximum load on each motor is 20 brake- 
bp, but each is capable of developing 40 hp sparklessly for 
a considerable time. Either motor can run the car on level 
roads. The generator is of the shunt-wound interpole type, 
with a maximum potential of 350 volts. The engine, which 
has a bore of 4% in. and a stroke of 5 LS in., develops well 
over 40 brake-hp at 1000 r.p.m. This speed is necessary 
only on the hills, and in ordinary service the average speed 
is about 700 r.p.m. 

The engine and generator are mounted on a pressed 
steel frame which is suspended on the platform bearers 
in such a way that the power unit is easily removable for 
exchange in case of a breakdown. The water circulation is 
pump-driven. The radiator is on the end of the car oppo- 
site to the engine and generator but occupies the same 
relative position under the stairs. The radiator fan is 

London Gas-Electric Car — Double-Deck Horse Car After 

mounted directly on the shaft of a small series-wound 
motor, supplied from the terminals of the generator. The 
fan is in operation only when the generator is supplying 
energy to the motors, but as the engine is throttled down 
at all other times, the cooling is ample. 

The control of the first three cars is effected by the 
engine throttle, a controller by which resistances are put 
in circuit with the shunt winding of the generator, or, 
alternatively, the fields of the motor can be shunted by 
successive resistances. In addition, a reversing switch for 
the motor armatures is provided. Double-end control is 

It is possible to suppply the motors from either the over- 
head or conduit supply as an alternative to the self- 
contained generator, so that cars can be run either purely 
electric or gas-electric. As no electrical circuits are made 
(,r broken in running, the acceleration is very smooth and 
rapid. The car is lighted by means of metallic-filament 
lamps from accumulators automatically charged by an in- 
dependent dynamo, which is driven by means of a flexible 
belt from a pulley secured to one end of the motor arma- 
ture shaft. 

Ji'i.v 5, [913. 




(From Our Regular Correspondent ) 

The Brighton Town Council has decided to install a sys- 
tem of trolley omnibuses and adopt the "under-running" 
trolley. The first route will lie from Preston village to 
New Road, a distance of about 2 miles. By utilizing the 
existing wires in London Road the cost will be £5,600, the 
overhead equipment costing £3,200, three cars £2,250, and 
miscellaneous items £150. The capital charges on this sum 
will be £486 a year, or I.32d. per mile. The operating ex- 
penses are expected to be 6.5od. per car mile, making the 
total working cost 7.82L per car mile. The average re- 
ceipts will probably be at least 8d. per mile. Before the 
extension can be constructed along the main through route 
to the western boundary of the borough, an agreement will 
have to be made with the Hove authorities as to the type 
of equipment. If an agreement cannot be effected a Board 
of Trade arbitrator will specify the system to be adopted. 

The question of preventing splashing by motor buses 
is being considered and a guard, the invention of H. V. N. 
Graveley, has recently been placed 011 a number of Messrs. 
Tilling's motor buses. The guard is placed at the side 
of the wheel near the ground. The guard itself is com- 
posed of rubber, and is supported from a central bearing in 
the form of a hanger block which surrounds the axle box 
or hub of the wheel. Side arms attached to the frame of 
the guard in turn support this hanger block. The hanger 
block is fitted with ball or roller bearings. Devices are 
also provided to keep the mudguard in a proper position, 
but allow for lateral motion. 

The fifth annual congress of the Tramways & Light Rail- 
ways Association was held on June 12 and 13 at Blackpool. 
After the usual reception by the Mayor and members of 
the Corporation and Boards of the Blackpool & Fleet- 
wood and Blackpool St. Anne's Companies, a paper, "Pos- 
sibilities for Increasing Profits on Interurban Lines." w"as 
read by E. PI. Edwardes, general manager of the Lanca- 
shire United Tramways. This was followed by a paper, 
"Tramway Track, 1883 to 1913; a Resume from a Manu- 
facturer's Standpoint," by Fred Bland, of the firm of Edgar 
Allen & Company, Sheffield. After lunch, the delegates 
were taken to Lytham in special cars, and in the evening 
a banquet was tendered by the Mayor and Corporation of 
Blackpool. On the following day, a paper, "Railless Trac- 
tion Legislation," was read by H. England, general man- 
ager of the Yorkshire (West Riding) Electric Tramways. 
This was followed by a paper, "Standard Rules for Mo- 
tormen and Conductors," by A. V. Mason, general man- 
ager of the South Metropolitan Electric Tramways & 
Lighting Company. In the afternoon special cars were 
provided for a trip to Norbreck and Fleetwood, where a 
steamer was boarded for Barrow and Furness Abbey. In 
the evening the return was made to Blackpool, where the 
annual supper was served and the dance held. 

The finance committee of the London County Council has 
reported that the surplus on the tramways undertaking as 
a whole for the year ended March, 1913, was £739,000. 
which is nearly £202,000 less than the original estimate, 
showing a serious falling off month by month. After the 
full statutory charges have been met there is a balance of 
only £500, to be transferred to the renewals fund instead 
of £150,000, the amount estimated to be necessary for this 
purpose. The average passenger receipts per car mile have 
fallen from nearly is. in 1901 to about 9.73d. this year, 
owing to the severe competition of the motor omnibuses 
and the underground lines. 

The London County Council has been looking forward 
to the installation of trackless' trolleys, four separate 
schemes being included in the recent bill in Parliament. 
This bill has passed its second reading, but a clause has 
been inserted stating that the overhead wires for the track- 
less trolleys can lie erected only with the sanction of the 
borough councils in whose districts the lines are to be built. 
This means that the borough councils have received the 
power to veto, and the London County Council has de- 
cided to abandon the trackless trolley for the present. 

The Council is still pursuing its experiments with petrol- 
electric tramcars, which will become more important than 
ever now that the use of the trolley omnibuses has been 

barred. Some solution must be found lor the problem of 
equipping districts where it would not pay to install the 
underground conduit system. These petrol-electric tram- 
cars have been specially designed ami manufactured by the 
engineering department of the London County Council, 
They were equipped with petrol engines, electric genera- 
tors, electric motors and controllers, by VV. A. Stevens, 
Ltd., London and Maidstone. The engine driving the elec- 
tric generator is of the same type as that used on the 
Tilling-Stevens petrol-electric omnibus, and the experi- 
ments as applied to tramway work have been quite .suc- 
cessful so far. 

The Liverpool tramways committee, which has been ex- 
perimenting with the plan which is in operation in Lon- 
don of numbering certain tramway routes, has decided to 
apply the scheme to all the routes in Liverpool. 

The experiment of collecting certain fares on the plat- 
forms of the cars on a few of the routes in Leeds is to be 
extended over the whole of the system for a period of six 
months, at the end of which time the general manager is 
to report on the subject. 

The London Suburban Traction Company, which has 
been formed to amalgamate the Metropolitan Electric 
Tramways, Ltd.. and the London United Tramways, Ltd., 
has acquired a controlling interest in the South Metropoli- 
tan Electric Tramways & Lighting Company. Thus, with 
the exception of the London County Council Tramways, all 
the tramway and motor bus services in the Metropolitan 
area are under one control. 

The London & Southwestern Railway has let the con- 
tract for motors and train equipment for the first portion 
of its electrification scheme to the British Westinghouse 
Electric & Manufacturing Company, Ltd., Manchester. It 
is purchasing the conductor rails from Bolckow, Vaughan 
& Company, Middlesbrough, and these will be laid under 
the supervision of J. W. Jacomb Mood. The high-tension 
cables are being obtained from Siemens Brothers & Com- 
pany, Ltd., Woolwich. The contract for the power house 
lias not yet been let, but it is understood that 10,000-kw 
and 5000-kw units will be installed, generating at a pressure 
of 11,000 volts. The order for substation equipments has 
been placed with the British Thomson-Houston Company, 
Ltd., Rugby. The first section to be completed will com- 
prise two lines to Hampton Court. The electrical work is 
being carried out by Herbert Jones, the company's elec- 
trical engineer. The work in its entirety is under the su- 
pervision of Messrs. Kennedy and Jenkin. 

In connection with the electrification of the London & 
Northwestern Railway between London and Watford, the 
Maschinenfabrik Oerlikon of Zurich has obtained a con- 
tract to supply the electrical equipment, including motors 
and control apparatus, for forty-three trains. Tenders for 
the power house equipment have been invited from a se- 
lected list of British and foreign manufacturers. 

Encouraged by the success which Liverpool has achieved 
by adopting first-class cars on certain routes, the tram- 
ways committee of the Birmingham City Council has un- 
der consideration suggestions from a deputation of Bir- 
mingham citizens who desire to see first-class cars adopted 
on certain routes in that city. Many members of the depu- 
tation were in favor of single-deck cars only. The commit- 
tee has promised to consider the proposal to adopt first- 
class cars and single-deck cars. The committee is also 
interested at present in the question of providing the 
necessary links to the various tramway terminals in the 
center of the city, it having been agreed that these 
terminals should be connected so as to provide for through- 
running. The committee is awaiting the opinion of the city 
surveyor, who has had to be consulted with reference to 
the widenings and difficulties which might arise in regard 
to the streets along which these connecting links should 
be constructed. 

The Manchester tramways committee has decided to ex- 
tend its policy of reducing passenger fares. The decision 
of the committee was influenced by a report of J. M. Mc- 
Flroy, the general manager. An experimental reduction of 
fares on certain routes during a period of three months 
showed a large increase in the number of passengers car- 
ried and a small increase in the total receipts, but a slight 
decrease in the average fare per passenger carried and the 
average receipts per car mile. A. C. S. 


News of Electric Railways 

Kansas City Receivers' Report to the Court 

The receivers of the Metropolitan Street Railway, Kan- 
sas City, Mo., have filed a report with Judge William 
C. Hook in the United States Court at Kansas City, Mo., 
in which they review the recent progress of the company 
in part as follows: 

"On Jan. 2, 1912, an opinion was handed down by the 
court, suggesting to the receivers that they ascertain whether 
the cities were willing to enter into negotiations for a new 
franchise, and if so, whether they were authorized to act. 
Kansas City, Kan., has always expressed a willingness to 
negotiate, conceding that inasmuch as the larger portion 
of the property was in Kansas City, Mo., it was first neces- 
sary to make some arrangement with the latter, and that 
negotiations in Kansas should be suspended until some 
conclusion was reached in Missouri. Thereupon negotia- 
tions were begun with Kansas City, Mo., and continued 
without result during the administration of Mayor Brown. 
Upon change in the administration, negotiations were 
again opened with Mayor Jost. 

"On Feb. 15, 1913, Bion J. Arnold filed his report, fixing 
a valuation of $36,800,000, of which $35,000,000 represented 
the value of the Metropolitan Street Railway and Kansas 
City Elevated Railway, and $1,800,000 that of the Kansas 
City & Westport Belt Railway. This valuation subdivided 
consisted of $23,335,034 for the cost of reproducing the 
physical property less depreciation, and $13,491,541 rep- 
resenting intangible elements, such as going concern and 
earning power, which are part of the actual value. 

"L. R. Ash, an expert, made a valuation for Kansas City, 
Mo., for so much of the property as was within that State. 
He has since estimated the value of the entire property, 
tangible and intangible, at not less than $32,000,000, of 
which the depreciated cost of reconstruction is $22,000,000, 
and the intangible elements $10,000,000. However, the 
basis upon which this estimate proceeds is deemed to be 
clearly erroneous, because in calculating the present value 
of future earnings, there is charged interest at per 
cent on an assumed indebtedness of $28,700,000. The dif- 
ference between the experts, as to the cost of reproducing 
the physical property, less depreciation, is $1,335,034. It 
would appear that the properties, at their lowest valuation, 
ought not to be estimated at a value of less than $35,000,000. 

"There have been repeated meetings between the re- 
ceivers and Mayor Jost and his advisers, and so far it has 
been impossible to reach an agreement. Finally, how- 
ever, both sides conceded that the basis upon which a new 
contract should rest should be this: There should be an 
agreed capital value, to which should be added from time 
to time all expenditures for new capital. Upon this cap- 
ital value there should be a fixed cumulative interest re- 
turn. The city should have reserved the right to pur- 
chase and acquire the property when half the capital 
had been paid, subject to an indebtedness for the other 
half. Under any such plan the city should have a sub- 
stantial voice in the management of the property. 

"In the meantime there matured, upon May 1 and May 
15, 1913, street railway bonds aggregating $12,242,000 and 
bondholders are demanding their money. It, therefore, 
has become necessary to make some kind of a contract, 
even if there should be a substantial loss in value. Bearing 
this in view and recognizing the claims of the city as to 
a lesser value, the receivers finally submitted two alterna- 
tive propositions for a settlement, upon the basis of a 
5-cent fare. 

"The opinion of the receivers is that the $30,000,000 
valuation and the rate of interest to be received thereon 
are too low. The receivers think the city has recognized 
this to some extent. To ameliorate this situation, the 
first alternative proceeds upon the idea that the right to 
such higher rate and valuation is to be cared for by the 
right of immediate participation, thus making this wholly 
contingent. The second alternative fixes the present val- 
uation of this contingency, lowering the rate of interest 
and adding to capital the sum of $5,000,000. 

"Mayor Jost, however, rejected both suggestions, and 

presented a substitute. The receivers are not agreed as 
to whether an adjustment should be made upon the basis 
so suggested by the Mayor, in view of the fact that the 
right of participation is deferred. Many of the stock- 
holders think the Mayor's plan is destructive of their in- 
terests. Many of the bondholders have expressed a deter- 
mination that under no plan will they exchange their secur- 
ities, but that any plan must provide for the actual pay- 
ment of their claims in cash. In view of the situation, the 
matter is submitted to the court for its information and 
for such other and further orders as may be deemed 

The following statement was made recently by Judge 
Hook after listening for more than two hours to the pres- 
entation of statements in regard to the details of the 
negotiations between the receivers of the Metropolitan 
Street Railway and Mayor Jost for an extension of the 
franchises of the company: 

"I am inclined to favor the Mayor's position. I will con- 
sider the matter further so as to make sure in my own 
mind. Then I shall write to Mayor Jost, the Mayor of 
Kansas City, Kan., and the receivers." 

On opening the proceedings Judge Hook said that he 
wanted it understood that he did not propose to interfere 
with the powers of the two cities to make their own con- 
tracts with the company, and that he would not do more 
than assist in solving some of the fundamental points 

Proposed Detroit Ordinance. 

As stated briefly in the Electric Railway Journal of 
June 28, 1913, Mayor Oscar B. Marx of Detroit, Mich., 
presented a draft of his proposed street railway ordinance 
to the Common Council on the evening of June 24 and it 
was referred to the franchise committee. The ordinance 
provides for straight 3-cent fare, universal transfers, ex- 
tensions, payment of alleged back taxes and rentals, ulti- 
mate acquisition of the lines by the city, etc. Under the 
conditions laid down, the ordinance need not be submitted 
to a vote of the people, but Mayor Marx stated that he 
would not oppose this step. After the company has agreed 
to sell the property to the city, the question of paying 
the price which has been fixed will be submitted to a vote 
of the people. If a purchase price cannot be agreed upon, 
Mayor Marx expects to resort to condemnation proceed- 
ings. An abstract of the ordinance, omitting two of the 
sections, follows: 

"Section 1. Said company shall upon the terms herein- 
after set forth from day to day only, and at the city's will 
solely, operate on the streets where its franchises have 
expired or upon streets where it may build additional 

"Section 2. The fare for a single ride over any route 
in Detroit shall be 3 cents or a ticket which the railway 
shall sell on its cars in strips of packages of five tickets 
for 15 cents throughout the twenty-four hours of the day. 
A passenger upon the presentation of a fare may demand 
a non-transferable transfer slip good for a continuous ride 
over any other route. The company may adopt rules so 
that no transfer shall entitle a passenger to a return trip. 
The 3-cent fare shall apply to Palmer Park. 

"Section 3. The company shall build or construct the 
foundations and maintain the same underneath its track, 
subject to the approval of the commissioner of public 
works, and shall pave between the tracks and for a dis- 
tance of 12 in. from the outer rails of said tracks, and 
keep the same in repair with such material as shall be 
specified by the commissioner of the department of public 

"Section 4. The railway shall in 1913 on streets to be 
designated by the Common Council construct, maintain 
and operate a crosstown line in the western part of the 
city on or near Junction Avenue and a line between Bagg and 
High Streets. The company shall construct, maintain and ope- 
rate such lines of railway on other streets and such extensions 
as the Common Council shall on a two-thirds vote thereof 

July 5, 1913.] 



demand, provided the demand in miles shall not beyond 
the above named extensions exceed an average of 5 per 
cent per annum of the then and thereafter existing city 
street railway system excluding curves and switches. If 
the company fails to build such extensions within the 
time specified the city may build the same, and the com- 
pany agree to operate thereon and pay the city a reason- 
able rental for the use of the extensions. For the recov- 
ery of such reasonable rentals in case the parties are not 
able to agree thereon suit may be instituted by the city 
in the Wayne Circuit Court. In the construction of lines 
and extensions the city shall appoint agents to supervise 
the work of construction and purchases of materials, and 
to audit all accounts -and expenditures for materials and 
labor, and have the right to inspect and audit the books 
and accounts of the railway in connection with the cost 
of such works. 

"Section 5. No permanent or continuous rights are given 
to the railway, but in case the city shall hereafter not elect 
to purchase and shall order the removal of the railway 
from the streets where franchises have expired or where no 
term franchises have been given, the city agrees that rea- 
sonable compensation shall be made for such new construc- 
tion or extensions as are herein provided for and shall 
hereafter be made upon the order of the city, such com- 
pensation to be fixed by the Wayne Circuit Court in 
chancery before or after the removal of the railway at 
the option and will of the city; but in fixing such com- 
pensation clue regard shall be had and due allowance 
made for depreciation and profits already received by the 
railway out or such extensions or new construction. Un- 
der no circumstances shall the construction of such cross- 
town lines or extension be construed or deemed to come 
under any existing or term franchise whatsoever, but only 
under this day to day arrangement. 

"Section 6. It is agreed that all the franchises and all 
the franchise rights heretofore granted by the city or any 
other municipality to the company, where the streets are 
within the limits of the city, shall be revocable at the will 
and upon the option of said city, provided such franchises 
shall not be revoked (unless they expire by limitation) 
until the city is prepared by law to purchase and take 
over the said railway system as herein specified. 

"Section 7. The chief purpose of the city in passing 
this ordinance (in addition to lower fares) is to enable 
the city to own and operate its own street railway system. 
To that end the company agrees to sell to the city at the 
option of the city, to be exercised at any time within 

after this ordinance takes effect, all the railway 

property, etc., constituting its system at a fair and reason- 
able price. In case the company shall fail or neglect or 
refuse to sell said property at the option and on demand 
of the city, the sale may be specifically enforced in the 
Circuit Court for the County of Wayne, in chancery, in 
which the court may fix and establish the fair and reason- 
able price to be paid for said property and shall enforce 
the transfer and conveyance of said property free and 
clear as the court may determine. Before such option 
shall be exercised by the city, a referendum to the people 
as to the plan of purchase shall be taken on submission 
by the Common Council. This provision shall not be 
construed to bar the city from taking condemnation 
proceedings to acquire the street railway system or to take 
other steps to municipal ownership if it so elect. 

"Section 8. The right is hereby reserved to the Com- 
mon Council to make by ordinances such rules as may 
be deemed necessary in running cars. 

"Section 9. All differences between the company and 
its employees shall be settled by arbitration, wherein the 
said railway selects one arbitrator, the employees another 
arbitrator, which two arbitrators shall choose a third ar- 
bitrator, and upon the failure of said two arbitrators to 
select a third, the Mayor of the city shall appoint such 
third member of said board of arbitrators. 

"Section 10. As a condition precedent to this ordinance 
going into operation, it is hereby provided that the com- 
pany shall pay to the treasurer of the city $200 per day 
from July 24, 1910, up to and including the date when this 
shall become effective for rights and privileges exercised 
by it in the streets of Detroit heretofore without the con- 
sent of the city of Detroit, and also the city taxes on 

the property of the Detroit railway for the years 1910, 191 1 
and 1912, as shown by the books in the city treasurer's 

"Section 12. This ordinance shall not affect the liability 
of company and its property for future taxes, including all 
city, State and county taxes assessed during 1913. 

"Section 13. All ordinances or parts of ordinances or 
resolutions contravening the provisions of this ordinance 
are hereby repealed and revoked. 

"Section 15. This ordinance shall take effect five days 
after written acceptance thereof shall be filed by the com- 
pany with the city clerk. And while this ordinance shall 
be in force, the enforcement of the decree in the case of 
the City of Detroit against the Detroit United Railway, 
No. .37.446, in the Circuit Court of the County of Wayne, 
in chancery, known as the Fort Street rental case, shall be 

In a message which accompanied the ordinance, the 
Mayor said in part: 

"In the preparation of this ordinance, extreme care has 
been exercised to guard against the insertion of language 
that might grant a new lease of life to the company or 
in any way impede the city's progress toward municipal 
ownership. I am firmly convinced that a just rate of fare, 
extensions necessary for the welfare of the city or com- 
fortable and adequate service will never be obtained until 
the city owns and operates the system. Instead of re- 
tarding the progress of municipal ownership I believe the 
ordinance will hasten the day when the city will be pos- 
sessor of the street railway property. 

"The city, not the company, is the one to dictate on 
what terms the company shall occupy our streets, and I 
recommend, in case the company refuses to accept the 
terms of this ordinance with what changes your honorable 
body may deem advisable, that it shall be ordered from 
our streets." 

At the regular monthly meeting of the board of direc- 
tors of the Detroit United Railway, held on June 25, the 
ordinance presented to the Common Council by Mayor 
Marx was discussed, but no statement was made public 
as to what transpired at the meeting. 

It is probable that the demand of the motormen and 
conductors for an increase in wages will be submitted to 
arbitration. The present scale is 25 cents for the first six 
months, 28 cents for the next five years and 30 cents there- 
after. The men ask for 28 cents. 30 cents and 35 cents 
respectively, and also request that the time they shall be 
on call be reduced from thirteen hours to twelve hours. 
They further stipulate that they shall not work less than 
eight hours nor more than ten hours. 

The Michigan Supreme Court has adjourned until Octo- 
ber. The adjournment has the practical effect of delaying 
further steps toward municipal ownership until fall. When 
the Circuit Court declared illegal the $250,000 appropriation 
for a motor bus line, the street railway commission was left 
dependent on its power to issue bonds for funds to proceed 
under the charter. 

Rapid Transit Matters Acted Upon by the Massachusetts 

The work of the Legislature of Massachusetts has been 
followed from week to week in the Electric Railway Jour- 
nal since the opening of the session of 1913 in January, 
and the progress of the various measures through the 
houses has been noted. A feature of the work of the ses- 
sion was the passage of measures in regard to rapid transit 
in the Boston metropolitan district. Nothing has accom- 
plished in regard to the electrification of the steam lines 
out of Boston, but a number of other measures were passed 
of considerable interest. One of the acts passed provides 
for the construction of a double-tracked subway in place of 
the authorized elevated railway contemplated for Maiden 
and Everett, with a bridge and rapid transit connection 
between the Mystic River and Sullivan Square terminal 

Another act provides for the removal of the existing ele- 
vated structure in Charlestown and the construction by the 
Boston Transit Commission of a subway for tunnel trains 
between the northerly end of the Washington Street tun- 



| Vol. XL1I, N T o. r. 

nel, or City Square. Charlestown, and Sullivan Square. 
Upon acceptance of the act by the Boston Elevated Railway 
the subway is to be built upon the proceeds of bonds of 
not more than 4 per cent interest or fifty years' term, and 
a rental of 4J/2 per cent upon the net cost is to be paid by 
the leasing company. Tne existing elevated .structure is 
to be removed as a part of the cost of the subway. In the 
case of the Everett-Maiden subway, a provision is inserted 
for purchase by each city of that portion of the line within 
its boundaries, at any time after twenty years from open- 
ing, or before, on agreement with the railway, as in the 
case of the present Cambridge subway. 

The Boston Transit Commission is ordered in another act 
to investigate the cost of locating the easterly terminus of 
the Boylston Street subway at Post Office Square instead 
of at Park Street, with detailed route recommendations to 
the next Legislature. The act provides for the temporary 
connection of the subway with the existing Tremont Street 
subway in a new incline near the Public Garden. 

An act was passed designed to eliminate the penny toll 
collected by the city of Boston through the Boston Elevated 
Railway from each passenger in the East Boston tunnel, 
with a referendum to the voters at the next city election. 
The act provides that the city may appropriate from the 
tax levy annually until June 10, 1922, the sum of $125,000 
to be added to the rental received from the railway com- 
pany, provided that the holders of the bonds issued to pay 
for the construction of the tunnel consent to a waiver of 
the pledge expressed on their face to the effect that the 
whole amount of tolls collected from passengers through 
the tunnel shall be used to meet the principal and interest 
of the bonds. 

A resolve was also passed directing the Boston Transit 
Commission to estimate the cost of constructing a double- 
tracked tunnel under Boston Harbor for the use of electric 
railway cars operating on the Boston-Chelsea route, with a 
recommendation as to terminating on the Boston end at 
Haymarket Square or Scollay Square. The commission is 
to report to the next Legislature. A resolve also orders 
the commission to report upon the cost of removing the 
existing elevated structure from Washington Street, Bos- 
ton, between the southerly end of the Washington Street 
tunnel and Dudley Street and to hand its findings to the 
next Legislature. Another report is required by the com- 
mission to the next General Court upon the advisability of 
connecting the Dorchester tunnel authorized by the acts of 
191 1 with the South Station. The commission and the Rail- 
road Commission, sitting as a joint board, are required to 
investigate the service rendered by the Boston Elevated 
Railway and the Bay State Street Railway in the Boston 
metropolitan district and to report their recommendations, 
if any, to the next Legislature. 

Acts were also passed authorizing the construction of the 
Boston & Western Electric Railroad, and extending the 
time for the compliance of the Boston & Eastern Electric 
Railroad and the Boston & Providence Electric Railroad 
with the statutes under which they were organized. 

The Roanoke Strike 

In commenting editorially in its issue of June 27 on the 
strike of the employees of the Roanoke Railway & Electric 
Company, Roanoke, Va., and its lessons the Roanoke Times 
said in part: 

"Probably the departure of Organizer Colgan marks the 
end of the street railway strike in Roanoke. There is rea- 
son to believe that some of the most loyal of the strikers, 
after standing out fifty-seven days, have offered to return to 
work. We may regard the strike as ended and engage in 
some moralizing and thought over it. In the first place, the 
strike and its management and pretext were wrong. The 
one possible pretext was the discrimination in punishment 
between union and non-union employees offending against 
rules of 'discipline understood by everybody to be neces- 
sary for the conduct of every public service corporation or 
any concern dealing with the public. Everybody knows 
that certain standards of discipline must be maintained and 
that somebody must be the tinal and deciding judge. In 
matters of law and property rights we go before a judge 
or jury or both. When we accept employment with a cor- 
poration or person, we accept the rules and make ourselves 

subject to somebody's decision. It is entirely right that we 
organize to protect ourselves against oppression, over- 
work, under-wages or manifest injustice. Making trivial 
points on doubtful issues is a different thing. 

"The average union man does not attend a meeting of 
his union once in three months. He leaves a few pro- 
fessional union men to run the meetings. Half the time 
when he attends he is so afraid of being accused of being 
weak-kneed or of lacking backbone — two sins the average' 
American man most earnestly hates and the two taunts he 
most bitterly fears — that he sits silent or votes with the 
man his sense tells him is talking flub-dub and hot air, 
just because he is afraid of being called a coward." 

Subway Plans in Chicago 

Mayor Harrison of Chicago sent to the City Council on 
June 30 the drafts of two subway ordinances which he 
wants to submit to the people for vote in April, 1914. He 
also sent a special message on the subject. One of the 
proposed ordinances relates to the subway in the central 
business district for the elevated lines and the other pro- 
vides for an independent system of subways throughout the 
city, to be built by private capital and operated without 
reference to existing transportation lines. 

The two ordinances and the message of Mayor Harrison 
were referred to the local transportation committee. 
Mayor Harrison said in part in his statement to the 
Council : 

"There is serious and continuing criticism on the part 
of the public of the failure of the City Council and the 
administration to proceed constructively toward developing 
a policy of rapid transportation which may be made effec- 
tive at an early date and thus bring relief to the public, 
now subjected to intolerable delays, inconveniences and 
discomforts because of the outgrown transportation facili- 
ties of the community."' 

The ordinance relating to the general system of subways 
outlines the routes recommended by the Harbor and Subway 
Commission. It provides for a board of control with juris- 
diction over physical and financial matters. An amortiza- 
tion fund is to be created to amortize the entire capitaliza- 
tion during the life of the grant, or the city may acquire 
the system at any time on payment of the fair value. 

Mayor Harrison proposed that bids be requested from 
private corporations and that the decision on the question 
of development by means of an independent subway or 
by a terminal subway for the elevated lines be left to the 

The committee on local transportation failed to reach 
a conclusion on the proposed terminal subway ordinances 
for the elevated lines which it has had under consideration 
in time to make a report to the City Council on June 30. 
In their negotiations with the sub-committee the elevated 
companies agreed to pay the city an average of 5 per cent 
on the actual cost of construction on a downtown subway 
for a period of twenty years, provided the cost should not 
exceed $17,000,000. The scale of compensation offered was 
as follows: 1 per cent for the first five years; 2 per cent 
for the next two years; 3 per cent for the next two years; 
5 per cent for the next two years; 7^ per cent for the next 
three years; 8^/2 per cent for the next three years, and c 
per cent for the last three years. If any arrangement is 
made to continue the lease until 1944, when the last of the 
present ordinances expires, the companies will pay 5 per 
cent for the remaining years. 

The offer of the companies is based on the removal of 
the union loop, provided that change is ordered by the city, 
as soon as the terminal subway is ready for operation. 

Conference on Standards in Indiana 

The Public Service Commission of Indiana has instituted 
a series of important conferences with experts in the 
lines of the various public utilities which exist in Indiana, 
to obtain information on which to establish a set of stand- 
ards of quality of service of these companies. The first 
of this series of conferences was held on June 25, 1913, and 
related to gas. Three scientists, R. S. McBride, assistant 
chemist of the Bureau of Standards, Washington, D. C. ; 
Prof. F. C. Mathers, of Indiana University, and Prof. John 

July 5, 1913. 


White of Rose Polytechnic Institute, Terre Haute, Ind 
were present, and explained to the Public Service Com- 
mission the technical and scientific side of the gas ques- 
tion. Similar conferences will be held in regard to street 
railway, interurban railways, express companies, electricity, 
water, telephone, telegraph and heating. The dates lor 
these conferences have not yet been fixed by the com- 

It is explained by the commission that whenever a com- 
plaint is made to it — that the service furnished by any 
utility is inadequate, that the quality of the product which 
it serves is poor — the commission will send an inspector 
to make an investigation as to the justness of the charges 
made against the company. Jn order that the inspectors 
may have a basis on which to work the commission pro- 
poses to establish a set of standards of service which the 
public service corporations will be required to meet. 

List of Questions Sent to Indiana Companies by Com- 

The Public Service Commission of Indiana has asked the 
companies which come under its jurisdiction to answer 
the following list of questions before July 18, 1913: 

What is the exact name of the utility? If a corporation, 
give the name and address of each officer of the corpora- 
tion, including its board of directors. 

To whom and what address should mail be sent when 
intended for such utility? 

What is the actual value of all property of such utility? 

State the amount of stocks issued by said utility and now 

If the utility is bonded, state for what amount; when 
such bonds were issued; when they mature and what rate 
of interest such bonds bear. 

What is the actual value of all property of such utility 
which property is in the State of Indiana and is used and' 
useful for the convenience of the public? 

In the answer you make to the last question, how much 
have you estimated for ''going value"? 

For what amount was the property of such utility as- 
sessed for taxation in the year 1912? 

In the production of what service or product is such 
utility engaged? 

Is such utility engaged in the production of any by- 
product? If so, what? 

What was the gross revenue of such utility in the year 
1912, or the last fiscal year of such utility? 

What were the operating expenses of such utility during 
the period mentioned in the last question? 

Have you established a depreciation fund for such util- 

If so, what per cent do you set aside for such fund? 

If you have established no depreciation fund, what per 
cent of the fair value of the property of such utility used 
and useful for the convenience of the public do you think 
ought to be set aside for a depreciation fund? 

What was the net income or "deficit" of such utility for 
its last fiscal year? 

What is the date of the franchise under which you are 
operating and for what number of years was it granted? 

If your franchise fixes any rate or rates which you may 
charge for the service or product produced by such utility, 
give the particulars thereof in full. 

What was the total production of such utility for its last 
fiscal year? 

What was the cost per unit of service for the production 
for the last fiscal year of such utility? 

What amount does such utility pay its officers in salaries? 
State the amount received by each officer as salary. 

The Cleveland Operating Fund for May. 

It was shown at the regular monthly meeting of the 
board of directors of the Cleveland (Ohio) Railway on 
June 28 that $245.35 remained in the operating fund for 
May under the new allowance of 12. 1 cents per car mile. 
This is the first time in the last eighteen months that the 
company has been able to operate the road within the al- 
lowance. Since March 1, when the new allowance became 
affective under the direction of the board of arbitration, 

there has been an operating overdraft of $29,000. In .1 
letter which the directors decided to send to the City 
Council, the company will say that it hopes to make 
up this deficit, but that the Council will be informed of 
the fact if this is impossible. The May report, however, 
showed a maintenance overdraft of $61,586. While the 
book surplus was shown to be $46,029, the large amount 
of money spent for repairs during the month caused an 
actual deficit of $15,311. The directors have decided to 
sell the $189,000 of stock held by Horace E. Andrews as 
trustee and use the funds lor improvements. This wiil 
dispose of one of the questions that Were before the board 
of arbitration. 

J 11 an interview Mayor Baker said that the city would 
assume the ownership of the property just as soon as the 
company refused to abide by the award or desired to sell 
the property. 

Although the award of the arbitrators did not make it 
impossible for the company to create necessary deficits 
in the allowances, the management has a difficult problem 
on its hands. The public expects good service, but the 
city has placed a rigid limitation upon the amount that 
may be expended to furnish the service. The company can 
go no further in the direction of good service than its 
funds will allow and the service will depend upon the 
attitude of the administration and not upon the company 
or its officials. 

Henry J. Davies, secretary of the Cleveland Railway, 
and Frank J. Kilfoyl, auditor, appeared before the State 
Tax Commission on June 27 and argued against a tax value 
of $22,000,000 which has been fixed on the property. They 
asserted that the commission should adhere to the val- 
uation placed upon the property by the appraisers when 
the Tayler franchise was drawn. While additional money 
has been put into the property, it was largely for the pur- 
pose of keeping it up to the standard fixed at that time. The 
company paid taxes on a value of $19,854,850 last year. 

Rapid Transit Construction Progress in New York 

Counting in the Steinway tunnel, title for which will soon 
be transferred to the city for a consideration of $3,000,000. 
and the contract for Section No. 4 of the Broadway subway, 
which will probably be awarded soon at a figure between 
$2,500,000 and $3,000,000, the city of New York will have 
under construction shortly new subway and elevated lines 
for the dual system of rapid transit to co^t upward of 
$81,000,000. The report of the division engineers of the 
Public Service Commission for the First District for the 
month ended June 15, 1913, shows that this work covers 
about 27 miles of new rapid transit railroad with probably 
nearly 100 miles of single track, as almost all of the work 
now under way is four-track construction. 

Of the total mileage under construction about 21 miles 
are underground and 6 miles elevated railroad. About 9 
miles of subway and all of the elevated railroad is for oper- 
ation by the Interborough Rapid Transit Company, and 
about 12 miles, all subway, for operation by the New York 
Municipal Railway Corporation (Brooklyn Rapid Transit). 
The Interborough Company work includes nearly 6 miles 
of subway on the Lexington Avenue line between Fifty- 
third Street and 157th Street, four tracks from Fifty-third 
to 135th Street, just north of the Harlem River, and three 
tracks from that point to 157th Street; about i]'? miles of 
three-track subway in 138th Street and Southern Boulevard 
on the Pelham Bay Park branch of the Lexington Avenue 
line between Alexander Avenue and 1 1.7th Street; about 6 
miles of elevated railroad on the Queens rapid transit lines, 
of which the line to Astoria takes about 2 miles and the 
line to Corona about 4 miles, and about miles of subway 
in the Steinway Tunnel between Park Avenue and Forty- 
second Street, Manhattan, and Jackson Avenue and Van 
Alst Avenue, in Long Island City, all two-track construc- 
tion. While the Queens lines are being built for operation 
by the Interborough Rapid Transit Company, the Brook- 
lyn company also will have trackage rights over them. 

The 12 miles under construction for operation by the New 
York Municipal Railway Corporation include 4 miles of 
four and six-track subway on the Fourth Avenue line, run- 
ning from the Brooklyn end of the Manhattan Bridge 
through Flatbush Avenue Extension, Fulton Street, Ashland 



[Vol. XLII, No. i. 

Place and Fourth Avenue to Forty-third Street; 2^ miles 
of subway on extensions of the Fourth Avenue line be- 
tween Forty-third and Eighty-ninth Streets, which will be 
four-tracked from Forty-third to Sixty-fifth Street and two- 
tracked from Sixty-fifth to Eighty-ninth Street. The first 
part of the work, namely, from the Manhattan Bridge to 
Forty-third Street, is about completed, and the extension 
from Forty-third to Eighty-ninth Street should be com- 
pleted by a year from next January. The Brooklyn work 
also includes about i l / 2 miles of four-track subway in the 
Centre Street Loop line, running from the Brooklyn Bridge 
to the Williamsburg Bridge, with a two-track spur to the 
Manhattan Bridge, now completed and about ready for 
temporary operation; also a little more than 2 miles of sub- 
way on the Broadway line in Manhattan, running from 
Trinity Place and Morris Street north through Trinity 
Place and Church Street and thence through Vesey Street 
and Broadway as far as Fourteenth Street, four tracks 
north of Park Place and two tracks south of there. 

The work is being done by fourteen different contracting 
firms, who employed during the month a daily average of 
about 6400 men. 

The commission opened bids, on June 24 for the con- 
struction of Section No. 4 of the Broadway subway in Man- 
hattan. This section lies in Broadway between Bleecker 
Street and Fourteenth Street. It will embrace a local sta- 
tion at Eighth Street and half of the express station at 
Union Square. Eleven bids were received, ranging from 
about $2,600,000 to $3,300,000. The commission has not yet 
awarded the contract. 

Illinois Utility Bill Signed 

Governor Dunne of Illinois has signed the public utili- 
ties bill. Under the provisions of the bill any city can 
construct, acquire and operate any public utility within 
its borders, use the product or service of utilities, or sell 
them to private citizens or corporations. "Public utility" 
means and includes any plant, equipment or property, and 
any franchise, license or permit used or to be used for or in 
connection with the transportation of persons or prop- 
erty or messages or the production, storage, transmission, 
sales, delivery or furnishing of cold, heat, light and power, 
the conveyance of oil and gas by pipe line, or the storage 
or warehousing of goods, or wharfing. 

To Abolish Commerce Court. — The House rules com- 
mittee agreed on June 27 on a rule by which the deficiency 
appropriation bill, to be reported early in July, will carry 
a specific provision to abolish the Commerce Court and vest 
its jurisdiction in the United States District Courts. 

Terms of Purchase of Toronto Companies Submitted. — 
The terms of purchase of the property of the Toronto Rail- 
way and the Toronto Electric Light Company have been 
given to the Mayor of Toronto by Sir William MacKenzie, 
president of the companies, but are not yet public. 

Ornamenting Trolley Poles in Chicago. — The Chicago As- 
sociation of Commerce, through its committee on down- 
town streets, has undertaken the adornment of the streets 
in the Loop and has utilized trolley poles in carrying out its 
plan. It is proposed to make these poles a means of beauti- 
fying the city by hanging gardens from them. A pole at 
South State Street and Jackson Boulevard is the first one to 
be used in the beautification plan. 

Merchants' Association of New York Opposed to New 
York Central Re-location. — The plan proposed by a com- 
mittee of the Board of Estimate and Apportionment of 
New York City for the re-location of the tracks of the New 
York Central & Hudson River Railroad on the west side 
of Manhattan has been disapproved by the special com- 
mittee appointed by the Merchants' Association of New 
York to consider the proposals. 

Electrification of Spanish Road Proposed. — -The Valencia 
Economic Tramway & Railroad Company, Valencia, Spain, 
is preparing to change the motive power from steam to 
electricity on its 12-mile narrow-gage line from Valencia 
to Betera. The contract to be awarded will probably em- 
brace car equipment, line material, electrical supplies and 
such auxiliary power equipment as may be required in 
connection with purchased power. 

Pennsylvania Full Crew Law Valid. — The Supreme Court 
of Pennsylvania in an opinion by Justice Brown affirms the 
decision of the Dauphin County Court upholding the con- 
stitutionality of the act of June 19, 191 1 , known as the full 
crew law. The law is similar to those of Arkansas and In- 
diana which have been passed upon by the United States 
Supreme Court. It requires an extra brakeman on all pas- 
senger trains of more than three cars and on all freight 
trains with more than thirty cars. 

Iowa Interurban Roads Report for 1912.- — The fourteen 
interurban electric railways in Iowa which reported their 
earnings to the State for 1912, showed gross revenue of 
$2,255,163, as compared with $1,991,331 the year before. 
Expenses were $1,486,503, and a year previous, $1,409,764. 
The net profits aggregated $768,659, while for the year 
1 9 1 1 the profits totaled $581,567. Only one road, the 
Charles City Western Railway, reported net loss on busi- 
ness, and this was $1,11 1. 

Power Contracts of the Utah Securities Corporation. — 

The properties acquired by the Utah Securities Corporation 
have been merged into the Utah Power & Light Company. 
The territory served covers southeastern Idaho, northern 
Utah and a section of western Colorado. The company 
has closed long-term contracts with many of the large 
power consumers in the territory, including the Utah Cop- 
per Company, Salt Lake & Ogden Railway and the Utah 
Light & Railway Company. By the end of 1914 the in- 
stalled capacity of the Utah Power & Light Company will 
probably be 131,000 hp. 

Governor Eberhart on Utility Commission Appoint- 
ments. — In his first public expression in regard to 
public utility regulation since he sent his veto message to 
the Legislature on the Nolan and Minnette bills Governor 
Eberhart of Minnesota said at Austin on June 18: "Minne- 
sota had a railroad commission, a board of control, a tax 
commission and a highway commission long before Wis- 
consin did. If Minnesota cannot find as good men at 
home as the Wisconsin commissioners, it can go abroad 
and get them. If I appoint unworthy men, I should be 
one of the first to be recalled." 

Amendments to Erdman Act Approved by Senate. — 
The Senate on June 26 approved the passage of amend- 
ments to the Erdman mediation act, sought by the rail- 
ways and the railway employees, as affording suitable 
machinery for the settlement of disagreements. The 
amendments enlarge the board of arbitration provided 
under the Erdman act from three to six. The railways 
have declined to submit the present disputes to a board 
of only three. The appointment by the President of an 
official mediator, independent of all government bureaus, 
at a salary of $7,500, is also provided for. 

Projected Subway for Genoa. — The Superior Council of 
Public Works of Italy has approved the project for a 6 1-3 
mile subway for Genoa from Sampierdarena to Genoa, and 
thence to Quarto dei Mille along the coast. Estimate? 
of cost of the work and materials have not been definitely 
adopted, but the original estimate contemplated expending 
at least $3,667,000, which will no doubt be increased. The 
subway will have fourteen stations, four above and ten 
underground, three of these latter having two or • three 
passenger elevators each. Continuous current, third-rail 
electric traction, will be used. About twenty-two cars with 
motors and twenty-two trail cars will be required. 

Referendum Petition on Maine Utility Act. — More than 
10,000 names have been secured asking for a referendum 
on the Maine public utilities act, which is to go into effect 
on July 12. Opposition to the act developed soon after 
the Legislature adjourned. One of the principal grievances 
of those who oppose the measure is that Governor Haines 
appointed three lawyers to the board, instead of at least 
one engineer. It is said that the petition for the referen- 
dum will be filed with the Secretary of State on July 12, 
the day that the Governor and Council meet to arrange to 
put the act into effect. If the petition is presented the 
next legal step will be for the Governor to name a date for 
a special election to decide on the matter, which cannot 
be sooner than four months after the notification, or No- 
vember. A digest of the provisions of the new act was 
published in the Electric Railway Journal of April 12, 

July 5, 1913. 



Financial and Corporate 

Questions and Answers Under Uniform System of Accounts 

Stock and Money Markets 

July I, 1913. 

Summer dullness prevailed in the New York Stock Ex- 
change to-day, business being marked by listlessness. 
Many important variations in prices took place, however, 
and the closing figures ranged materially above the final 
figures of the day before. Most importance was attached 
to Union Pacific tradings, and other active railroad issues 

followed the declines and advances in this. Rates on the 
money market to-day were: Call, i]4@2 per cent; sixty 
days, 3/4@3'K' per cent; ninety days, 3H@4 l A P er cent; 
four months, 4}4@5 per cent; five months, 4?4@5/4 P er 

Influenced by New York, the Philadelphia market to-day 
was stronger. Philadelphia Electric was quoted at 2i]/ 2 @ 
21% and Rapid Transit 2I}4@2I%. 

Business was very small in the Chicago Stock Exchange 
to-day, but the tone was fairly steady. Bonds were dull 
the entire day. 

The tone in the Boston stock market to-day was strong, 
but the transactions were small. 

The stock market in Baltimore to-day was concerned 
mostly with small transactions. 

Quotations of traction and manufacturing securities as 
compared with last week follow: 

June 25 July 1 

Americn Brake Shoe & Foundry (common) 87 l / 2 90 

American Brake Shoe & Foundry (preferred) \26'/ 2 1 26 

American Cities Company (common) 36 )4 33 J4 

American Cities Company (preferred) 69)4 63 

American Light & Traction Company (common) *365 *365 

American Light & Traction Company (preferred) *106 *106 

American Railways Company 38 38 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railroad (common) 42 40 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railroad (preferred) *82 83 

Boston Elevated Railway 86!4 84 

Boston Suburban Electric Companies (common) 7 l / 2 7Yi 

Boston Suburban Electric Companies (preferred) '66 *66 

Boston & Worcester Electric Companies (common).... a8 a8 

Boston & Worcester Electric Companies (preferred)... 42 42 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company 87 !4 87 

Capital Traction Company, Washington 117 115)4 

Chicago City Railway * 1 50 * 1 50 

Chicago Elevated Railways (common) *24]/ 2 *24'/ 2 

Chicago Elevated Railways (preferred) *75 *75 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 1 100J4 *100 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 2 22)4 24J4 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 3 654 T l A 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 4 2% *2)4 

Cincinnati Street Railway 106 110 

Cleveland Railway 102)4 102J4 

Cleveland, Southwestern & Columbus Ry. (common) 6 *6 

Cleveland, Southwestern & Columbus Ry. (preferred). 29 *29 

Columbus Railway & Light Company 18 18 

Columbus Railway (common) 69 I 4 69'4 

Columbus Railway (preferred) 88 88 

Denver &' Northwestern Railway *107 * 107 

Detroit United Railway 70 J4 70 

General Electric Company 136"4 135J4 

Georgia Railway & Electric Company (common) 11534s 115 

Georgia Railway & Electric Company (preferred) 83)4 84 

Interborough Metropolitan Company (common) 15J4 15 

Interborough Metropolitan Company (preferred) 55% 55)4 

Internaticnal Traction Company (common) 30 *30 

International Traction Company (preferred) 95 *95 

Kansas City Railway & Light Company (common).... 18 *18 

Kansas City Railway & Light Company (preferred).... 36 "36 

Lake Shore Electric Railway (common) 6 *6 

Lake Shore Electric Railway (1st preferred) 92 *92 

Lake Shore Electric Railway (2d preferred) 25 "25 

Manhattan Railway 127 125 

Massachusetts Electric Companies (common) 12% 13 

Massachusetts Electric Companies (preferred) 67 66 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co. (preferred).. 100 MOO 

Norfolk Railway & Light Company 25 25 

North American Company . . 66 65 

Northern Ohio Light & Traction Company (common).. 80 80 

Northern Ohio Light & Traction Company (preferred). 105 105 

Philadelphia Company, Pittsburgh (common) 40% 40y 2 

Philadelphia Company, Pittsburgh (preferred) 39 39 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company 22]/ 2 2\ l / 2 

Portland Railway, Light & Power Company 62 *62 

Public Service Corporation Ill 1 10 

Third Avenue Railway, New York 3\ l / 2 31 54 

Toledo Railways & Light Company 2 2 

Twin City Rapid Transit Co., Minneapolis (common).. 102)4 102 

Union Traction Company of Indiana (common) 4J4 *4 l / 2 

Union Traction Company of Indiana (1st preferred)... 80 *80 

Union Traction Company of Indiana (2d preferred) ... 30 *30 

United Rys. & Electric Company (Baltimore) 25% 26 

United Rys. Inv. Company (common) 2G l / 2 19 

United Rvs. Inv. Company (preferred) 34 34 

Virginia Railway & Power Company (common) 56 52 

Virginia Railway & Power Company (preferred) S7'/ 2 S7'/ 2 

Washington Ry. & Electric Company (common) 90'4 89"^ 

Washington Ry. & Electric Company (preferred) 88% 87)4 

West End Street Railway, Boston (common) 71 71 

West End Street Railwav, Boston (preferred) 87 y 2 87 

Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Company S9'/ 2 S814 

Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Company (1st preferred). 106 105 

•Last sale, a Asked. 

Another series of tentative answers to questions raised in 
connection with the uniform system of accounts established 
by the Interstate Commerce Commission is published below. 
Agreement on these answers, as on those published in the 
issues of May 17, 1913, and June 7, 1913, has been reached 
by members of the committee on a standard classification 
of accounts of the American Electric Railway Accountants' 
Association and representatives of the commission. As 
these answers have not yet received the formal approval of 
the commission, however, it should be understood that the 
decisions do not represent its final conclusions and that 
they arc subject to such revision as may be thought proper 
before final promulgation in the accounting bulletins of the 

Q. What account should be charged with the cost of 
new copper trolley wire stolen from the storehouse, but 
recovered after being cut into short lengths? 

A. The cost of the wire, less the value of scrap recov- 
ered, should be charged to Operating Expense Account No. 
89, "Store Expenses." 

Q. What account should be charged with the cost of 
repairs and replacements of watchmen's portable clocks 
used in a carhouse and the cost of paper dials used in 

A. The cost of repairs and replacements of such clocks 
should be included in Operating Expense Account No. 67. 
"Carhouse Expenses," and the cost of the paper dials 
in account No. 84, "Stationery and Printing." 

Q. To what account should be charged the amount as- 
sessed against an electric railway company for dredging a 
stream so as to drain towns and lands along said stream? 

A. Road and Equipment Account No. 2, "Right of Way." 
(See case 161 of Accounting Bulletin No. 7.) 

Q. What account is chargeable with the amount of dona- 
tions to charitable organizations or institutions? 

A. Account No. 79, "Miscellaneous General Expenses," 
in the classification of Operating Expenses. 

Q. What account should be charged with the cost of oil 
cans and such devices for use by employees of various de- 

A. The cost of oil cans and such devices should be 
charged to Operating Expense Account No. 54, "Miscella- 
neous Power Plant Expenses"; No. 55, "Substation Ex- 
penses"; No. 67, "Carhouse Expenses"; No. 39, "Shop 
Expenses"; No. 24, "Miscellaneous Electric Line Expenses"; 
No. 63, "Miscellaneous Car-Service Expenses," or No. 65, 
"Station Expenses," according to the use for which they 
are intended. 

Q. What accounts should be charged with the first cost 
and the cost of repairs and renewals of trolley retrievers 
and catchers? 

A. The first cost should be charged to Road and Equip- 
ment Account No. 35, "Cars"; No. 36, "Locomotives," or 
No. 38, "Other Rail Equipment," according to the equip- 
ment fitted with the devices. The cost of repairs and re- 
newals should be charged to Operating Expense Account 
No. 32, "Passenger and Combination Cars"; No. 33, "Freight, 
Express and Mail Cars"; No. 34, "Locomotives," or No. 35, 
"Service Cars." 

Q. To what account should the cost of transformer oil 
for use in power stations or substations be charged? 

A. The first cost should be charged to Road and Equip- 
ment Account No. 30, "Power Plant Equipment," if the 
oil is for use in a power plant, or to Account No. 31, "Sub- 
station Equipment," if for use in a substation. The cost 
of renewals should be charged to the corresponding main- 
tenance account in operating expenses. 

Q. What account should be charged with the cost of 
mowing lawns about carhouses, power plants, substations 
or stations? 

A. Operating Expense Account No. 25, "Buildings and 
Structures," unless the amounts involved are small and 
the work is done by employees of the company as in- 
cidental to their regular duties, in which case it will not 
be necessary to subdivide their time. 

Q. What account should be charged with the cost of 
flowers and shrubs and the labor of planting them about 
various buildings? 



[Vol. XLII, No. r. 

.1. Operating Expense Account No. 25, "Buildings and 

Q. To what account should a license fee paid in ac- 
cordance with the State law relating to inspection be 
charged ? 

A. Operating Expense Account No. 79, "Miscellaneous 
General Expenses.'' 

Q. To what account should be charged the cost of re- 
newals of lamp cord, sockets, lamps and switches used in 
carhouses, shops, power plants, substations and freight 
and passenger stations? 

A. Operating Expense Account No. 67, "Carhouse Ex- 
penses"; No. 39, "Shop Expenses"; No. 54, "Miscellaneous 
Power Plant Supplies and Expenses"; No. 55, "Substation 
Supplies and Expenses," or No. 65, "Station Supplies and 
Expenses," according to where the articles are used. 

O. Is it proper to charge the various operating expense 
accounts for the transportation of employees of the differ- 
ent operating departments? 

A. No charge should be made against a company's op- 
erating expenses on account of the free transportation over 
its own lines of men (on or off duty) employed in main- 
tenance or operation. (See case 201, Accounting Bulletin 
No. 7.) 

Decision in Chicago Consolidated Traction Case 

Chief Justice Harry Olson of the Municipal Court at 
Chicago has declared void and illegal the bond issue of 
$6,750,000 of the Chicago Consolidated Traction Company. 
These bonds were issued during the regime of Charles T. 
Yerkes in 1899, and while the suit involved only $149,000 
worth of them, the issue now outstanding is affected by the 
decision. The suit was brought by a New York committee 
composed of Rafael R. Covin, George W. Young and Archi- 
bald White against the Chicago Railways and was taken 
under advisement by Chief Justice Olson eighteen months 
ago. The bonds were issued in return for the stock of the 
eight underlying companies which formed the Consolidated 
Traction Company, so as to give Mr. Yerkes control of all 
the companies through voting their stock. This prevented 
the underlying companies from becoming competitors of 
the Union Traction Company. Justice Olson held it was 
contrary to the law and to public policy for a corporation to 
buy the stock of competing corporations for the purpose 
of acquiring a monopoly. An appeal will be taken by the 
committee of Consolidated bondholders. Aside from the 
$149,000 worth of bonds held by the Govin committee there 
are still $105,000 of bonds authorized, all of which are out- 
standing except $17,000 and $30,000 of which are in the 
hands of the Yerkes estate. The Chicago Railways bought 
all the rest, paying 30 cents on the dollar for about $4,450,- 
000 held by the Yerkes estate. 

In commenting on the decision, W. W. Gurley, chief 
counsel for the Chicago Railways, said: 

"The management of the Chicago Railways is naturally 
much pleased with Judge Olson's decision. It sustains in 
full the contention always made in behalf of the company 
that it was in no wise liable for the debts or obligations of 
the Chicago Union Traction Company or the predecessor 
companies, beyond the extent specified in the modified plan 
of reorganization of Oct. 15, 1907. The decision means that 
the claims asserted against the company, which, if well 
founded, menaced its very existence, and which at all times 
depressed the market value of all its securities, have re- 
ceived their quietus. The counsel for the company is confi- 
dent that no court will disturb the findings and conclu- 
sion of Judge Olson, and the management feels that it can 
devote its time and attention to the operation of the prop- 
erty for the benefit of the public and the participation cer- 
tificate holders, free from the continual apprehension of a 
calamitous court decision impairing their usefulness, if not 
ruining the property." 

Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester Railway, Rochester, 

N. Y. — It is reported that the Buffalo, Lockport & Roches- 
ter Railway may be included in a merger with the Inter- 
national Railway and the Buffalo & Lake Erie Traction 
Company, the plan being to provide a through trunk line 
between Rochester, Buffalo and Erie. Clifford D. Beebe, 
president of the Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester Railway. 

is quoted as follows in this connection: "There is nothing 
definite to the plans. In fact, no plans worthy of the name 
have been made." 

Chicago (111.) Railways. — Back dividends due on the Chi- 
cago Railways Series 1 participation certificates on Aug. 1, 
1912, aggregated 24 per cent, dividends having been sus- 
pended since Aug. 1, 1910. The company paid 6 per cent on 
Oct. 1, 1912, 6 per cent on Feb. I, 1913, and 6 per cent on 
March 15, 1913. The 6 per cent to be paid on July 1 will 
leave no accumulated dividends unpaid, but the payment of 
4 per cent on Aug. 1 will leave one-half of the full dividend 
of 8 per cent for this year unpaid. 

Cincinnati, Dayton & Toledo Traction Company, Hamil- 
ton, Ohio. — At the special meeting of stockholders of the 
Cincinnati, Dayton & Toledo Traction Company on June 
2 3. 1913. the lease of that company to the Ohio Electric 
Railway was modified in accordance with the recommen- 
dations of the board of directors, noted at length in the 
Electric Railway Journal of June 7, 1913, page 1038. The 
new agreement fixed the rent of the Cincinnati, Dayton 
& Toledo Traction Company at $266,500 a year for 1913 
and 1914, and thereafter it is increased at the rate of $10,- 
000 a year, making the rental for 1912 and thereafter $366,- 
500 a year. Under the amended lease the common stock 
of the Cincinnati, Dayton & Toledo Traction Company, on 
which 2 per cent a year has been paid, will be reduced from 
$5,000,000 to $2,000,000 and no dividends will be paid on 
this stock until the year beginning July 1, 1915, when one- 
half of 1 per cent will be paid, and this will be increased 
each year until J 922, when 5 per cent will be paid. The 
preferred stock will be increased from $250,000 to $1,250.- 

000, the new stock to be sold from time to time to provide 
funds for betterments and extensions. The Ohio Electric 
Railway will provide the financing for maturing bonds 
and other obligations of the leased road. 

Eastern Texas Electric Company, Beaumont, Tex. — Stone 
& Webster, Boston, Mass., are offering for subscription at 
98^2 and interest $500,000 of three-year 6 per cent gold notes 
of the Eastern Texas Electric Company, which owns all 
the stocks and bonds of the companies which do the entire 
electric light and power business at Port Arthur, Tex., and 
the company constructing an interurban electric railway be- 
tween Beaumont and Port Arthur, a distance of about 20 
miles. It is also about to acquire all the stock and $200,000 
of the $600,000 bonds of the Beaumont Traction Company, 
which does the entire electric railway business in Beau- 
mont. The notes are dated July r, 1913. and are due July 

1, 1916. They are in the denominations of $500 and $1,000 
and are callable as a whole at 100 and accrued interest on 
thirty days' notice. The interest is payable at the office of 
the State Street Trust Company, Boston, trustee of the 

Hudson & Manhattan Railroad, New York, N. Y. — The 

Public Service Commission of the First District of New 
York has approved the plan for the readjustment of the 
finances of the Hudson & Manhattan Railroad in accord- 
ance with the proposal made by the syndicate composed 
of Kuhn, Loeb & Company, Robert Fleming & Company 
and Harvey Fisk & Sons. References to the proposed re- 
financing were made in the Electric Railway Journal of 
Jan. 18, March 1, May 17 and June 21, 1913. 

Indianapolis & Louisville Traction Company, Scottsburg, 
Ind. — The Indianapolis & Louisville Traction Company has 
elected new officers, as follows: John E. Greeley, Scotts- 
burg, Ind., president and general manager; Mark Storen, 
Scottsburg, vice-president; Earl S. Gwin, New Albany, 
treasurer, and Walter A. Gadient, New Albany, secretary; 
E. H. Jennings, James C. Chaplin and Jerome Hill, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa.; Samuel D. Miller, Indianapolis, Ind.; Mark 
Storen, Earl S. Gwin and John E. Greeley, directors. 

Loramie & Minster Electric Railroad, Minster, Ohio. — 
Julius Boesel. president of the First National Bank, Min- 
ster, and W. J. Sheriden, president of the Loramie Bank- 
ing Company, Loramie, have been appointed receivers of 
the Loramie & Minster Railroad, as a result of a suit on a 
note instituted by the First National Bank. The road was 
built in 1910 and the liabilities are placed at $50,000. It is 
said that the Western Ohio Railway may take over the 
line, which is a short one. 

July 5, 1913. 



Omaha, Lincoln & Beatrice Railway, Omaha, Neb. — The 

Nebraska Slate Railway Commission has modified its for- 
mer order so as to allow the Omaha, Lincoln & Beatrice 
Railway to issue $2,250,000 of bonds and $^50,000 of stock 
upon the completion of its interurban line between Lincoln 
and Omaha. The Lincoln terminals of the company and 
the line eastward into Bethany Heights, a suburb, have 
been in operation for some time. The Northern Construc- 
tion Company, Detroit, Mich., is completing the line from 
Lincoln to Omaha. 

Nevada County Narrow-Gage Railroad, Grass Valley, 
Cal. — The Nevada County Narrow-Gage Railroad has been 
authorized by the Railroad Commission of California to 
issue $500,000 of 5 per cent, bonds. The proceeds will be 
used to retire existing bonds and to standardize the present 
narrow-gage line from Colfax to Nevada City. 

Oakland, Antioch & Eastern Railway, Oakland, Cal. — ■ 
The Oakland, Antioch & Eastern Railway has applied to 
the Railroad Commission of California for authority to 
issue $1,000,000 of 5 per cent bonds to provide funds to 
complete its road from Bay Point to Sacramento. 

Ohio Traction Company, Cincinnati, Ohio. — The direc- 
tors of the Ohio Traction Company, at a meeting on June 
27, decided to pass the dividend on the common stock due 
on July 1, 1913. The last disbursement was made on April 
1, 1913, at the rate of 4 per cent for the year. The divi- 
dend was passed on account of the damage done to the 
property of the company by the recent floods. 

Philadelphia & West Chester Traction Company, Upper 
Darby. Pa. — John P. Crozier, Upland, Pa., has been elected 
a director of the Philadelphia & West Chester Traction 
Company to fill a vacancy in the board. 

South Bend & Logansport Traction Company, South 
Bend, Ind. — The property and franchises of the South Bend 
& Logansport Traction Company will be offered for sale by 
the receiver of the company at South Bend on July 5. The 
company w as promoted originally in 1008 as the South Bend 
& Logansport Railway and offices were established in the 
American Trust Building, South Bend. It was proposed to 
obtain power from the Indiana & Michigan Electric Com- 

United Railways & Electric Company, Baltimore, Md. — 

At the regular meeting of the directors of the United Rail- 
ways & Electric Company the payment of dividends on the 
stock of the company was changed from semi-annually to 
quarterly, a quarterly dividend of 1 per cent being declared 
on the common stock, payable on July 15 to stock of record 
of July 7. 

United Railways, St. Louis, Mo. — The United Railways 
arranged to extend for ten years the $1,000,000 of 6 per 
cent bonds of the Compton Heights, L T nion Depot & Mer- 
chants' Terminal Railroad due on July 1, 1013. 

Dividends Declared 

Athens Railwa}- & Electric Company, Athens. Ga., quar- 
terly, 1% per cent, preferred. 

Bay State Street Railway, Boston, Mass., 3 per cent, first 

Boston (Mass.) Suburban Electric Companies, quarterly, 
$1, preferred. 

Cincinnati, Dayton & Toledo Traction Company, Hamil- 
ton, Ohio, 2 l / 2 per cent, preferred. 

Cincinnati, Newport & Covington Light & Traction Com- 
pany, Covington, Ky., quarterly, 1% per cent, preferred; 
quarterly, per cent, common. 

Citizens' Traction Company, Oil City, Pa., $1, preferred. 

City Railway, Dayton, Ohio, quarterly, i J / 2 per cent, pre- 
ferred; quarterly, 2 per cent, common. 

Columbus, Newark & Zanesville Electric Railway, New- 
ark, Ohio, quarterly, i]/> per cent, preferred. 

Denver & Northwestern Railway, Denver, Col., quarterly, 
2 per cent. 

Holyoke (Mass.) Street Railway, 4 per cent. 

International Traction Company, Buffalo, N. Y., 2 per 
cent, preferred. 

Manchester Traction, Light & Power Company, Man- 
chester, N. H., quarterly, 2 per cent. 

Memphis (Tenn.) Street Railway, quarterly, per cent, 

Metropolitan West Side Elevated Railway, Chicago, 111. 
1 Va P<-' r cent. 

Monongahela Valley Traction Company, Fairmont, W. 
Va., 1 Y> per cent, common. 

Montreal (Que.) Tramways, 2JA per cent. 

Nashville Railway & Light Company. Nashville, Tenn., 
quarterly, 1% per cent, preferred. 

Ottawa (Que.) Electric Railway, quarterly, 3 per cent. 

Public Service Investment Company, Boston, Mass., quar- 
terly, $1.50, preferred; $2, common. 

Rome Railway & Light Company, Rome, Ga., quarterly, 
1% per cent. 

South Side Elevated Railroad. Chicago, 111., Uj per cent. 

Springfield & Xenia Railway. Springfield, Ohio, quarterly, 
1^/2 per cent, preferred. 

Thirteenth & Fifteenth Streets Passenger Railway, Phila- 
delphia, Pa., $6. 

United Railways & Lleetric Company, Baltimore, Md., 
quarterly, 50 cents, common. 

Winnipeg (Man.) Electric Railway, quarterly, $3. 



Gross Operating Net Fixed Net 

Period Earnings Expenses Earnings Charges Surplus 

lm., May, '13 .$134,051 $108,728 $75,323 

1 '• '• '12 164,534 99,487 65,047 

5" - '13 1,000,597 566,905 433,692 

5 " " '12 875,445 503,615 371,830 ' 


lm.. April, '13 $185,508 *$109,574 $75,934 $34,755 $41,179 

1 " " '12 151,604 *94,102 57,502 33,81? 23,687 

12-' " 13 2,147,047 *1.242,851 904,197 408,752 495,445 

12" " '12 1,658,113 *1,032.171 625,942 288,566 337,376 


lm., April, '13 $25,699 -$14,764 $10,934 $5,464 $5,470 

1" " '12 24,567 *13.416 11,151 5,112 6.038 

12" " '13 312,187 '177.340 134,847 69,040 65.807 

12 12 300,688 '177,996 122,692 62,605 60,087 


lm., April, '13 $56,364 *$36.633 $19,731 $11,118 $8,613 

1" " '12 51,284 *32,382 18.901 9.643 9,258 

12" " '13 579.16S '391,136 188,032 124,948 63,084 

12" " '12 568,075 "353.074 215,001 109.025 105.976 


lm.. May, '13 $49,466 *$29,018 $20,448 $12,542 $7,906 

1 " " '12 44,156 *27,835 16,321 12,924 3,397 

12" " T3 557,467 *326,096 231,372 150,881 80,491 

12" " '12 491,924 -291,675 200,249 154,611 45,638 


lm., May, '13 $147,652 $64,652 $83,129 $45,889 $37,240 

1 12 123,326 55,538 67,788 42,513 25,275 

12" " '13 1.643,722 701,093 942,629 530.281 412,348 

12" " '12 1,423,703 628,411 795.352 478,137 317,215 


lm., April, '13 $164,684 *$91,341 $73,342 $24,551 $48,791 

1 " " '12 134,936 *73, 200 61,736 20,846 40,890 

12" " '13 1,939.862 '1.028.051 911,811 281.683 630.128 

12" " '12 1,622,470 *S88,2S2 734,188 251,441 482.747 


lm., April, '13 $21,156 *$15.32S $5,828 $6,404 $575 

1 " " '12 22,491 *14,759 7,732 6,377 1,355 

12" " '13 287,099 *17S,445 108,655 76,427 32,228 

12" ■'• '12 286,528 *180,73S 105.789 66,831 38,958 

'Includes taxes. 

Jamestown Strike Collapses 

The strike of the employees of the Jamestown (N. Y. I 
Street Railway and the Chautauqua Traction Company, 
which was begun on May i, 1913. has collapsed and was 
formally declared off on June 29 at a meeting of the men 
who were out on strike. The company has decided to take 
back into its employ about twenty-five of the men who 
were out and reinstate them at their former rate of wages 
but at the bottom of the extra list. The men who remained 
faithful to the company and all the men who were engaged 
by the company during the strike wiil be retained in their 
positions. The strike was productive of considerable dis- 
order and twenty-five former employees of the company 
and their sympathizers are under indictment for cutting 
wires and rioting in the city. The proposition of A. N. 
Broadhead, president of the companies, for a settlement of 
the differences between the officers of the companies and 
the employees was summarized in the Electric Railway 
Journal of June 14. 1913, page 1081. This proposition the 
employees rejected through their representatives. They 
characterized it as annihilation, not arbitration. 

4 6 


[Vol. XLII, No. I. 

Traffic and Transportation 

New Rules Governing Conduct of Passengers in Hamilton, 


The Dominion Power & Transmission Company, Hamil- 
ton, Ont., has amended its by-law regulating travel on its 
cars by adding a clause prohibiting the drinking of intoxi- 
cating liquors. The by-law, as amended and approved by 
the Board of Railway Commissioners and the Ontario Rail- 
way & Municipal Board, follows: 

"i. (a) Smoking tobacco or carrying a lighted pipe, cigar 
or cigarette, except while in smoking compartments pro- 
vided for that purpose or except on the three rear seats of 
open cars only, or expectorating, except in proper recep- 
tacles, or the commission of any nuisance in or upon the 
trains or cars, passenger stations or other premises used 
or occupied by the company, is hereby forbidden and de- 
clared unlawful, and any person found guilty of a violation 
of this rule shall be liable to a penalty not exceeding $5. 

"(b) Drinking intoxicating liquors or offering intoxicat- 
ing liquors to others in or upon the trains or cars of this 
company is hereby forbidden and declared unlawful, and 
any person found guilty of a violation of this rule shall be 
liable to a penalty not exceeding $10. 

"2. Passengers other than policemen in uniform, city de- 
tectives and company officials shall not be allowed to ride 
on the front platform of any closed car nor to ride on the 
rear platform of any closed car when there is room or space 
which may be occupied by them inside the car, and women 
or children shall not ride on the front platform or seat of 
any open car, and passengers refusing to comply with this 
rule shall be considered disorderly persons and subject to 
a penalty for the violation of this rule not exceeding $10, 
and may also, on such refusal, be ejected from or put off 
the car. 

"3. The conductor must politely call the attention of 
passengers violating, or who appear to intend to violate, 
the last two rules herein set forth to the provisions of the 
said rules and firmly request observance thereof before tak- 
ing any further or other action." 

Free Transportation for Harrisburg Employees. — The 

Harrisburg (Pa.) Railways has granted free transportation 
to employees while off duty. They will wear a badge in- 
scribed "Employee of the Harrisburg Railways Company." 

Opinion in Regard to Passes on Electric Railways in 
Pennsylvania. — In answer to the inquiry of the Gettysburg 
(Pa.) Railway the Railroad Commission of Pennsylvania 
says that it knows of no law prohibiting the granting of 
free passes by electric railways. 

Increase in Wages in Grand Rapids. — On July 1, 1913, 
the Grand Rapids (Mich.) Street Railway increased the 
wages of the motormen and conductors in its employ. 
The new scale of wages follows: First six months, 23 cents 
an hour; second six months, 24 cents an hour; second year, 
25 cents an hour; third year and thereafter, 26 cents an 

Special Cars for Miners Not Justified. — The State Rail- 
road Commission of Pennsylvania has dismissed the com- 
plaint filed by J. G. Eckert, Drifton, against the Lehigh Val- 
ley Traction Company, asking that cars exclusively for 
miners be operated between Hazleton and Freeland. The 
commission holds that the traffic does not justify special 
cars as the men quit work at different hours. 

Increase in Wages in Saginaw. — The Saginaw-Bay City 
Railway, Saginaw, Mich., posted a notice recently in the 
car house at Saginaw of a voluntary increase of wages of 
1 cent an hour for the motormen and conductors of 
the local and interurban lines and from 1 cent to 2 cents 
on the Saginaw and Flint line. The increase, affecting 
about 350 men, went into effect on July 1. 

Traffic Agreement Between the Illinois Traction System 
and East St. Louis System. — An agreement has been en- 
tered into whereby special passenger movements from any 
point on the Illinois Traction System or the East St. 
Louis & Suburban Railway, East St. Louis, 111., will be 
handled in the equipment of the company with which the 

movements originate, but by the operating force of each 
company over its own lines. 

Jamaica Bay Trestle Damaged by Fire. — Normal train 

service to Rockaway Beach, Long Island, via the Jamaica 
Bay trestle was resumed on June 30 by the Long Island 
Railroad following the fire which interrupted traffic Sunday 
night, June 29. The company issued a statement saying 
that 80 ft. of the trestle had been destroyed. It gave the 
cause of the lire as a short-circuit, which communicated 
flames to a wooden trailer car. 

Successful Outing of Employees at Washington. — A very 
successful outing of the employees of the Washington Rail- 
way & Electric Company, Washington, D. C, was held at 
Chesapeake Beach on June 26. The attendance was very 
large and a great deal of interest was manifested in the 
athletic contests which had been arranged by the special 
committee of the outing having the games in charge. One 
of the features of the athletic program was a foot race for 
the directors. 

Reduction in Fare Ordered Out of Syracuse. — The Pub- 
lic Service Commission has authorized the Syracuse & South 
Bay Railway, Syracuse, N. Y., to reduce its fare between 
Syracuse and South Bay, 5 cents each way. The low fare 
went into effect immediately and will continue until Sept. 
1. In the future when coupon ticket books are used for 
transportation five 5-cent coupons will be detached for one 
fare. Four coupons will be detached if the trip starts or 
ends at the Syracuse city line. 

Decision in Regard to Responsibility for Shipments. — 
The Northwestern Pennsylvania Railways, Meadville, Pa., 
has been informed by the Railroad Commission of Pennsyl- 
vania that it is not justified in requiring an insurance fee 
in order to make the company responsible for safe trans- 
portation of packages confided to its care. The commis- 
sion says that the company is required to deliver pack- 
ages according to contract and the responsibility for the- 
shipment cannot be avoided by any insurance requirement. 

Question of Abolishing Strip Tickets in Trenton Under 
Consideration. — City Clerk Thompson, of Trenton, N. J., 
has received a letter from Rankin Johnson, vice-president 
of the Trenton & Mercer County Traction Corporation, 
to the effect that the directors of the company had taken 
no action to abolish the selling of strip tickets in Trenton 
and that whenever the company decided to eliminate the 
selling of tickets the officers of the company would convey 
that information formally to the city commission direct. 

Service Order in Washington, D. O, Suspended During 
Summer. — The Public Utilities Commission of Washington, 
D. C, has directed that all orders relating to schedules 
issued by that body or the District Electric Railway Com- 
mission, which the utilities commission succeeded, be sus- 
pended from July 1 to Sept. 15. ' The action of the utilities 
commission was taken at the request of the Capital Trac- 
tion Company and is revokable at any time the commis- 
sion deems advisable. The company stated that a service 
sufficient to meet traffic demands during the period the 
schedules are suspended will be maintained. 

Chicago Near-Side Car Accident Record. — A reduction of 
approximately 91 per cent in platform accidents and 37 per 
cent in all classes of accidents on the Cottage Grove line of 
the Chicago City Railway is attributed to the operation of 
the 125 near-side cars that are now running on this line. 
These percentages are computed in a comparison of all acci- 
dents for April, 1912, and April, 1913, and this reduction in 
accidents is shown in spite of the fact that the total passen- 
ger business increased approximately 6 per cent. During 
April the platform accidents represented 53.7 per cent of 
all accidents, and in April, 1913, this class of accidents was 
only 7.1 per cent of all accidents. 

Strike Threatened in Boston. — On July 3 a strike was 
threatened on the Boston (Mass.) Elevated Railway. Up 
to that day the carmen's union had refused to select the 
third arbitrator in accordance with the agreement of last 
summer. The company was willing that the third arbi- 
trator should be named by the chief justice of the Supreme 
Court or the Superior Court of Massachusetts. The men 
demand a large increase in wages, namely, $2.70 per day 
for the first year and $3.15 thereafter. The present maxi- 
mum wage is $2.61 a day. The company has appealed to 
the officers of the union not to violate the agreement. At 

July 5, 1913.] 



noon on Thursday, July 3, voting on the question of a 
strike was in progress. 

St. Louis Ventilation Ordinance Reported Unfavorably. 

— The committee on sanitary affairs of the City Council 
of St. Louis, Mo., has decided to report unfavorably the 
bill to regulate the heating and ventilation of street cars 
operated in the city. The bill was drafted by officers of 
the board of health. Robert McCulloch, president and 
general manager of the United Railways, in opposing the 
ordinance said: "The company is spending all the money 
it possibly can for the convenience and accommodation of 
passengers. If you pass this bill you will be handicapping 
us with a lot of technical provisions. You will tie us down 
in our effort to heat and ventilate all our cars properly. 
We must ask that the bill be not passed." 

Standing on Rear Platforms in New York City. — On 
June 26 the Public Service Commission of the First Dis- 
trict of New York conducted a hearing in regard to pas- 
sengers standing on the rear platforms of the cars of the 
companies which operate the subway and elevated lines in 
Greater New York. Evidence submitted tended to show 
that the practice originated on the old steam lines and with 
the riding of newspaper carriers there. Now loading effi- 
ciency at Brooklyn Bridge, which has become of even more 
importance since the capacity of the terminal has been cut 
12 per cent by the reduction of speed on the bridge to 
15 m.p.h., demands the use of both ends of the rear car 
during rush hours and the use of the back platform is 
practicably unavoidable. 

Near-Side Stop in Detroit. — On June 29 the Detroit 
(Mich.) United Railway began stopping its cars on the 
near side in accordance with the following resolution 
passed recently by the City Council: "All cars carrying 
passengers operated upon any line of street railway in the 
city of Detroit shall come to a full stop immediately before 
crossing any street or avenue in said city whenever sig- 
naled to stop by any person desiring to take passage 
thereon or to alight therefrom; and all cars operated on 
any such line or lines shall be brought to a full stop before 
crossing any street or avenue at which any two lines of 
street railway intersect." To avoid confusion the new reg- 
ulation has been extended to all the lines including Wood- 
ward Avenue as far as Palmer Park. 

Conference in Regard to Akron Agreement. — At a meet- 
ing of the committee on bridges and railroads of the City 
Council of Akron on June 28, representatives of the North- 
ern Ohio Traction & Light Company objected to the 
method of determining gain or loss on extended lines, as 
proposed in the agreement drawn by A. B. du Pont for the 
settlement of disputed points between the city and the 
company. Charles Currie, general manager; James T. Ross, 
consulting engineer, and A. J. Rowley, attorney, repre- 
sented the company at the meeting. The committee will 
report this objection to Council, as well as the question 
as to whether the city can legally enter into such a contract 
as is proposed. The proposed franchise agreement as pre- 
sented to the company was published in full in the Electric 
Railway Journal of June 21, 1913, page 11 17. It is in the 
nature of a guarantee to the company. 

Further Reduction in Running Time Between Allentown 
and Philadelphia. — Fifteen minutes, it is expected, will be 
cut from the running time of the Lehigh Valley Transit 
Company's limited car service between Allentown and Phil- 
adelphia beginning next October, when 9 miles of cut-offs 
and the new high-level reinforced concrete bridge in 
Allentown will be completed. The Quakertown cut-off will 
run from Zion Hill to Quakertown, a distance of practically 
4 miles, being a straight track and cutting out twenty-one 
curves and several grades. The Sellersville cut-off is about 
1 mile long and will eliminate four curves and two bad 
grades. The Hatfield cut-off is about 4 miles long and will 
eliminate twenty-two curves and one heavy grade, placing 
this section of the road on private right-of-way. The new 
cut-offs are rock-ballasted, standard steam railroad con- 
struction, and wide enough for double tracks. The large 
reinforced concrete bridge between Allentown and South 
Allentown is nearing completion. This bridge is about 
one-half mile in length. It is owned by the Lehigh Valley 
Transit Company, and will eliminate two heavy grades and 
several grade crossings. 

Personal Mention 

Mr. Leo Sartwell has been appointed assistant carhouse 
foreman of the Detroit (Mich.) United Lines at Flint to 
succeed Mr. J. H. Raby, promoted. 

Mr. J. E. Meddaugh has been appointed roadmastcr of 
the Pontiac division of the Detroit (Mich.) United Lines, 
vice Mr. J. C. Bourke. resigned. 

Mr. Thomas Green has resigned from the operating en- 
gineering department of the Illinois Traction System, 
Peoria, 111., to accept a position in the Chicago office of 
the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company. 

Mr. T. E. Leland, for several years connected with the 
Metropolitan Street Railway, Kansas City, Mo., in the ca- 
pacity of chief clerk in the auditing department, has re- 
signed to accept a position with the Bay State Railway 
Company, Boston. 

Mr. A. J. Ostendorf, at present assistant general super- 
intendent of the Cincinnati (Ohio) Traction Company, has 
been appointed superintendent of transportation of the 
company to succeed Mr. Robert E. Lee, general superin- 
tendent of the company. 

Mr. Robert E. Lee resigned as general superintendent of 
the Cincinnati (Ohio) Traction Company, to take effect on 
July 15. He will become identified with the Firestone 
Rubber Tire Company, Akron, Ohio. Mr. Lee's connection 
with the Cincinnati Traction Company dates back twelve 
years to the time when the Schoepf interests took over the 
local lines in Cincinnati under lease. 

Mr. Martin S. Decker has been designated as chairman 
of the Public Service Commission of the Second District 
of New York by Governor Sulzer. Mr. Decker is a Re- 
publican and has been a member of the commission since 
the law creating that body was enacted under Governor 
Hughes. As chairman Mr. Decker succeeds Mr. Frank W. 
Stevens, Jamestown, who resigned recently. 

Dean W. F. M. Goss, of the College of Engineering, Uni- 
versity of Illinois, has been elected chief engineer of the 
committee on smoke abatement and electrification of rail- 
way terminals of the Chicago Association of Commerce. 
Dean Goss was elected unanimously and will succeed Hor- 
ace G. Burt, who died recently. In order that Dean Goss 
may take up the work without interruption, he has had 
granted to him by the University of Illinois a leave of 
absence for a year. 

Mr. J. C. McPherson, who has been division superinten- 
dent of the Pacific Electric Railway at Pasadena, Cal., has 
resigned that office to accept the position of general super- 
intendent of the Oakland, Alameda and Berkeley Electric 
lines of the Southern Pacific Company. Prior to his de- 
parture for the north Mr. McPherson had a farewell re- 
ception tendered to him by about 150 employees of the 
Pacific Electric Railway at Los Angeles and a similar num- 
ber of the employees in Pasadena. 

Mr. John F. Wallace, president of Westinghouse, Church, 
Kerr & Company, New York, N. Y., was selected as the 
expert adviser of the committee on railway terminals of 
the City Council of Chicago on July 1. Mr. Wallace said 
it would require from sixty to ninety days to prepare a re- 
port on the terminal situation. For that reason no action 
will be taken on the Pennsylvania ordinances until the 
report is presented. The sub-committee decided to appoint 
a single engineer rather than a board of three engineers as 
suggested at first. 

Mr. W. O. Holton, formerly assistant claims agent of 
the Chicago (111.) City Railway, has been appointed claims 
agent of litigated cases to succeed Mr. B. M. Troxell, whose 
death was announced in the Electric Railway Journal for 
Jan. 27, 1913. Mr. Holton was born in Mason County, 
Kentucky, in 1867. After attending public school and night 
school he studied law and in 1898 entered the service of the 
Chicago City Railway as a conductor. He served in this 
position for two years, after which he entered the claims 
department of the company as an investigator. In 1902 he 
was made assistant to the claims attorney in which position 
he had charge of all investigations. In 1909 he was ap- 
pointed assistant claims agent, which position he has held 
until his recent promotion to claims agent of litigated cases. 



[Vol. XLII, Xo. i. 

Mr. B. S. Josselyn, who retired as president of the Port- 
land Railway, Light & Power Company, Portland, Ore., 
on July I, 1913, had a farewell banquet tendered to him at 
the Arlington Club in Portland recently by the other offi- 
cers of the company and a number of his business asso- 
ciates outside of the company. Mr. Josselyn expressed his 
regret at leaving the company and commended the qualifica- 
tions of his successor, Mr. Franklin T. Griffith. Eleven 
pieces of silver, comprising a Paul Revere set, were pre- 
sented to Mr. Josselyn by the officers and employees of 
the company, Mr. F. I. Fuller making the presentation 
speech. The set consists of one very large tray upon which 
was engraved, "Presented to B. S. Josselyn. president of the 
Portland Railway, Light & Power Company, by the offi- 
cers and employees upon his resignation as president, July 
1, 1913." The other pieces consisted of a creamer, two 
sugar bowls, coffee and tea urns, meat platter, a meat fork 
and fish spoon. Upon each of the large pieces is engraved 
the letter "J." 

Mr. J. W. Brown, who has been assistant superintendent 
of transportation of the Public Service Railway, Newark. 
N. J., has been appointed assistant general superintendent 
of the company, a newly created position. Mr. Brown has 
been connected with the Public Service Railway since April, 
191 1. Before that he was with the Aurora, Elgin & Chi- 
cago Railroad and prior to that time was superintendent 
(if transportation of the West Penn Railways, Connells- 
ville. Pa. He entered the service of the McKeesport, Wil- 
merding & Duquesne Railway, McKeesport, Pa., about 
fourteen years ago as night car dispatcher. He also served 
as electrician and later as power station engineer of this 
company. When the Pittsburgh, McKeesport & Connehs- 
ville Railway was formed Mr. Brown was made master 
mechanic of the McKeesport division of that ruad and later 
was promoted to division superintendent. When the trans- 
portation department of the company was organized in 
1903 he was appointed superintendent of transportation of 
the company. He resigned from the West Penn Railways, 
Connellsville, in August, 1910, to become connected with 
the Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railroad. 

Mr. Newton W. Bolen, superintendent of transportation 
of the Public Service Railway, Newark, N. J., has been 
appointed general superintendent of the company, a newly 
created office. Mr. Bolen has been connected with the 
railway department of the Public Service Corporation of 
New Jersey, of which the Public Service Railway is a sub- 
sidiary, continuously since 1903 except for a short term of 
service with the Mexico City Tramway. The first few 
months of his service with the company were devoted to a 
study of the traffic problems of the separate systems then 
recently consolidated, with a view to the operation of the 
lines as a unit. He was subsequently made district su- 
perintendent of the lines of the company in Hudson, 
Bergen and Passaic Counties, and when the scheme of 
organization of the company was changed and the position 
of superintendent of transportation was created Mr. Bolen 
was appointed to that post. All the lines in the State 
owned by the company were thus brought under his juris- 
diction and all the division superintendents report to him. 
Before becoming connected with the Public Service Rail- 
way Mr. Bolen was in the employ of the Brooklyn (N. Y.) 
Rapid Transit Company, the service of which he entered 
when a boy. He was advanced in Brooklyn until at the 
time of his leaving the company to become connected with 
the Public Service Corporation he was superintendent of 
the Flatbush and the Bergen Street divisions of the com- 
pany, two of the most important on the system. Mr. Bolen 
is a member of the American Electric Railway Trans- 
portation & Traffic Association. 


George Townsend, president of the Wyandotte Construc- 
tion Company, Kansas City, Mo., which built the Kansas 
City, Clay County & St. Joseph Railway, is dead. It is 
supposed that Mr. Townsend. who was a victim of melan- 
cholia, committed suicide. Mr. Townsend disappeared 
from the Hotel Baltimore, Kansas City, on June 24 and on 
June 29 his body was discovered in the Missouri River 6 
miles west of Kansas City, Kan. Mr. Townsend was sixty- 
two years old. He was well known in the West, particu- 
larly in Chicago. He is survived by a widow and two sons. 

Construction News 

Construction News Notes are classified under each head- 
ing alphabetically by States. 

An asterisk (*) indicates a project not previously re- 

Rome & Gadsden Railroad, Gadsden, Ala. — Application 
for a charter will be made by this company to build a 
60-mile line between Rome, Cave Springs, Center, Forney 
Key, Rock Run and Gadsden. Capital stock authorized, 
$5,000 to $5,000,000. J. B. Wadsworth, Gadsden, president. 
[E. R. J., June 7. 'I3-] 

*Circuit Terminal Railroad, Indianapolis, Ind. — Applica- 
tion for a charter has been made by this company to take 
over the rights and franchises of the old Circuit Terminal 
Railway, sold under order of the Marion Circuit Court, 
to C. E. Worth and John W. Trotter, and to build electric 
railways and other public utilities between Greenfield, 
Noblesville, Lebanon, Danville, Martinsville, Franklin, 
Shelbyville and other intermediate points. Capital stock, 
$10,000. Directors: C. Eugene Worth, Indianapolis; John 
W. Trotter, Danville, and Oliver W. Tohnson, Cleveland, 

Sylacauga, Ala. — M. B. Lewis and T. B. Perry. Sylacauga, 
have received a franchise from the Council to build an 
electric railway in Sylacauga. The terms of the franchise 
state that this line must be in operation within three years. 
The proposed line will extend from the new Eva Jane Mills 
just north of Sylacauga to Gantt's quarry, 2 miles from the 
town south. Later it is stated that other lines will be built 
in the residential section of Sylacauga. It is stated that 
the new company will be organized with a capital stock of 

Little Rock, Ark.— The Little Rock & Hot Springs Elec- 
tric Railway has accepted the franchise granted it by the 
Council in Little Rock. 

Los Angeles, Cal. — The Pacific Electric Railway has re- 
ceived authority to build at grade across fourteen public 
highways in Orange County for the purpose of double- 
tracking a portion of its Santa Ana line. 

Belleville, 111. — The Southern Traction Company of Illi- 
nois has asked the City Council for a franchise in Belleville. 
The line will be a part of a railway to Freeburg, which is a 
continuation of the East St. Louis-Bellevue line. 

Morris, 111. — The Fox & Illinois Union Railway, Aurora, 
has received an extension of ninety days on its franchise 
in which to complete its entrance into Morris. This 20- 
mile railway will connect Yorkville, Morris, Dwight and 
Sandwich. H. H. Evans, president. fE. R. J., April 
26, '13.] 

Springfield, 111. — The Springfield & Central Illinois Rail- 
way has received a twenty-year franchise from the City 
Council to build a line from Springfield to Duquoin to con- 
nect with a line between St. Louis and Terre Haute. Voters 
will ratify the proposition July 15. [E. R. J., June 14, '13.] 

Terre Haute, Ind. — The Springfield & Central Illinois 
Traction Company, which was recently granted a franchise 
by the County Commissioners to extend its lines from the 
Illinois State line to the west bank of the river, has notified 
the commissioners of the acceptance of the franchise. 
Work is scheduled to begin in a short time. The company 
will ask the City Board of Public Works to grant a like 
franchise through the city to a terminal station yet to be 
selected. The company will probably change its corporate 
name to the Springfield, Central Illinois & Terre Haute 
Traction Company. [E. R. J., June 28, '13.] 

Portland, Maine. — The Portland Railroad has received 
a franchise to double-track its lines from a point near 
Martyr Street to a point near Kennebec Street in Portland. 

Baltimore, Md. — The United Railways & Electric Com- 
pany has asked the Council for a franchise to extend its 
lines on Callow Avenue to Park Terrace and the west side 
of Park Avenue in Baltimore. 

Melita, Man. — R. E. Denny & Company, 32 Ninth Street, 
Brandon, have received a franchise to build an electric rail- 
way and install waterworks in Melita. 

July 5, 1913. 



Jefferson City, Mo. — The Jefferson City Bridge & Transit 
Company has received a twenty-li ve-ycar franchise from 
the Council in Jefferson City. The company plans to build 
a i-mile extension and double-track some of its lines. 

Grand Rapids, Mich. — The Grand Rapids Street Railway 
has asked for a franchise to extend its tracks on Campau 
Avenue to Louis Street in Grand Rapids. 

Summit, N. J. — The Tri-County Power & Traction Com- 
pany has asked for a fifty-year franchise from the Council 
to operate a trackless trolley line in Summit. 

Morrisburg, Ont. — The ratepayers of Morrisburg have 
indorsed a by-law for the granting of right-of-way over 
certain streets to the Ottawa & St. Lawrence Electric Rail- 
way. The franchise is for a period of twenty-five years, and 
to be effective the company must practically complete its 
line by the fall of 1914. 

York, Ont. — The first draft of the proposed agreement 
between the township of York and the Forest Hill Electric 
Railway was submitted to the Council recently. The agree- 
ment provides for a single-track railway from a point on 
Forest Hill Road near the north limit of York to a point 
2 l / 2 miles north of Eglinton Avenue. It is stipulated that 
no work shall be done until plans have been submitted to 
the township, also that the company will commence con- 
struction at once and during the year will spend not less 
than $50,000. 

York, Pa. — The York Railways will ask the Council for 
a franchise to extend its lines on Jackson Street in York. 
The company plans to build a loop going out George Street 
and circling the Country Club. 

Seattle, Wash. — At the request of Mayor George F. Cot- 
terill, Assistant Corporation Counsel Howard M. Findley 
and Assistant City Engineer D. W. McMorris, a bill has 
been introduced in the Council to repeal the franchise of 
the Seattle, Renton & Southern Railway. 

Wenatchee, Wash. — The request of the Wenatchee Valr 
ley Electric Railway that it be allowed a four months' ex- 
tension of the time limit of the franchise for an electric 
railway in Wenatchee, has been denied by the City Council. 

Madison, Wis. — The Chicago & Wisconsin Valley Rail- 
way, Madison, has asked the Common Council for a fran- 
chise over certain streets in Madison. This line will con- 
nect Portage. Prairie du Sac, Madison, Merrill, Janesville, 
Friendship and Easton. J. E. Jones, Portage, general 
manager. [E. R. J., May 31, '13.] 

Los Angeles (Cal.) Railway, — Plans are being made by 
this company to double-track its Western Avenue line 
west of Hobart Boulevard at once. The company is asked 
to extend its lines to Hollywood and other sections of 
the northwestern part of Los Angeles. The work in- 
cludes the extension of the Vermont Avenue crosstown 
line as far north as Los Feliz road, and the extension of 
the Western Avenue line to Hollywood Boulevard and 
into Hollywood. The proposal to install a third "L" rail 
on Hollywood Boulevard is also made to connect the 
Vermont Avenue lines and the Western Avenue lines in 
Los Angeles. 

Pacific Electric Railway, Los Angeles, Cal. — Work will 
be begun at once by this company on its line between 'San 
Bernardino and Rialto. The steel for the concrete culverts 
and bridges has been received and bridge construction will 
be begun at once. 

Geary Street Municipal Railway, San Francisco, Cal. — 
This company has placed in operation its line to the ocean 
beach in San Francisco. 

Northwestern Elevated Railway, Chicago, 111. — This com- 
pany, through its president, B. I. Budd, has agreed to sub- 
mit the question of extending the line into Wilmette, a 
suburb to the north of Chicago, to a referendum vote. The 
village board has been authorized to draft an ordinance 
subject to the approval of the railway company, and it will 
be submitted in the referendum. 

Iowa Railway & Light Company, Cedar Rapids, la. — This 
company, which has announced plans for the construction 
of an interurban railway between Muscatine and Iowa City, 
is now promoting an electric line to be extended from 
Cedar Rapids to Davenport, via Tipton. 

Kansas City, Kaw Valley & Western Railway, Bonner 
Springs, Kan. — This company, which plans to build an inter- 
urban railway from Kansas City to Bonner Springs and 
later to Lawrence and Topeka, may enter Kansas City by 
way of the Kansas City Outer Belt Railroad. The plan is 
to use about 2 miles of the belt line from Indian Creek to 
Eighteenth Street and Minnesota Avenue in Kansas City, 
there to connect with the Metropolitan Street Railway. 
A. L. Berger, attorney for Thomas A. Bigger, receiver for 
the Kansas City-Outer Belt Railroad, asked Judge Pollock 
to approve a lease whereby the interurban electric line was 
to use the north side of the right-of-way. Judge Pollock 
indicated that he favored granting the lease because those 
acquainted with the physical conditions said the use of a 
part of the outer belt, which has room for six parallel 
tracks, by an interurban line would benefit the property 
instead of injuring it. [E. R. J.. May 10, '13.] 

Orleans-Kenner Electric Railway, New Orleans, La. — 
Right-of-way is being secured and construction will be 
begun within the next sixty days by this company on its 
15-mile line to connect New Orleans, Kenner, Hanson 
City, Harrihan and Shrewsbury. A tax of $77,500 has 
just been voted by Jefferson Parish to assist in the con- 
struction of the line. Officers: A. Smith Bowman, Wilcox, 
president; Andrew Fitzpatriek, New Orleans, vice-presi- 
dent, and Peter Stiffs, New Orleans, secretary. [E. R. J.. 
June 14, 'i3 l 

Texas-Louisiana Traction Company, Shreveport, La. — 

Right-of-way is secured and surveys are completed for 
the construction of this line, which will connect Shreve- 
port, La., and Jefferson and Longview, Tex. The linancing 
is said to have been arranged. A. B. Blevins. Jefferson, is 
interested. [ E. R. J., Jan. 11, '13.) 

Bangor Railway & Electric Company, Bangor, Maine. — 
This company will extend the Hampden branch track I 
mile this summer, but the proposed extension co Winter- 
port will not lie built this year. The work of connecting 
the Bangor and Brewer lines of the company on the new- 
steel bridge over the Penobscot River will begin soon. A 
hearing will be held before the Railroad Commission in 
regard to the grade crossing which will be necessary at the 
Brewer end of the bridge, as the tracks of the Maine Cen- 
tral Railroad must be crossed there. The Bangor Power 
Company, a subsidiary of the Bangor Railway & Electric 
Company, has resumed work on the dam at Veazie, which 
will furnish increased power for the company. 

Brandon, Man. — The citizens of Brandon have voted in 
favor of a by-law appropriating $150,000 for electric rail- 
way construction and equipment in Brandon. R. E. Speak- 
man. city engineer. 

Michigan & Chicago Railway, Grand Rapids, Mich. — Con- 
tracts for the third-rail equipment of the Michigan Central 
Railroad's branch from Montieth to Battle Creek have been 
awarded by this company, which recently brought the line 
from Battle Creek to Allegan. It is expected the line from 
Montieth, which will be the junction point, to Battle Creek 
will be completed as soon as the main line of the inter- 
urban from Grand Rapids to Kalamazoo. [E. R. J., May 
24. '13.1 

*Lakewood, Mich. — Work has been begun on the new 
electric line between the railroad station and the club 
house at Lakewood, Mich. 

Muskegon-Casnovia Land & Development Company, Mus- 
kegon, Mich. — The citizens of Casnovia are raising $10,000 
to be used toward the construction of this railway between 
Muskegon, Casnovia and Saginaw. John O. Fraligh, Cas- 
novia, is interested. [E. R. J., June 21, '13.] 

Minneapolis (Minn.) Street Railway. — This company 
plans to build soon 15 miles of new track in Minneapolis. 

*Biloxi, Miss. — Plans are being considered to build an 
electric railway between Mobile and Biloxi. Among those 
interested are W. H. Bouslog, J. J. Mcintosh, G. W. Gray- 
son and E. B. Dunton. 

Kingston & Excelsior Springs Electric Railroad, King- 
ston, Mo. — Surveys have been completed and right-of-way 
is being secured by this company for its 25-mile line be- 
tween Kingston, Lawson and Excelsior Springs. Arrange- 
ments are being made to award the contracts for the con- 
struction of the line as soon as the right-of-way has been 



[Vol. XLII, No. i. 

secured. Plans are being considered to build a line be- 
tween Richmond and Excelsior Springs. B. Boner, King- 
ston, president. [E. R. J., May 31, '13.] 

Moberly, Huntsville & Randolph Springs Railway, Mo- 
berly, Mo. — Grading has been begun by this company at 
Randolph Springs, the western terminal. This 12-mile line 
will connect Moberly and Randolph Springs. Charles H. 
Dameron, president. [E. R. J., June 21, '13.] 

Billings (Mont.) Traction Company. — During the sum- 
mer this company plans to extend its line to Polytechnic. 

Fallon (Nev.) Electric Railroad. — Rapid progress is being 
made on the electric railroad being built from the Harrigan 
ranch to Fallon. Rails now are laid within 1 mile of Fallon. 
It is proposed to extend the line to Dixie Valley, in Nye 
County. A. E. Wilson, Fallon, secretary. [E. R. J., June 
21, '13-] 

*Dayton, Ohio. — Plans are being considered to build an 
electric line between Dayton and Cincinnati, via Reading, 
Carlisle and Germantown. Among those interested are: 
J. G. Miller and L. T. Palmer, Middletown, and F. J. Ferne- 
ding and O. L. Mead, Dayton. 

Springfield (Ohio) Railway. — Work will soon be begun 
by this company on its new line on Clinton Street to its 
proposed new carhouse in Springfield. 

Tri-State Traction Company, Steubenville, Ohio. — Tt is 
reported that this company plans to build an electric and 
steam line betwen Quincy and Burlington. 

Poland Street Railway, Youngstown, Ohio. — Surveys 
have been completed and grading is under way along the 
entire 16-mile between Poland and Youngstown, via Lan- 
singville, Pine Hollow and Poland Heights. [E. R. J., 
June 14, '13.] 

Lake Erie & Northern Railway, Brantford, Ont. — Grad- 
ing has been completed by this company between Water- 
ford and Bloomsburg. Work has been begun on the Wa- 
terford bridge. The structure will cost $65,000. The 
route through Simcoe has been approved by the Board 
of Dominion Railway Commissioners. 

Morrisburg & Ottawa Electric Railway, Ottawa, Ont.— 
This company has called for bids for the construction of 
10 miles of its line of railway, from Ottawa, extending 
in the direction of Morrisburg, such bids to be based on 
the company's plans and specifications. Bids will be re- 
ceived up to July 8, 1913, and the plans and specifica- 
tions for proposed work can be inspected at any time 
at the head office of the company in Ottawa, Ont. 

Toronto, Ont. — The proposed electric railway between 
Toronto and Port Perry is now under consideration by 
the engineering staff appointed by the Hydroelectric 
Power Commission of Ontario. 

Toronto Suburban Railway, Toronto Junction, Ont. — ■ 
This company has been asked to remove its tracks from 
the west side of the road to the center on Main Street 
from Church Street to the northern boundaries of Weston. 

Harrisburg, Pa. — Surveys are being made for a new elec- 
tric line between Hershey and Elizabethtown, via Camp- 
belltown, a distance of about 9 miles. It will be a feeder 
for the Hershey-Lebanon system, owned by the Hershey 
chocolate interests. Work on the construction of the new 
line is to be started soon. 

Montreal (Que.) Tramways. — This company is relaying 
tracks in different parts of Montreal, this forming part of 
an extensive programme which will be carried out during 
the next few months. The old rails of 96 lb. weight 
are being replaced with rails of 116 lb., the guard rails 
being increased to 132 lb., which will be standard for the 
future. In certain sections special cedar ties are being 
laid down, the length being increased from 7 ft. to 8 ft., 
while they are put 2 ft. apart instead of 2 ft. 6 in. The 
roadbed has been greatly strengthened. 

Middle Tennessee Traction Company, Franklin, Tenn. — 
This company has increased its capital stock from $10,000 
to $250,000. This railway will connect Franklin, Eagleville, 
Shelbyville and Fayetteville. Grading has been completed 
from Franklin to Eagleville. The Interurban Construction 
Company, which has been organized to build this line, has 
elected the following officers: R. H. Crockett, president; 
P. E. Cox, vice-president and general manager; E. E. 

Green, secretary and treasurer, and G. B. Howard, chief 
engineer. [E. R. J., June 7, '13.] 

Guadalupe Valley Traction Company, Seguin, Tex. — 

Grading has begun by this company on its 92^-mile line 
to connect Austin, Lockhart, Seguin and San Antonio. The 
company has not yet decided whether the motive power 
will be gasoline or electricity. Capital stock authorized, 
$100,000. Capital stock issued, $75,000. Officers: W. B. 
Dunlap, Seguin, president; E. W. Brown, Orange, vice- 
president; W. J. Crawford, Beaumont, secretary and treas- 
urer; J. M. Abbott, Seguin, general manager, and Guy M. 
Simpson, Seguin, chief engineer. [E. R. J., June 28, '13.] 

Salt Lake & Utah Railroad, Salt Lake City, Utah.— This 
company has awarded a contract to S. L. Chipman, Amer- 
ican Fork, for grading 10 miles of its line south from 
Jordan Narrows. The company will soon award other 
contracts for construction of its line which will connect 
Salt Lake City, Provo, American Fork, Pleasant Grove, 
Springfield. Spanish Fork and Payson. W. C. Orem, Salt 
Lake City, president. [E. R. J., Feb. 22, '13.] 


Northern Electric Railway, Chico, Cal. — This company 
has completed its new freight depot in Oroville. It is 
reported that the company plans to build a new passenger 
depot in Oroville. 

Northwestern Elevated Railroad, Chicago, 111. — This 
company is considering plans to build a new terminal sta- 
tion in Wilmette. The cost is estimated to be about 

Fort Wayne & Northern Indiana Traction Company, 
Fort Wayne, Ind. — This company has taken out a build- 
ing permit for an addition to its Spy Run Avenue power 
house, which it is estimated will cost approximately 

Cedar Rapids & Marion City Railway, Cedar Rapids, la. 

— This company plans to build a new two-story carhouse 
and workshop at Cedar Rapids in the near future. The 
cost is estimated to be about $55,000. 

Holyoke (Mass.) Street Railway. — Among the improve- 
ments planned by this company will be the construction of 
new carhouses on the Hadley lot in Ward 1 in Holyoke. 

Charlotte (N. C.) Electric Railway. — This company's 
paint shop and machine shops in Dilworth were destroyed 
by fire on June 14. The equipment, consisting of lathes, 
air compressors, etc., four cars and accessories, besides 
stores, were also destroyed. The loss is estimated to be 
about $50,000. 

Oregon Electric Railway, Portland, Ore. — Plans and 

specifications have been received by this company for its 
new passenger station in Eugene. Bids are being asked 
for the construction of the building, which will be of brick. 
The express rooms will be located in the western end of 
the structure and the baggage rooms will be in the east end. 

Georgia Railway & Electric Company, Atlanta, Ga.— 

This company has installed three transformers at its Dun- 
lap power plant. 

Union Traction Company, Independence, Kan. — This 
company is installing a new 750-hp engine and has received 
other machinery for installation at its power plant in In- 

South Covington & Cincinnati Street Railway, Covington, 

Ky. — This company has placed an order with the Westing- 
house Electric & Manufacturing Company for one 300-kw 
portable substation in which is installed one 300-kw, 600- 
volt d.c, three-phase, 60-cycle, 1200-r.p.m. self-starting 
rotary converter and one 330-kva, 4400-volt, three-phase 
outdoor-type O.I.S.C. transformer complete with one two- 
panel switchboard. 

Holyoke (Mass.) Street Railway. — This company plans 
to bring its power plant in Holyoke up to date and will 
install new turbine engines. 

Rio Grande Valley Traction Company, El Paso, Tex. — 
This company has placed an order with the Westinghouse 
Electric & Manufacturing Company for three 250-kva, 2200- 
6600-volt, single-phase, 60-cycle O.I.S.C. transformers and 
one switchboard. 


July 5, 1913.] 

Manufactures and Supplies 


Savannah (Ga.) Electric Company is in the market for 
three cars. 

Maryland Electric Railway, Annapolis, Md., is reported 
.as expecting to purchase a number of cars. 

St. Joseph Valley Traction Company, Elkhart, Ind., will 
purchase three or four new cars. 

Cape Breton Electric Company, Sydney, N. S., is re- 
ported as expecting to purchase a number of cars in the 
near future. 

Washington, Baltimore & Annapolis Electric Railway, 
Baltimore, Md., is in the market for twelve all-steel inter- 
urban cars. 

Genoa, Italy, will require twenty-two motor cars and a 
similar number of trail cars for the proposed 6-mile sub- 
way in that city. S. Cattaneo Adorno, Genoa, may be ad- 

Mobile & Baldwin County Railroad, Volanta, Ala., is in 

the market for two combination passenger and baggage 
gasoline cars that will seat from twenty to thirty-five 

Chicago (III.) Railways, noted in the Electric Railway 
Journal of June 14, 1913, as expecting to purchase 100 cars, 
has ordered these cars from the Southern Car Company, 
High Point, N. C. 

South Covington & Cincinnati Street Railway, Coving- 
ton, Ky v noted in the Electric Railway Journal of May 17, 
1913, as having ordered twenty semi-convertible cars from 
the Cincinnati Car Company, has specified the following 

Seating capacity 32 Underframe composite 

Length of body. . .21 ft in. Car trimmings Dayton 

Length over vestibule, Couplers Van Dorn 

30 ft. 9 in. Curtain fixtures .... Forsyth 
Width over sills . 7 ft. 1 1 Y\ in. Curtain material. .. Pantasote 

Width over all 8 ft. 2»in Destination signs . . . Huntei 

Height, rail to sills . . . . 28 in. Fenders or wheel guards. 
Sill to trolley base, Hunter 

9 ft. 3^4 m - Gongs 12 in. 

Body wood Hand brakes Peacock 

Interior trim mahogany Headlights U. S. 

Headlining. ... poplar veneer Trolley base U. S. 

Roof monitor Varnish Murphy 

United Traction Company, Albany, N. Y., noted in the 
Electric Railway Journal of June 14, 1913, as having or- 
dered twelve semi-convertible pay-within cars through W. 
R. Kerschner, from the Cincinnati Car Company, has speci- 
fied the following details for these cars: 

Seating capacity 44 Fare boxes New Haven 

Weight (car body only), Wheel guards Rochestel 

18,000 Gears and pinions West. 

Bolster centers, length, Gongs Standard 

18 ft. 1 1 in. Hand brakes Peacock 

Length of body. . .30 ft. 11 in. Heaters Cons. 

Length over vestibule, Headlights . . . Crouse-Hinds 

44ft. 11 in. Journal boxes .... Symington 

Width over all 8 ft. 4 in Motors W. H. 101 B2 

Height, rail to top of outside-hung 

floor 39 in. Paint Devoe & Reynolds 

Sill to trolley base. . 8 ft. 9 in Registers New Haven 

Body metal Sanders Dewitt 

Interior trim ....mahogany Sash fixtures .... Cin. Car Co. 

Headlining Agasote Seats, style H. & K. 

Roof, type arch Seating material. .. Pantasote 

Underframe metal Step treads Mason 

Air brakes G. E. Trolley catchers ... Keystone 

Axles Carnegie Trolley base Ohio Brass 

Bumpers Hedley Trucks, type Taylor 

Gar trimmings .. Cin. Car Co. Varnish, 

Conduits and junction Beckwith & Chandler 

boxes ....Elec. S. Sup. Co. Ventilators. . .Aut. Vent. Co. 

Couplers Standard Wheels forged steel 

Curtain fixtures ..Cur. S. Co. Door and step device, 
Curtain material. .. Pantasote Cin. Car Co. 


Tilsonburg Electric Car Company, Ltd., Tilsonburg, Ont., 

has been organized to manufacture electric street cars, 
snow sweepers, etc. 

Protectus Paint Company, Philadelphia, Pa., has been 
appointed railway selling agent for the products of the 
Barber Asphalt Paving Company. 

Fred Gardner Company, Chicago, 111., has been incor- 
porated with capital stock of $2,500 to buy, sell and deal 
in railway supplies, etc. The incorporators are Fred Gard- 
ner, Charles B. Moore, J. L. Nicholson. 

Canadian Foundry Company, Ltd., Toronto, Ont., has 
appointed J. G. Seyfried engineer for the bridge depart- 
ment of the company. Mr. Seyfried was formerly con- 
nected with the Grand Trunk Railway at Montreal, Que. 

S. F. Bowser & Company, New York, N. Y., have ap- 
pointed W. E. Jenkinson railway representative, covering 
the territory vacated by E. F. G. Meisinger. In addition 
Mr. Jenkinson will take over the Southwestern and Pacific 
Coast territory. 

Pyrene Manufacturing Company, New York, N. Y., lias 
received recent orders for its lire extinguishers from the 
Allen Street Railway, the Standard Steel Car Company, 
and a repeat order from the Interborough Rapid Transit 
Company for fifty extinguishers. 

Curtain Supply Company, Chicago, 111., has received re- 
cent curtain orders from the following railways: New York 
State Railways, Rochester. N. Y.: Washington Railway & 
Electric Company, Washington, D. C; Holyoke (Mass.) 
Street Railway, and the Manhattan Bridge Three-Cent 
Fare Line, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Pantasote Company, New York, N. Y., has elected E. H. 
Outerbridge vice-president and managing director of the 
company. Raymond Harvey, who has been associated 
with Mr. Outerbridge for more than ten years, has been 
elected secretary and treasurer to fill the vacancy caused 
by Mr. Outerbridge's recent appointment. 

Union Switch & Signal Company, Swissvale, Pa., has re- 
cently received a contract from the Ohio Electric Railway 
for signaling its line between Fort Wayne and New Haven, 
Ind., a distance of 4.2 miles. This division, which has the 
first track circuit signaling on the system, contains two 
blocks, using four type B semaphore signals and four light 

Electric Service Supplies Company, Philadelphia, Pa., 

has recently received large orders for automotoneers 
from the Philadelphia (Pa.) Rapid Transit Company. 
These are placed on the trolley car controllers to compel 
the motorman to stop for a short interval of time on every 
point in throwing power from "off" to full "on." It is 
claimed by the manufacturer of this device that it sub- 
stantially reduces the cost of controller and motor main- 

Anger Manufacturing & Supply Company, Ltd., Preston, 
England, manufacturer of the Anger improved automatic 
brake adjuster, reports a large increase in its business. The 
company has received recent large orders from the Sheffield 
Corporation Tramways, the Birmingham Corporation 
Tramways, the Cardiff Corporation Tramways, the Santos 
(Brazil) Tramways, and many others. The company has 
recently made arrangements with another factory to manu- 
facture the various parts of this device at Hapton, which 
makes four factories that this company is now operating 
in Europe. The company has also closed an agreement 
with the Ackley Brake & Supply Company. New York, 
N. Y., to manufacture and sell its device in the United 
States, Mexico, Cuba, Porto Rico, Central America and the 
Philippine Islands. 

Van Dorn Electric Tool Company, Chicago, 111., has 

been formed to take over the portable tool department of 
the Van Dorn & Dutton Company. This latter company 
has for nearly eighteen years specialized in the production 
of gears and gear cutting. Some seven years ago it took 
up as a side line the design and production of portable 
electrically operated drilling and reaming machines, to 
which have since been added electric grinders and portable 



[Vol. XLII. Xo. i. 

tools and within the past two and one-half years the prod- 
ucts have been materially improved and widened in scope. 
For some time past it has seemed to the company that the 
portable tool operations had grown to such an extent that 
this branch and that of the gear operations would be best 
served by operating each as a separate and distinct com- 
pany, particularly by reason of the fact that the original 
interests were expanding to an extent equal to the other 
operations. As a result the above company was formed, 
taking over the portable tool operations. The gear interests, 
as during the past eighteen years, continue under the old 
company, the officials of which all remain the same. The 
officials of the new company are W. P. Johnston, president 
and treasurer; F. G. Hodell, vice-president, and H. A. 
Rock, secretary. Franklin Schneider will continue to su- 
pervise the manufacture and design of these portable elec- 
trically operated tools. 

Pierson, Roeding & Company, San Francisco, Cal., an- 
nounce a reorganization of the personnel of their organi- 
zation as a result of the resignation of S. K. Colby, vice- 
president, and the appointment to this position of Thomas 
Finigan, as recently mentioned in this paper. The rapid 
development of the company's business during the past 
ten years has led to the establishment of a number of 
branch offices on the Pacific Coast, and it now is able to 
serve promptly and has a large business in all of the 
states west of the Rocky Mountains as well as in British 
Columbia and the Hawaiian Islands. H. R. Noack, who 
retains the position of president in the reorganization, has 
been actively connected with the company since 1898 and 
during this time has been a large instrument in its success. 
Thomas Finigan. the new vice-president, brings to the firm 
the strength of a wide acquaintance, made while associated 
with the United Railroads of San Francisco and with the 
Consolidated Traction Company of New Jersey. The treas- 
urer of the company, George R. Murphy, who is in charge 
of the storage battery department, is also originally from 
the East, having been connected with the Metropolitan 
Street Railway of New York and later with the Electric 
Storage Battery Company. He joined the forces of Pier- 
son, Roeding & Company in 1909. The financial depart- 
ment of the company is in charge of the secretary, George 
P. Dahle, who has been associated with the company and 
its predecessors for the past twelve years. The Los An- 
geles branch of the company is in charge of A. L. Havens, 
who has been with electrical interests since 1895. The Port- 
land office is in charge of S. Herbert Lanyon and the Seat- 
tle office of N. H. Silver, both with long experience in the 
design and construction of electrical plants and the manu- 
facture of electrical apparatus. The business of the com- 
pany is also divided into departments, and each is in charge 
of a specialist. The president of the company, Mr. Noack, 
cares for the transmission projects, and the railway de- 
partment is managed by Vice-president Finigan. The car 
and truck department, an important one because the com- 
pany represents The J. G. Brill Company on the Pacific 
Coast, is managed by Ford A. Richards, for many years 
with the Peckham Manufacturing Company and later with 
the J. A. Hanna Company. The underground conduit de- 
partment is directed by C. G. Gauntlett. formerly with Sie- 
mens Brothers & Company of London and later with the 
Pacific Coast Electric Corporation at San Francisco. The 
sale of poles and cross arms is in charge of F. L. McGillan, 
at one time general superintendent of the pole yards of the 
Valentine Clark Company in Chicago and later vice-presi- 
dent and general manager of the California Pole & Piling 
Company of San Francisco. Finally the hydraulic depart- 
ment is under the direction of E. G. Dewald. While S. K. 
Colby will no longer be actively identified with the com- 
pany, he will retain his interest in it and is still a director. 


Condensite Company of America, Glen Ridge, N. J., 

has issued a folder describing its synthetic oil and waxes 
for all uses. 

Dossert & Company, New York, N. Y., have issued a 
very attractive catalog illustrating and describing all types 
of "Dossert" solderless connectors for solid and stranded 

Walter A. Zelnicker Supply Company, St. Louis, Mo., 

has issued Bulletin No. 139, illustrating and describing the 
rails, equipment, heavy machinery, etc., it now has on 

Thayer & Company, New York, N. Y., sole American 
agents for the Chillingworth one-piece seamless gear case, 
have issued a folder describing their gear cases and con- 
taining several illustrations of them and the firm's Jersey 
City plant. 

Van Dorn & Dutton Ccmpany, Cleveland, Ohio, have 
issued a catalog illustrating and describing their different 
types of gears. The catalog aiso contains a set of rules 
on gearing and tables of diametral pitch, circular pitch, and 
a great deal of other valuable information. 

Electric Controller & Manufacturing Company, Cleve- 
land, Ohio, has issued very a attractive catalog entitled 
"More Chips." The catalog contains an article by H. F. 
Stratton, on "Automatic Control of Machine Tools," with a 
great many illustrations, of all types of machines, using 
this automatic control. 

Protective Signal Manufacturing Company, Denver, Col., 
has just issued an eight-page circular describing the "rail- 
way crossing protector." Several notable improvements 
have been made in this highway crossing signal, which are 
said to have decreased its cost of installation and main- 
tenance, and to have increased its reliability. 

California Corrugated Culvert Company, Los Angeles, 
Cal., has issued a very attractive catalog describing its 
culverts and containing many illustrations of work that is 
under construction and completed. The catalog also con- 
tains the official report of test made by Prof. A. N. Talbot, 
of the University of Illinois, on its culvert. 

Nachod Signal Company, Philadelphia, Pa., has issued an 
attractive catalog in three colors entitled "Merit Tells," 
which is generously illustrated with interurban views. It 
describes the Nachod products, including automatic sig- 
nals for single and double track electric railways controlled 
by _ trolley contactors, crossing bells and automatic head- 
way recorders. 

The J. G. Brill Company, Philadelphia, Pa., prints in its 
June, 1913, issue of the Brill Magazine an illustrated biog- 
raphy of John Frank Calderwood, vice-president and gen- 
eral manager of the Brooklyn ( N. Y. ) Rapid Transit Com- 
pany. Among the feature articles are the following: "Con- 
ditions Which Govern the Type of Car for City Service, 
Seattle, Wash.," "Radiax Trucks in New Bedford, Mass.," 
"Changes in Platform Arrangement and Ventilators on the 
Near-Side Car," "Convertible Prepayment Car for the Slate 
Melt Electric Railway," "San Diego Center Entrance Car" 
and the "Storage Battery Cars for the Heaviest Traffic 
Street in the World." The magazine this month contains 
a new feature under the heading "Addressed to Men," 
which contains good advice to men who have a purpose 
to rise in rank and who would regard their calling in elec- 
tric railway work as something more than a mere means of 

Locke Insulator Manufacturing Company, Victor, N. Y., 

has just issued "The Insulator Book." This work is an 
excellent example of the tendency of manufacturing com- 
panies to have catalogs carry valuable general technical 
data on their specialty in addition to the customary de- 
scriptions of the firm's products. The present publication 
contains an interesting essay on insulating materials, lead- 
ing to the extremely important matter of preparing gen- 
eral insulator specifications with explanations of the pur- 
pose of each kind of test. The discussion is followed by 
notes on the construction and application of suspension 
insuiators, now so prominent in high-tension work, sherard- 
izing, etc. The apparatus described covers the company's 
porcelain insulators of pin and suspension types, glass in- 
sulators, porcelain bushings and tubes, arcing rings, brack- 
ets, pins and other fittings. All items may be economically 
ordered by telegraph through the use of code words. 
The book is prepared in loose-leaf form so that changes 
in patterns can readily be noted by the user without the 
nuisance of keeping a number of more or less obsolete 

Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. XLII 


No. 2 


McGraw Publishing Company, Inc. 

James H. McGraw, President. C. E. Whittlesey, Secretary and Treas. 
239 West 39th Street, New York. 

Chicago Office 1570 Old Colony Building 

Philadelphia Office Real Estate Trust Building 

European Office. .. .Hastings House, Norfolk St., Strand, London, Eng. 

Terms of Subscription 

For 52 weekly issues, and daily convention issues published from time 
to time in New York City or elsewhere; United States, Cuba and Mexico, 
$3.00 per year; Canada, $4.50 per year; all other countries, $6.00 per year. 
Single copies, 10 cents. Foreign subscriptions may be sent to our 
European office. 

Requests for changes of address should be made one week in advance, 
giving old as well as new address. Date on wrapper indicates the month 
at the end of which subscription expires. 

Copyright, 1913, by McGraw Publishing Company, Inc. 
Entered as second-class matter at the post office at New Yuilt,-N» Y. 

R A yij 

Of this issue of the Electric Railway Journal, $0(10-- copies are printed. 

, ■8000-- co 

i SEP 29 1914 

THE AUTO-TRUCK ^he recent decision of the New York 
FOR EMERGENCY Railways to use electric emergency 
SERVICE wagons hereafter will drive the 

vanishing horse out of his last stronghold in railway serv- 
ice. The greater mileage possibilities of auto-trucks require 
no expatiation at this day, but attention may be called to 
their much greater flexibility in meeting specially arduous 
conditions. Thus, the shorter length of the auto-truck in 
comparison with a horse and wagon combined make it much 
easier to move through and out of congested streets. Fur- 
thermore, when it is necessary to remove a broken-down 
vehicle or other heavy obstruction from the track the auto- 
truck is equally serviceable for pulling or pushing from 
either end. The preference of the company in question for 
electric instead of gasoline trucks is also of interest. It 
found that, on the combined basis of first cost, operation 
and upkeep, the former actually were cheaper for use on 
streets with heavy traffic. For general city service the 
introduction of auto-trucks has made it feasible to operate 
safely those without towers at an average speed of 15 
m.p.h. The stresses set up by the swaying of towers, how- 
ever, do not make it advisable to operate tower trucks at 
more than 12 m.p.h. 

While the city undoubtedly profits by the extension of 
every transportation line, the individual locality profits in 
an even greater ratio, and the practice of requiring special 
bonuses or assessments for improved transportation facili- 
ties is on the increase. Not long ago an insistent minority 
could often bring enough political pressure to bear upon 
authorities in most cities to secure the public assumption 
of a burden of this kind, but now municipal expenses have 
been growing so rapidly that a different condition prevails, 
and the opposition of organized taxpayers' associations is 
also becoming more pronounced. The result of the Boston 
referendum will throw light upon the way in which the 
matter is regarded in that city. The subject is an impor- 
tant one, because the laws governing many public service 
. commissions permit them to require railway companies to 
build extensions upon order of the commission. 

CITY SUBSIDY The demand of the residents of East 

TO AID LOCAL Boston that the city assume the re- 

TRANSPORTATION sponsibility of the payment of the 
interest and sinking fund charges on the East Boston tunnel, 
in order that they may be relieved of a penny toll, illus- 
trates the universal desire of individuals to transfer their 
charges upon the government through its power of taxa- 
tion. On the other hand, the reception accorded this de- 
mand shows the growing opposition of taxpayers at large 
to any additions to their burdens. The question at issue 
is, of course, the extent to which a city should go in sub- 
sidizing transportation facilities to different localities. 



The lure of showing something as 
"home-made" occasionally leads the 
small railway to wasteful operating 
expense which more than offsets a real or fancied saving 
in first cost. The small railway rarely finds it necessary to 
buy a new utility car, as it is usually possible to press into 
service an antiquated passenger car which can be converted 
at a low charge, or, at the most, a new body may be as- 
sembled with old trucks, motors and brake rigging. Such 
service cars are likely to lack refinement in design and con- 
struction, but as their mileage is small their extra weight is 
of no great importance. Home design and construction of 
passenger cars, however, should be approached with greater 
caution. To begin with, as the small company cannot afford 
an expert designer, the finished car is likely to be much 
heavier than necessary and to embody crudities in con- 
struction which an experienced car engineer would have 
avoided. Needless weight not only implies higher first cost 
but excessive energy consumption, greater strain on the 
motors and injury to special work. Again, the narrow shop 
facilities of the small company and the fact that the car is 
built during odd moments are not conducive to the best 
work. In any event, if conditions do favor home construc- 
tion, as when a company which is isolated from car builders 
can get raw materials cheaply, it would be wiser to imitate 
the successful designs of other companies for like conditions 
than to run the risk of serious errors through inexperience. 


The failure of the First-Second 
National Bank of Pittsburgh and 
the appointment of receivers for the 
American Water Works & Guarantee Company emphasize 
the dangers which lurk, particularly at the present time, in 
the over-extension of holding companies. The exact causes 
of the bank failure are under investigation by the authori- 
ties of the Treasury Department, but the facts seem to in- 



fVoL. XLII, No. 2. 

dicate that the assets of the bank consisted largely of non- 
liquid securities, not necessarily excessive in amount, but 
evidently of inferior quality, upon which the government 
placed a lower valuation than the bank. On account of the 
connection between the officers of the bank and the officers 
of the American Water Works & Guarantee Company, 
presumably a considerable portion of the securities held 
were those of the latter company and its controlled cor- 
porations. We believe that intrinsically public utility 
properties, such as water companies, electric light and 
power companies and electric railway companies, when con- 
servatively managed, ought to be among the most desirable 
classes of investments because they are less subject to fluc- 
tuations in commercial conditions than most manufactur- 
ing enterprises or trunk-line railroads. It is very difficult 
now, however, to market any securities except on a basis 
of a high interest or dividend return, and the securities of 
the public utility enterprises are not exempt from this con- 
dition. In fact, the uncertainty in regard to the legislation 
and labor conditions has accentuated the situation in regard 
to these securities. These special conditions, we believe, 
will pass away, but while they remain they have to be taken 
into consideration, and any attempt to pyramid upon securi- 
ties not readily salable is liable to result in disaster. 


Just one year ago one of the most disastrous wrecks in 
the history of American railroading occurred near Corn- 
ing, N. Y. Forty-one passengers were killed and many 
were injured. Yet to-day, notwithstanding vigorous efforts 
on the part of the public authorities, the man whose crimi- 
nal negligence obviously was the cause of the disaster 
stands acquitted of the charge of manslaughter which was 
lodged against him. 

The primary cause for this miscarriage of justice is 
charged directly, in an open letter to a New York news- 
paper by one of the prosecuting attorneys, to the pernicious 
activities of the railroad men's unions. This procedure is 
by no means new, although it probably establishes a record, 
because the railroad brotherhoods have for some obscure 
reason developed the custom of fighting vigorously against 
every case of discipline imposed by a railroad, quite regard- 
less of its merits. 

To influence a jury to the extent where it will acquit in 
the face of what is described as overwhelming evidence 
and upon the giounds of a defense consisting largely of 
testimonials of good character is admittedly a logical step 
for the brotherhood, yet there is a vast difference between 
the subversion of discipline on a railroad which is willing 
to pay almost any price to avoid labor trouble and a per- 
version of justice effected by tampering, even indirectly, 
with a jury. If this course is to be followed in future, it is 
difficult to believe that public sentiment can fail to take 
cognizance of the fact that the trainmen's organizations 
have just as much regard for the public interests as a 
frog has for a pair of rubber boots. 

Public sentiment has meant much to the railroad labor 
organizations in the past, and if they lose its support their 
present power is hardly likely to remain unimpaired. Their 
action in presenting themselves as lobbyists in the courts is 

unwise, to say the least, and, aside from the vicious prece- 
dent which is set up, the result in the end cannot fail to be 
detrimental to the organizations themselves. 


Unlike the great philosopher Bacon, who said that he 
had taken all knowledge to be his province, the average 
reader of a technical paper feels satisfied if he can read 
carefully all that is published on his own specialty. It is 
the aim of every well-edited journal to aid this purpose by 
the use of appropriate captions and sub-captions as guide- 
posts, but the application of the facts thus given necessarily 
depends upon the individual. Each reader of this paper 
probably has his own way of utilizing the information pub- 
lished, but the method of one which recently came to our 
attention may be of interest to others. His particular 
work was car maintenance, and his plan, briefly, was to 
compile the information published in this paper on that 
subject and to combine it with facts gained from his own 
experience. This material was then rewritten on a type- 
writer, according to the subdivision of the subject, and 
kept available for easy reference. 

An abstract of this assembly shows the following typical 
arrangement : Under motor inspection he classed commu- 
tators, leads, brushes, brush holders and yokes as parts 
which soon expose defects, whereas neglected commutator 
dust caps, hand-hole plates and armature clearance rarely 
evince themselves until an actual breakdown occurs. The 
absence of commutator dust caps encourages the entrance 
into the motor of brakeshoe filings, dust and armature 
bearing oil, which find their way into the armature and field 
windings and burn them out eventually through excessive 
heating. An armature may run for months with a clear- 
ance below the safety line, but when it does go down on 
the pole pieces the failure is complete. The compiler's con- 
clusion is that it is cheaper to inspect all parts frequently 
than to have costly repairs and loss of mileage. 

The section on brakeshoes lays stress on the desirability 
of having an experienced man check the adjustments of 
small but important parts which may be made by unskilled 
laborers ; also on saving and matching the least-worn shoes 
of discarded sets, or, better still, of avoiding uneven wear 
by keeping the brake rigging equalized. The hints on truck 
and wheel maintenance serve as reminders that non- 
equalized brake rigging, poor lubrication of center plates 
and side bearings and lack of clearance on side bearings 
produce unnecessary flange wear and that other common 
oversights in truck work are loose or broken bolts and lack 
of oil on swinging joints and places subject to the rubbing 
of the brake rods. 

In the section on compressors the compiler set down 
methods of determining trouble by ear, such as a thump for 
crank-shaft trouble and a positive click for a loose crank 
pin. On the subject of controllers he added the following 
pointer from his experience: "Do not neglect to replace the 
pole piece bolt after completing inspection. Since the mag- 
netic effect of the blow-out is inversely proportional to the 
square of the distance across the air gap, even a slight in- 
crease in the air gap causes a large decrease in the efficiency 
of the blow-out. When its bolt is not replaced the pole 

July 12, 1913.] 



piece is dependent "solely upon the controller cover to keep 
it in place, and if the cover is loose the pole piece is free to 
swing back and forth to a certain extent. The consequent 
flashing destroys the temper of the finger springs and intro- 
duces complications which burn up the controller. Again, 
the use of pliers to bend back the finger spring, in order to 
make it easier for the shop man to start the screws, takes the 
life out of a spring and shortens the usefulness of the finger. 
The adjustment of finger tension without tightening the jam 
nuts causes many buckled fingers and locked controllers." 

The foregoing facts have not been presented because of 
anything novel which they may contain, but rather to show 
how one busy man has harvested and bound in a single 
sheaf the crops of facts that were of the most direct 
value to him. 


The wreck near Vallejo, Cal., on the line of the San 
Francisco, Napa & Calistoga Railroad, which occurred on 
June 19 and resulted in the death of thirteen passengers and 
serious injury to a score or more, strongly emphasizes the 
crying necessity for greater care and efficiency in the oper- 
ating departments of many interurban electric railways. In 
some parts of the country there is a tendency to regard an 
interurban electric line in the same light as a street car 
system, in which the schedule is arranged by the operating 
department but the maintenance of the schedule is left to 
the individual car crews. 

It is reported that a number of dangerous defects in the 
operation of the San Francisco, Napa & Calistoga Railroad 
were pointed out by the State Railroad Commission in a 
letter addressed to the management on the day before the 
accident. Specifically the defects to which attention was 
called were said to be the absence of train registers for 
checking the arrival and departure of trains, the omission 
of a dispatcher's book record of train orders issued, the 
failure to follow prescribed forms as outlined in the book 
of rules, and the lack of standard clocks with a daily regis- 
tration of the condition of watches of motormen and con- 
ductors. The company was also warned that trainmen must 
make meeting points positive in case of a wire failure and 
an interruption to service due to trains being late. 

The conductor of the northbound Calistoga flier has 
strongly maintained that before leaving Vallejo he tele- 
phoned to the dispatcher at Napa and received from him the 
reply "No orders," meaning that the train should run on 
regular schedule. The dispatcher has as strongly main- 
tained that up to the time of the accident the conductor of 
the northbound Calistoga flier had not telephoned him for 
orders and that had he done so the accident would have been 
averted. There is little evidence to indicate which of the 
contradictory statements is true. Nor is it of any impor- 
tance to the public whether the conductor or dispatcher 
neglected his duty, except that the dispute points out the 
inefficiency of such a system of issuing train orders. In- 
deed, the investigation now in progress before the State 
Railroad Commission of California, while it may serve to 
determine the liability of the company for damages, will be 
of little value if it does not lead to the adoption on inter- 
urban single-track electric lines of stringent dispatching 


The ownership of the trolley lines of the New Haven 
Railroad is condemned this week in no uncertain terms by 
the Interstate Commerce Commission, whose criticism is 
not only directed against the prices paid for the proper- 
ties but includes a strong condemnation of the extension 
by an interstate road of its activities beyond its own direct 

Unfortunately for its balance sheet, the New Haven 
railroad acquired these trolley properties either too early 
or too late. If it had decided upon the purchase of the 
Providence system five years earlier than it did, for instance, 
it would undoubtedly have been able to save a large part of 
the $13,500,000 for which the commission considers that it 
secured nothing. If it had waited an equal length of time, 
or until 191 1 or 1912, assuming that such a purchase would 
have been permitted by the state and federal laws, the price 
paid would also undoubtedly have been considerably less 
than in 1906. But the company embarked upon its plan of 
securing a monopoly of the transportation facilities in 
southern New England at a time when there was an exag- 
gerated idea of the economies to be obtained from consoli- 
dated ownership and when the disadvantages of a mon- 
opoly were not so thoroughly understood as at present. At 
that time, too, there were exaggerated ideas of the possible 
profits to be derived from trolley operation. 

It was also hoped, and we believe that Mr. Mellen ex- 
pressed this belief on several occasions, that the service of 
the trolley lines and that of the through line could be com- 
bined ; that is to say, that cars traveling over the street 
railway tracks in one town could make an interurban rUn 
over the through tracks of the steam railroad and then 
continue their run over the city tracks in an adjoining 
town. We believe that this plan has never been extensively 
followed on the New Haven road, and the two services haVe 
been kept quite distinct, except so far as the trolley com- 
panies have been able to benefit from the services of the 
engineering, accounting and transportation departments of 
the larger company. At all events, the commission has ex- 
pressed itself as opposed to this policy of trolley control, 
not because it is against the law but because such owner- 
ship might be used to prevent the construction of compet- 
ing lines in the future. 

We do not understand this to be an order of the commis- 
sion but simply an expression of opinion. If put into the 
form of an order, the problem might prove as complicated 
as that of divorcing the Union Pacific and Southern Pacific 
Railroads, to which so much study has lately been devoted. 
Moreover, we doubt whether it would accomplish the result 
sought. One may be skeptical of the advantages of the 
control of trolley lines by interstate steam railroads and 
yet not understand why it prevents the construction of com- 
peting trolley lines in a state where the public service com- 
mission has wide powers over service, rates and franchises. 
Until quite recently we were told that a monopoly, rigor- 
ously controlled and subject to revocation of its franchise 
if it did not obey orders, was the most desirable form of 
public utility. Now we are taught that there must be com- 
petition in addition to keep it in check and to make sure 
that it will perform its service to the public. 



[Vol. XLII. No. 2. 

Recent Improvements in the Electric Railway 
System of Providence, R. I. 

Introduction of Platform Collection Cars — Improvements in the Handling and Distribution of Traffic — Use of 

Automatic Block Signals on Single-Track Lines — Other Features 

The system of the Rhode Island Company, of which the 
street railway lines of the city of Providence form the 
nucleus, is one of the most comprehensive in the East, 
embracing within its limits a combined urban and suburban 
trackage of about 320 miles. The service of the company 
extends throughout the greater part of the smallest and 
yet the most densely populated state in the Union and in- 
cludes a passenger, freight and express business yielding a 
gross revenue of about $5,000,000 per year. In general, 
the system radiates from Providence in all directions, in- 
cluding interurban lines running to points in Massachusetts 
and Connecticut, and providing rapid and frequent trans- 
portation between Providence, Fall River, Narragansett 

ment of the smaller and relatively inefficient rolling stock 
in use upon the city lines. The company concurred in this 
view, and thirty-five cars of this type have been placed in 

The business center of Providence is located in a flat 
basin whose outlets are narrow and handicapped by heavy 
grades. Large carrying capacity per unit of rolling stock 
is dictated by the traffic density and the restrictions upon 
schedule speed imposed by the absence of broad and level 
thoroughfares over which high-speed operation can safely 
be permitted. Providence is essentially a short-haul city, 
but the population of 286,000 within the 5-cent fare zone 
renders the use of large cars essential in the most efficient 

Providence Improvements — Exchange Place Loop 

Pier, Danielson, New Bedford, Worcester, Brockton and 
other populous centers. The operating headquarters of the 
company and the most pressing problems of the manage- 
ment center at Providence, and in the following paragraphs 
are given the details of some recent improvements asso- 
ciated with the urban lines, including the introduction of 
platform collection cars, improved methods of handling 
traffic, the enlargement of the power plant facilities and the 
conduct of a large express and freight business. 

The traffic problems of Providence are greatly compli- 
cated by the geography of the city, the narrowness of the 
streets and the rapid growth of the great manufacturing, 
mercantile and residential district of which the city is the 
center. For this reason the relation of car design to the 
transportation needs of the system is recognized by the com- 
pany to be a matter of fundamental importance. An ex- 
haustive investigation of the traction conditions and de- 
sirable improvements within the Providence district was 
made in 191 1 by Bion J. Arnold, who was retained by the 
city as its consulting engineer. Mr. Arnold's report was 
briefly abstracted in the Electric Railway Journal of 
Aug. 19, 191 1, and included among other recommendations 
one advising the use of semi-convertible platform collec- 
tion cars with lengthened vestibules and the gradual retire- 

handling of the dense traffic carried. The present schedule 
of cars operated into or within the city of Providence com- 
prises, with the exception of the semi-convertible platform 
collection cars to be described later, three principal classes 
having twenty-six, thirty-four and forty-two seats respect- 
ively, some being designed for urban and some for suburban 
service. The company owns 985 passenger cars, 435 of 
which are of the open type. With the exception of the 
suburban or long-haul cars, all have longitudinal seats, the 
former having cross seats or a combination of cross and 
longitudinal seats. A large number of open cross-seat cars 
are operated in the summer. The smaller cars have been 
retained chiefly on account of the difficulty of operating 
any other type of car over the College Hill approach to the 
East Side of the city. This obstacle will in the near future 
be largely overcome by the construction of a tunnel under 
the hill for the use of all types of rolling stock operated by 
the company. Prior to the introduction of the new plat- 
form collection cars, the latest type of equipment for pas- 
senger service consisted of cars seating forty-two persons 
each, double trucks and four motors being standardized for 
the service. Nearly all these cars are arranged for double- 
end operation and the majority have outside-hung motors. 
The principal objection to the use of two-motor cars in 

July 12, 1913.] 



Providence is the reduced tractive effort secured on heavy 
grades, which range up to 8 per cent. 


One of the chief difficulties with the former rolling 
stock has been the short and narrow vestibules universally 
existing. On the older equipment the vestibules are set in 
from 8 in. to 12 in. in order to provide for a step flush with 
the car body. The thirty-four-seat class has a platform 
varying from a minimum of 4 ft. 8 in. to 5 ft. 2 in. in 
length over all from center posts, which permits a side door 

ger is fully equal to, if not greater than, the time required 
for the modern type, both under rush-hour conditions. Ex- 
perience with the initial platform collection cars installed 
has shown the company that a decided saving in loading 
and unloading time is accomplished in the outlying parts 
of the city, although the duration of stops downtown is 
practically unchanged. As soon as the car leaves the con- 
gested district the benefits of its capacity and arrangement 
are felt in reduced length of stops. 

The open bulkhead or platform collection type of car 

Electric Htj. Journal 

Providence Improvements — Floor and Roof Plan of New Car 

of only 28^2 in. and a bulkhead door of 3232 in. clear 
when open. The forty-two-seat cars have 5-ft. platforms, 
28-in. side doors and bulkhead doors 30 in. in the clear when 
open. The narrow vestibules in these bodies resulted from 
the necessity of securing as great a seating capacity as pos- 
sible in the car body and the city ordinances limiting car 
dimensions to 43 ft. over all. In considering the use of 
platform collection cars for Providence it was borne in 
mind that a relatively long platform would have to be 
provided, on account of the need of supplying adequate 
loading capacity while passengers are receiving change. 

was selected for Providence service largely because it was 
originally developed to suit conditions identical with those 
on this system, viz., narrow streets and sharp curves. It 
was also favored for the reason that it is best suited to the 
Rooke fare-collecting system, which has been in successful 
use on the lines of the Rhode Island Company for the past 
five years. This system was described in the Electric 
Railway Journal for Dec. 30, 191 1, as applied in Provi- 
dence, and consists essentially of a portable register car- 
ried by each conductor, each fare being passed through the 
register as it is presented to the passenger. A register is 

Mr. Arnold emphasized this point particularly in discussing 
the advantages of platform collection car service with the 
public authorities, stating that persons unfamiliar with the 
advance payment principle are apt to criticise it severely 
on the score of slow loading, whereas an essential feature 
of prepayment car operation is the separation of passen- 
gers entering and leaving, thereby avoiding the interfer- 
ence which is the source of so great delay in the single- 
entrance type of car. Tests showed that with the present 
narrow platform the average time of loading per passen- 

assigned to a conductor in the morning and turned in each 
night or during the middle of the day in case the lay-off 
exceeds three hours. The carhouse receiving office issues 
and reads the registers and checks them against the con- 
ductors' cash receipts. The car used allows much more 
space on the platform for incoming passengers than does 
the standard type. Stationed just at the entrance to the car 
body, the conductor also has much more latitude in receiv- 
ing passengers than he would have if he was stationed out- 
side behind a bulkhead. The conductor stands behind a 


1 54 _ i n - wrought-iron pipe railing carried about 3 ft. above 
the vestibule floor. 

Exterior and interior views of the platform collection 
car used are shown herewith. These cars are being made 
by the Osgood Bradley Car Company, of Worcester, Mass. 
They are 41 ft. 6 in. long over bumpers, seat forty passen- 

Providence Improvements — Door-Operating Mechanism of 

New Car 

gers and are equipped with four G. E. No. 80 motors with 
19:67 gear ratio. The principal dimensions are given in 
Table I. 

Table I — Data on Platform Collection Cars, Rhode Island Company 

Length over dasher 40 ft. 6 in. 

Kody length 28 ft. 6 in. 

Distance between truck centers 17 ft. 11 in. 

Inside wid:h 7 ft. 1 l'A in. 

Width of aisle 2 ft. 2 1 / 2 in. 

Number of cross seats 10 

Number of longitudinal seats 4 

Width of cross seats from panels 2 ft. 10!^ in. 

Length of longitudinal seats 7 ft. 4 in. 

Width of seats 17 in. 

Spacing of cross seats on centers 2 ft. 5 l A in. 

Height of seats above floor 18 in. 

Capacity each longitudinal seat 5 

Width of aisle between longitudinal seats 4 ft. 4% in. 

Type of operation Double-ended 

Inside dimensions vestibule, maximum 5 ft. 6 in x 6 ft. 

Number doors per vestibule 3 

Width of forward exit door 2 ft. yi in. 

Width of rear exit door 1 ft. 11 in. 

Width of entrance door 2 ft. 2 in. 

Type of steps Fixed 

Height of step above rail 17 in. 

Height of platform above rail 2 ft. 7 in. 

Height of car floor above rail 3 ft. 6 in. 

Width of steps 8 in. 

Maximum width of passage outside collection bar 36 in. 

Minimum width of passage entering car 24 in. 

Car body door opening (double doors) 3 ft. 11 in. 

Number and make of heaters 12 Consolidated 

Extreme width of car outside over sheathing 8 ft. 6 in. 

Width over eaves, car body outside 8 ft. 4 in. 

Make of trucks Standard Motor Truck Co. 

Wheelbase 4 ft. 6 in. 

Wheel type and diameter 33-in. forged steel 

Axle diameter 4 'A in. 

Gear seat 4f£ in. 

Controllers ' "K-35" 


The cars are equipped with straight-air brakes with 
G. E. "CP-27" compressors. Providence "Consolidated" 
wheelguards are used. The weights of the car are as fol- 
lows: Body equipped, 20,900 lb.; motors, 11,500 lb.; trucks, 
13,000 lb. ; total, without passengers, 45,400 lb. 

[Vol. XLII, No. 2. 

The outer vestibule doors are all operated by levers and 
handles inside tbe vestibules. The forward exit door is 
opened and closed by the motorman by a handle brought 
down from the upper part of the vestibule, where a sys- 
tem of levers connects with the upper part of the door. 
The rear entrance and the rear exit doors are operated by 
the conductor from his position behind the rail. The doors 
are operated by overhead levers as in the foregoing case. 
The vestibule doors are all of the folding type and are 
equipped with rubber buffers on their outer edges. Two 
bulkhead doors are provided at each end of the car body, 
these sliding into side pockets when not in use. 


The first platform collection type of car was placed in 
service on Dec. 14, 1912, on the Broad Street line, between 
the Union Station and Thurber Avenue, five cars being 
operated under the new arrangement. For two days before 
tbe company published a notice in the daily papers an- 
nouncing the introduction of the new rolling stock and 
stating that its use was in accordance with the recommend- 
ations of Bion J. Arnold, consulting engineer to the joint 
municipal committee on railroad franchises, and with 
the franchise agreement between the city of Providence 
and the Rhode Island Company, which provides that the 
latter shall adopt a type of car substantially as recom- 
mended in the Arnold report. The notice called attention 
to the stationing of the conductor in the new car, and to 
the plan to collect fares at the entrance and stated that, to 
make the system the success which Mr. Arnold and the 
city's representatives desired in recommending such a 
type of car, passengers should co-operate by having the 

Electric Ri/.Journal 

Providence Improvements — Platform Arrangement of New 
Car — Door Slide Shown Below 

exact fare ready immediately upon boarding the car. At- 
tention was also called to the importance of leaving the 
car so far as practicable by the front door and to the 
mechanical operation of the latter by the motorman. The 
cars were successful from the first, and in a few days the 
service was extended to Norwood Avenue, slightly be- 


July 12, 1913.] 



yond the city limits, and on Jan. 1, 1913, cars were oper- 
ated to Pawtuxet, about 5 miles from the center of the 

In the operation of these cars the conductor does not 
leave his position behind the railing except at terminals 
and upon arriving at transfer limits, when he enters the 
car and collects cash fares from all persons who have 
ridden on transfers. He is also permitted to leave this 
position in emergencies demanding his attention elsewhere. 
In case the conductor leaves the car all vestibule doors are 
closed, so that no passengers can board during his absence. 
In case passengers enter the car without paying fare the 
conductor is required to enter and make the proper col- 
lection as soon as his duties permit. Should passengers 
ride to the terminus of the line and return on the same 
car the conductor enters the car and makes collection from 
all passengers before starting from the terminus. Passen- 
gers are not allowed to remain upon the rear platform 
unless the car is overcrowded. The doors are kept closed 
when passengers arc not using them, as in ordinary pre- 
payment car practice. 


The down-town loading district of Providence extends 
from Market Square to the east to Cathedral Square and 
Hoyle Square on the west, and from the Union Station to 
the Providence River in the other direction. The civic 
center of the city is a large open area lying between the 
Union Station, Exchange Place, the City Hall and the 
Post Office, and is shown in the accompanying map, which 
indicates the track layout best adapted to meet the traffic 
conditions as determined by all the parties interested. 
This trackage arrangement is now practically complete and 
provides valuable loop facilities around the plaza contain- 

Providence Improvements — Automatic Signal on Prairie 

ing the Soldiers and Sailors' Monument, increased switch- 
ing connections between intersecting tracks, additional 
cross-over facilities and a new storage track for lay-overs. 
A loop serving the Union Station has been a feature of 
the civic center for many years, and this is retained in 
the new arrangement of tracks, although additional switches 

are provided to enable cars operated on Washington and 
Francis Streets to reach and leave the railroad station. 
The Washington Street side of the Plaza is used largely 
in unloading and the Exchange Place side in loading cars, 
and this reserved area forms an island which provides ample 
refuge for passengers while waiting for particular services. 

Providence Improvements — Interior View cf New Car 

The Exchange Place loop was placed in commission in 
December, 1912, and has relieved congestion in adjacent 
thoroughfares as shown in Table II. 

Table II — Cars Run Between 5:30 p.m. and 6:30 p.m. Before and 
After Installation of Exchange Place Loop 

Name of 

Street Direction Between Before After 

VVeybosset Eastward Mathewson and Dorrance Streets 151 129 
Weybosset Eastward Dorrance and Turk's Head 131 90 

Westminster Westward Turk's Head and Dorrance 138 94 

Westminster Westward Dorrance and Mathewson 123 87 

Dorrance Southward Loop I!ranch-ofT and Westminster 103 72 
Dorrance Southward Westminster and Weybosset 103 72 

Dorrance Northward Weybosset and Exchange Place 84 63 

In this rearrangement of traffic the car movement was 
increased from sixty-five to seventy-five cars per hour on 
Washington Street, east-bound, between Mathewson and 
Dorrance Streets; from fifty-eight to seventy-five per hour 
between the same points, west-bound ; from ninety to ninety- 
five on Dorrance Street, south-bound, at the Washington 
Street branch-off into the loop ; and on the north side of 
the loop, or on Exchange Place, west-bound, from seventy- 
eight to 122. Cars are run around the south side of the 
loop at the rate of 103 per hour. Weybosset, Westminster 
and Dorrance Streets are all narrow thoroughfares in the 
heart of the city. 

The traffic conditions have also been improved by the 
installation of electric track switches at various points, and 
within a short time twenty-five of these will be in service. 
Thirty per cent of the white-pole stops have been removed 
within the city limits upon the initiative of the railway 
company, and the result has been a noticeable improve- 
ment in transit conditions particularly in the residential 
districts. Thus, on the Olneyville suburban line a sav- 
ing of five minutes has been effected in the running time 
in a distance of about miles during certain hours as a 
result of the reduction in stopping points. The operating 
conditions on the Prairie Avenue and Ocean Street single- 
track lines have also been much bettered by the installation 
of Chapman automatic semaphore type block signals. On 
the former line are seven turnouts, making six track blocks 
in a distance of i-)4 miles. Four of these blocks are cov- 
ered by signals and the other two are not equipped for 
the reason that a clear vision exists between the turnouts. 
A ten-minute headway is operated on this line and cars 
are in service upon it for about twenty hours per clay. 



[Vol. XLII, Au. 2. 

The line is carried through narrow and crooked streets, 
and the use of the automatic signals saves time and safe- 
guards the service. On the Ocean Street line three blocks 
are equipped in a distance of 1.5 miles. 


The East Side tunnel, which will provide a short con- 
nection betwen the business district and a near-by but 

Section A . B a^cs^t^a. 

Providence Improvements — Cross-Section of East Side 


comparatively undeveloped section of the city, will extend 
from the intersection of North Main and Waterman Streets 
to the west side of Thayer Street, a distance of 2165 ft., the 
grade being 4.8 per cent and the total rise 90 ft. The dis- 
tance between portals will be 1790 ft. A cross-section of 
the tunnel is shown in the accompanying drawing. The 
tunnel is designed to accommodate two tracks spaced 11 
ft. on centers and is 25 ft. wide, with an arched roof 
carried 17 ft. 6 in. above the top of the rail. The lining 
is of concrete, the roof being 18 in. and the walls 24 in. 
thick. The roadbed is to be of rock ballast, 18 in. deep 
at the center, and is drained by a 4-in. tile pipe at the 
bottom. The cables are to be carried in ducts located 
in the side walls, splicing chambers being provided on each 
side, staggered, and 160 ft. apart. An overhead trolley 
will be used. 


The supply of electrical energy for the operation of the 
system is the Manchester Street station, located on tide- 
water in the heart of Providence. This plant, which is one 
of the largest street railway power stations in New Eng- 
land, consists essentially of a double-deck boiler room con- 
taining sixteen 520-hp B. & W. water-tube boilers, of which 
eight are installed on each floor, and engine and turbine- 
driven generators aggregating 25,500 kw in rating. The 
boilers are fed from overhead coal bunkers having a capac- 
ity of 3000 tons and are fired by Roney stokers. Eight 
boilers are operated to give from 105 to no deg. super- 
heat for turbine service, the others giving saturated steam 
for the engines. Condensing water is drawn from the 
Providence River and boiler-feed water is taken from the 
city mains. 

Prior to the installation of the present equipment, the 
station contained six units aggregating 12,100 kw in rating, 
the units being as shown in Table III. 

Table III — Former Installatio 

n in Manchester Street Power Station 


Prime Mover 

Number Rating 





2 1,500 




Horizontal units 

2 2,500 




Vertical units 

1 1,600 




Vertical unit 

1 2,500 




Horizontal unit 


demands for 


within the past few years 

have led to 

the removal 

of the 


unit above men- 

tioned and the erection in its place of a 15,000-kw, 11,000- 
volt Curtis turbine which now carries the brunt of the 

service on the entire system. No additions in the boiler 
room equipment were necessary on account of the installa- 
tion of this unit. The turbine delivers three-phase, 25-cycle 
current to the station buses, and, as shown by the load 
curve on page 62, is ordinarily operated about twenty 
hours per day. The turbine is a six-stage machine and 
runs at 750 r.p.m. The weights of the principal parts are : 
rotating element, complete, 182,000 lb. ; stationary armature, 
170,000 lb.; turbine casing, 110,000 lb.; base, 98,000 lb.; 
total weight, 908,000 lb. Steam is supplied to the turbine 
at 150 lb. pressure through a 16-in. delivery pipe con- 
nected with a 20-in. horizontal steam main in the boiler 
room. The height of the unit above the foundation is about 
35 ft., the base being 15 ft. 3 in. x 16 ft. 

The turbine discharges through a 13.5-ft. x 5-ft. outlet 
into a Westinghouse-Leblanc twin condenser installed in 
the basement at one side of the turbine foundation. All 
the foundations are of concrete supported on piling. Air 
for the ventilation of the generator is taken from the base- 
ment just below the engine room floor level through a 50-in. 
circular iron duct terminating after a right-angled turn in 
a 9-ft. x 3-ft. inlet at the top of the generator casing. An 
opening in the floor of the engine room surrounds the 
turbine and its principal auxiliaries and facilitates handling 
the parts of the equipment. 


The condenser is guaranteed to maintain a vacuum of 
28 in. absolute when condensing 250,000 lb. of steam per 
hour, if supplied with injection water at a temperature not 
exceeding 70 deg. Fahr., the temperature of discharge 
being not less than 5 deg. Fahr. below that corresponding 
to the vacuum carried. The amount of injection water 
required is 8,000,000 lb. per hour at full load, the lift from 
the river being about 20 ft. Salt water is drawn from the 
river for injection purposes through a concrete conduit 
about 175 ft. long, discharging into a suction well from 
which a 36-in. pipe carries it into a manifold located on the 
basement floor. From the latter two 20-in. main injection 
pipes lead to the condenser. The main discharge of the 

Providence Improvements — New Arrangement of Tracks at 
the Exchange Place Loop 

condenser consists of two 18-in. pipes emptying into a 
chamber of concrete, of 7- ft. x 4-ft. oval cross-section, 
located about 2 ft. above the top of the suction chamber. 
After leaving the building the discharge is carried into 
the river about 50 ft. above the intake by a conduit lead- 
ing off at an angle of 45 deg. A 10-in. pipe leads from 

July 12, 1913.] 



the suction manifold on each side of the condenser instal- 
lation to an air pump of special design in which a vacuum 
is produced by the passage of a series of water pistons by 
the outlet of a 12-in. air exhaust pipe leading from the 
condenser casing to the pump. The air pump discharge is 
delivered into the main discharge pipe of the condenser by 
a 12-in. connection. There are two main centrifugal pumps 
in the condenser equipment, and these, with the two air 
pumps, are direct-driven on a single horizontal shalt by 
a 450-hp non-condensing turbine running normally at 700 
r.p.m. on 150 lb. steam pressure and 75 deg. Fahr. super- 
heat. A 5-in. steam inlet and a 12-in. exhaust pipe are 
provided for the turbine. The main turbine unit is also 
provided with a 36-in. atmospheric spiral riveted galvanized- 
iron exhaust pipe which is carried up through the boiler 
room roof to a head located about 20 ft. above the latter. 

The step-bearing lubrication is provided by duplicate- 
oil pumps of the Deane duplex type, with cylinders 14 in. x 
3^ in. x 12 in., and supplying oil under a pressure of 
1 100 lb. per square inch to a Wood accumulator, which 
is located in the floor opening of the engine room. The 
step bearing is operated at a pressure of 700 lb. per square 
inch, the drop being obtained by the use of a screw baffle- 
between the accumulator and the bearing. The supply of 
oil to the valve gear and upper and middle turbine bearings 
is furnished by duplicate 6-in. x 4-in. x 6-in. Deane duplex 
pumps located in the basement. The turbine oiling system 
exclusive of the step bearing is connected with a Turner 
oil filter of 50 gal. per minute capacity and a storage 
capacity of 2000 gal., also in the basement. A Blake twin 
vertical 18-in. x 20-in. x 24-in. priming pump is connected 
to the twin condenser. 

The generator leads are carried away from the machine 
in a 12-in. x 14-in. sheet-iron casing leading to the base- 
ment, and thence they are carried to the switchboard gal- 

ScaJe 1=18 

The turbo-generator panel contains a power-factor indi- 
cator, field ammeter, curve-drawing kilowatt-meter, an in- 
dicating ammeter, voltmeter and wattmeter and a watt-hour 
meter with synchronizing connections and the usual switch 
control. The oil switches, on a lower gallery, are motor- 
operated, current for this service being supplied by the 
exciters. A 75-kw, 125-volt steam-turbine-driven exciter 

£tectnc R'j.Joumal 

Providence Improvements — Sectional Elevation Showing 
Piping for 15,000-kw Turbo-Generator 

lery on the north side of the engine room. The operating 
gallery is located about 30 ft. above the turbine room floor, 
and the switchboard contains five a. c. feeder panels ami 
eighteen d. c. panels for feeder service, in addition to 
the usual controlling panels for the generators, exciters and 
a rotary converter installation in the engine room. 

Providence Improvements — Cross-Sections Showing Suc- 
tion Piping and Discharge Piping for Condenser 

running 3300 r.p.m. was installed in connection with the 
large turbo unit, the remaining exciter equipment consist- 
ing of one 35-kw engine-driven outfit and two 55-kw ma- 
chines, each direct-driven by a 75-hp, 440-volt, three-phase 
induction motor. The rotary converter equipment of the 
station consists of one 1000-kw and four 2000-kw machines, 
located in the engine room and operated for the purpose of 
supplying direct current to the car service of the central 
Providence district in conjunction with the a. c. generators 
or in parallel with the d. c. engine-driven units mentioned 
above. The transformer equipment of the station includes 
three 375-kw units, three 750-kw units and three 2100-kw 
three-phase units, the latter being of the air-cooled type, 
each transformer being supplied with air by a 36-in. Sirocco 
blower direct-driven by a 7.5-hp induction motor running 
750 r.p.m. 

On the engine-room wall near the larger turbine is lo- 
cated a black marble panel carrying a steam gage, vacuum 
gage, step-bearing gage and turbine first-stage indicator, 
speed indicator and frequency meter. A General Electric 
steam-flow meter is connected with the supply pipe of the 
main turbo unit. 


In starting the large turbine the step-bearing pumps are 
first thrown into service, raising the shaft off the step. The 
condenser pumps are started at about the same time, a 
steam seal being put on, and as soon as the condenser is 
working sufficiently the throttle is gradually opened between 
the steam main and the turbine proper, the machine being 
brought gradually up to speed and synchronized with any 
other apparatus which may be running. The condenser 
gives a vacuum of about 15 in. in the early stages of its 
operation, and the normal vacuum in operation is about 
28.6 in., depending upon the temperature of the condens- 
ing: water. 



[Vol. XLII, No. 2. 

In the operation of the 15,000-kw turbine one man is 
stationed on the engine room floor in charge of the valve 
gear and oiling of the shaft, the taking of steam pressure 
readings half-hourly and the general oversight of the 
machine excluding its auxiliaries. A second attendant 
stationed in the basement is in charge of the auxiliary 
pumps, oil filter, condenser and piping and takes the tem- 
perature of the injection water and air-pump discharge 
hourly. Neither of these men is allowed to leave the 
apparatus under his care for an instant without being 
relieved. These two men are handling 15,000 kw, whereas 
with the old engine-driven equipment three additional oilers 
were required and the total generating capacity of the 
plant was but 12,100 kw, or less than 50 per cent of the 
capacity of the present installation. The car service of 
over a dozen cities and towns is carried entire by this unit 
throughout a large portion of the day. 

Energy for car operation in the outlying districts is 
transmitted at 11,000 volts, three-phase, to four substa- 
tions located at Pawtucket, Riverview, Farmington and 

Electric liy.JoumoX 

Providence Improvements — Typical Power Station Log, 
Showing Load Curve and Machines in Service 

VVestcott, two lines being carried to the first-named point 
to provide additional capacity and increased reliability 
of service. 

A typical load curve is reproduced as of Thursday, Dec. 
12, 1912, the peak occurring at 6.30 p. m. and reaching the 
value of 20,000 kw. About 460 cars were operated during 
the rush hour, four-fifths of which are routed in and out 
of Providence or within the city limits. The large turbine 
was operated throughout the entire day except between 
r a. m. and 5 a. m., and but one other generator was called 
upon while the turbine was in service, this being a 2500-kw 
d. c. machine which was cut into service for about an 
hour to assist on the evening peak. The minimum load on 
the system, occurring between 1 a. m. and 5 a. m., was 
handled by a 1500-kw alternator working through rotaries 
to supply the d. c. feeders. The lowest point reached by 
the load curve was 1200 kw, at 4 a. m. The morning rush- 
hour peak was 15,900 kw, this being reached at 6.45 a. m. 
The territory served by the company is occupied largely 
by manufacturing plants whose working day begins at 7 
a. m. and ends at 6 p. m., so that the peak occurred natu- 
rally just before the opening of these establishments. The 
curve also shows the traffic increase caused by office work- 

ers starting in between 8.30 a. in. and 9 a. m., the forenoon 
shopping influence, the noon traffic between working places 
and homes characteristic of a city of this size, and the 
homeward travel at night. The average load on the sta- 
tion for the entire day was 8420 kw, and the station load 
factor was 42.1 per cent. 

Station logs are kept on 11-in. x 19^2-in. sheets upon 
which are plotted the daily load curve and the capacity in 
generators in service at every quarter hour, readings of 
instruments being shown in figures. The charts also show 
the time at which each generator was placed in service and 
withdrawn from operation, including the service rendered 
by rotary converters at Manchester Street. All five rotaries 
were required to handle the direct-current peak local load 
on the day shown, besides the 2500-kw generator mentioned 
above. The charts provide for the plotting of the daily 
load curve on the basis of fifteen-minute switchboard in- 
strument readings, and also show the number and cause 
of circuit-breaker openings, so far as known, when fully 


The Denver City Tramway Company has been using 
with excellent success a method of retrieving the oil and 
waste used in its car journals and armature journals. The 
waste removed from the car journals is first picked over 
by hand, and any bad or knotted parts are thrown away. 
The good waste is then put in a cleaning tank, which con- 
sists of an iron receptacle 5 ft. 6 in. long, 3 ft. 6 in. wide 
and 17 in. high. This tank contains a horizontal screen on 
which the waste rests. This screen extends half-way across 
the tank and is 13 in. from the top and 4 in. from the bot- 
tom. Clean hot oil is then poured over the waste to wash 
it and drips into the lower part of the tank, carrying with 
it such dirt and other impurities as may be in the waste. 
After the waste has been washed in this way and allowed 
to drip it is clean and ready for re-use. The company puts 
through this cleaner about 150 lb. of car journal and arma- 
ture waste each week, and it has not been obliged to pur- 
chase any new waste since December, 1912. 

The oil from this cleaning tank is filtered and then used 
over again. The filter is also home-made and is next to 
the cleaning tank. It is a round tank filter, 3 ft. wide and 
4 ft. high, surrounded on the outside by a coiled live-steam 
pipe. The upper part of the filter contains 12 in. of ex- 
celsior, under which is a division containing 12 in. of 
packed waste. The filtered oil is taken out through a cock 
at the bottom. 

In addition, in each division of the carhouse the company 
has a half barrel for picking up the old oil in the pit. This 
oil is filtered through another type of filter which is a 
duplicate, in outside dimensions, of the cleaning tank first 
mentioned. This filter has a series of four or five vertical 
screens and also is kept warm by steam pipes. In the first 
one or two chambers of this filter the oil which passes 
through the screens is apt to contain some grease, but in 
the final chambers the oil is clean. The oil containing 
grease is used on the side and center bearings of trucks and 
also on brake rods, where they run over rollers. All of the 
tanks are cleaned out once a week and all journal boxes 
are gone over once a month. 

The company uses only new oil for its armature bearings 
but uses retrieved oil for its car journals. The standard 
journal oil used is the No. 639 heavy oil of the Texas Oil 
Company. The repair shop foreman is at work on a device 
for reclaiming cotton waste used in the shop for cleaning, 
but none has yet been built. 

All motors are oiled on a time basis ; ten days is the al- 
lowance for the recent type of motors and three days for 
the earlier types of motors. Overhauling is done on a 
mileage basis. 

July 12, 1913.] 




The Rochester Lines of the New York State Railways 
comprise nearly 250 miles of single track, of which about 
one-half is in the city. The rest is divided among the Roch- 
ester & Eastern, the Rochester & Sodus Bay and several 
shorter lines. The single-track mileage of the two men- 
tioned is about 45 miles each. This extensive trackage is 
maintained by a maintenance-of-way department, the or- 
ganization and work of which are described in the follow- 
ing paragraphs : 


The organization of the department has been modified to 
meet the local conditions, particularly by specializing re- 
pair work and by systematizing the handling of reports. 
The accompanying chart shows the general plan of organ- 

co-operates with a committee on accident prevention. Per- 
manent platforms at park entrances are also included in the 
platform inspector's jurisdiction. The joint inspector 
checks the construction force by testing all joints for 

The status of all maintenance work is shown by a weekly 
summary fi!ed in the engineer's office. A record form simi- 
lar to the organization chart is used for assembling the 
data. By means of this chart the engineer can keep up the 
necessary co-operation among his sub-departments. For 
examp'e, if the report shows that after several days have 
elapsed since the completion of a piece of track repair the 
paving is still uncompleted, the attention of the paving 
foreman is called to the delay. 


During the present season three types of track construc- 
tion will be replaced on Main Street, the principal thorough- 

Standard with Medina Block Pavement 

v*e> t^qD^i a 1 <-j ^ 'J .--.-1 -1 'J <, <J-. r-jSl K I C o t ^ <? <> <. o&o&a&k p o p a 3 1 & < 


Gravel, Cinders or Stone 
Tile Drain, Bell Joint 

Rochester Way Department — Standard Track Construction 

Standard with Brick Pavement 

Electric Hy.Jcitrnal 

ization. Several features, however, which are not brought 
out in the diagram deserve special attention. 

In the first p'ace, one force of men is kept constantly 
at repair work. This force is divided into groups which 
specialize in different classes of repairs. For example, one' 
group looks after switch and special work repairs, tighten- 
ing switches, welding new points on tongues and resetting 
old or setting new hard centers. Another group prepares 
offset joints for regrinding with the Kerwin rail grinder. 
By having the same men do repairs of the same kind con- 

fare of the city. The first one, which was laid in 1900 and 
1901, consists of wooden ties, crushed-stone foundation, 
9-in. girder rail and medina block pavement. This rail has 
been subject to very heavy traffic. Practically all of the 
lines in the city until recently have included this part of 
the street in their route. 

The second section is a type laid without ties, the rails 
being fastened to plates which are bolted into concrete 
beams under the rail. The plates are spaced about 16 ft. 
apart excepting at the joints. Another feature of this con- 
struction is that instead of the concrete being tamped up 
to the base of the rail there was left a J^-in. space between 

Manufacturer may 
Determine Shape 
of Hole 

Platform Our.» CLuoen W, a , lkb.Ul (In! rW., Don S.»J W.jon I I Ash W.| 

Electric Iti/.iJoumal 

y 2 Rod 

Removable Cover 

Arrangement to be such as 
to Allow 1 /'Straight Rod 
to extend from above 
Switch to Box as shown 
Drain Box may be placed 
on either side of Switch 

Section A A 


Rochester Way Department — Organization Chart 

Rochester Way Department — Drain Box for Switch 

tinually, they become exceedingly expert and uniformity of 
results is secured. 

The system of inspection and reports is simple but com- 
plete. Beginning with the force of eight curve cleaners, 
who inspect and report daily the condition of all special 
work, the inspection of every detail of maintenance and 
construction is provided for. In addition to the inspectors 
connected with the office of the engineer of maintenance 
of way, others report to the general foreman of city lines, 
and still others, belonging to the transportation depart- 
ment, report track conditions requiring immediate attention. 
The platform inspector is charged with the responsibility 
of informing the foreman of unsafe conditions in tempo- 
rary platforms used during construction to enable pas- 
sengers to alight from cars. In this feature the department 

the concrete and the rail base which was filled with asphalt 
mastic. This construction was laid in 1898. The joints 
were later taken out and electrically welded. This section 
of track has not been subjected to the extreme heavy traffic 
of the first section and for some years past has given con- 
siderable trouble, requiring a great deal of shimming and 
repair work to keep it in safe condition for operation. 

The third section was laid in 1898 with steel ties, 7-in. 
girder rail and brick pavement. This track has been sub- 
ject to moderate traffic only. It has, however, required a 
great deal of expense in order to keep it in safe condition 
for operation. It was found difficult to shim this type of 
track construction so as to have the work effective for 
any length of time, the rail continually becoming loose and 
destroying the pavement. 

6 4 


[Vol. XLII, No. 2. 

The new track will consist of 7-in. T-rail and continuous 
rail joints carried by oak ties laid on a broken-stone ballast. 
In accordance with a city ordinance, concrete will be used 
as a foundation for the paving only. Drainage will be pro- 
vided by a 6-in. tile under the center of single track and 
between tracks in double-track construction with paving 
drains located at low points at intervals of about 500 ft. 
Concrete has been omitted from the new construction partly 
because the rails and the steel ties where used have been 
found to loosen from the concrete under the heavy vibra- 
tion of street traffic. The cost of renewal of concrete-laid 
track was also found to be excessive owing to the diffi- 
culty of breaking up the foundation. 


Much difficulty has been experienced in the past with all 
bolted joints. With joint plates of ordinary steel the under- 
side of the rail head on the side of the joint ahead in the 
direction of travel has cut into the plate and produced a 
rough joint. This has been overcome by the use of nickel- 
steel plates. Ordinary bolts in joints have given breakage 
trouble which has also been eliminated by the use of nickel- 
steel bolts. The drainage of electric switches has also been 
advocated strongly and several manufacturers have ex- 
pressed a willingness to cast switches with a large hole 
through which surface water can fall into a drained cast- 
iron box at the side. The drainage hole permits easy clean- 
ing of the switch, for the tongue can be pushed to either 
side and a rod shoved through the hole into the drainage 
box. The drainage box may then be cleaned from time to 
time and the sewer connection flushed out. 


Statistics of the number of wooden poles purchased in 
the United States in 191 1 by steam and electric railroads, 
electric light and power companies and telephone and tele- 
graph companies are presented in a bulletin soon to be 
issued by Director Durand, of the Bureau of the Census, 
Department of Commerce. The figures include the pole 
purchases of practically all of the telephone and telegraph, 
electric railroad, electric light and power and steam railroad 
companies, and accordingly reflect very closely the actual 
drain upon the pole timbers of the forests of this country. 
The bulletin was prepared under the supervision of W. M. 
Steuart, chief statistician for manufactures. 

In 191 1 the total purchases of poles in the United States 
amounted to 3,418,020 sticks of timber; of these 2,402,724, 
or 70.3 per cent, were purchased by the telephone and tele- 
graph companies; 787,649, or 23 per cent, by the electric 
railroad and electric light and power companies, and 227,- 
647, or 6.7 per cent, by the steam railroads. The total num- 
ber of poles purchased represents a decrease of 452,674 as 
compared with 1910 and of 320,720 as compared with 1909, 
but it exceeds the totals for 1908 and 1907 by 168,886 and 
134,752 respectively. The decrease in the purchases of 
191 1 as compared with 1910 was confined to telephone and 
telegraph companies and steam railroads, while substantial 
increases in purchases were reported by the electric rail- 
road and electric light and power companies. 

Five kinds of wood — cedar, chestnut, oak, pine and 
cypress — supplied over 90 per cent of the pole requirements 
of the United States during each of the five years 1907- 
191 1. Cedar, which has long been the preferred wood for 
pole purposes, supplied 61.4 per cent of the total number 
reported in 191 1. Purchases of chestnut increased sub- 
stantially from 1908 to 191 1, amounting in the latter year 
to 177,440 more than in 1908. 

The number of oak poles used increased rapidly from 
1907 to 1910 but decreased greatly in 191 1, in which year 
the number reported was more than 65,000 below the figure 
for 1910. Oak poles, which are marketed in relatively short 
lengths, have been used extensively in rural telephone lines. 

the development of which has been very great in recent 
years. The figures indicate, however, that this develop- 
ment was much less marked in 191 1 than in 1909 and 1910. 
The use of pine has increased but little since 1907. 

The demand upon cypress has fallen off slowly year by 
year, the number of cypress poles purchased in 191 1 being 
only about three-fourths as great as the number purchased 
in 1907. This falling off is due to the high price of cypress 
lumber and to the fact that this timber is found generally 
in sizes too large for poles. 

The preferred species of wooden poles have the general 
physical qualifications of durability in the soil, strength, 
lightness, straightness, a surface which will take climbing 
irons readily and comparatively slight taper. The various 
species of cedar combine these qualities in high degree. 
Cedar poles are cut principally from the white cedar of the 
Lake States, the red cedar of the Northwest and the South- 
ern white cedar of North Carolina, Virginia and New 
Jersey. Chestnut is cut principally in the Atlantic Coast 
States from Georgia to New Hampshire. Oak, a very 
widely distributed species, is cut for poles chiefly in the 
hardwood states of the Ohio and Mississippi valleys. 
Most of the pine reported is that commonly known as 
Southern yellow pine and includes several species — long- 
leaf pine, short-leaf pine, loblolly pine and some others. 
Of these, the most durable is the long-leaf pine, while the 
loblolly pine gives very brief service unless it is treated 
with a preservative. In the West another species — West- 
ern yellow pine- — is reported, which also requires preserva- 
tive treatment. 


The woods used for poles in the United States are chiefly 
those which are naturally very durable in contact with the 
soil. The life of timber under this condition varies con- 
siderably according to the species, to differences in the 
wood of the same species, to the character of the soil and to 
climatic conditions. Cedar, chestnut, cypress, juniper and 
redwood usually last from ten to fifteen years, while white 
oak has an average life of somewhat less than ten years. 

The resistance of the poles to decay can be considerably 
increased by the use of preservatives. Wood preservation 
is now on a firm footing in the United States, but the ad- 
vantages which this practice affords are by no means fully 
utilized by the pole consumers. Preservatives not only add 
from three to fifteen or more years to the service of the 
woods now commonly used for poles but also make it pos- 
sible to use cheaper woods which in their natural condition 
lack durability in the soil although possessing all the other 
qualities necessary in pole timber. The durability of woods 
which ordinarily last but a few years can thus be increased 
to more than double the normal life of cedar. 

The principal preservatives used for treating poles are 
those classified as refined coal-tar oils. Under this heading 
are included creosote oil and various proprietary pre- 
servatives. Creosote oil was used in treating 159,321 
poles, of which 50,021 were cedar and 83,035 yellow pine. 

The cost of treating poles varies according to the wood 
treated, the kind of preservative and quantity used and the 
process employd, but it is only in rare instances that the 
adoption of a pole-treating policy is not economical. The 
United States Forest Service has a large number of poles 
treated by different methods under record and subject to 
annual inspection in order to determine the relative values 
of the different methods and preservatives. 

By a governmental decree of May 7, 1913, authorization 
to work in Brazil has been accorded to the Electric Tram- 
ways of Ribeirao Preto, Brazil, Ltd. The headquarters 
of the company are in England, and its principal object 
is the exploitation of a system of tramways at Ribeirao 
Preto, State of Sao Paulo. The capital of this corporation 
is $1,050,000. 

July 12, 1913.J 




The institution of a co-operative depot at 816-818 Eighth 
Avenue on March 12, 1913, for the benefit of the employees 
of the Interborough Rapid Transit Company and the New 
York Railways Company has proved to be a wise and bene- 
ficial move, according to D. W. Ross, who is vice-president 
of both of the railway companies concerned. Already the 
interest and support of the employees have led to the open- 
ing of a second store on the southeast corner of Eighth 
Avenue and i52d Street and a third depot near Lexington 
Avenue and Ninety-eighth Street. 

Business from the very outset was brisk in the new 
stores, and in reality the extent to which they have been 
patronized by employees and their families has been be- 
yond expectations. The three heavy sales days of the week 
are Thursday, Friday and Saturday, with the last out- 
running the others. On the first Saturday, March 15, 2993 
customers were served at the Fiftieth Street store, and the 
present average for Saturday trade lies between 2900 and 
3000 people. On Saturday, May 3, at which time the second 
store was in operation, the trade of the first store fell off, 
owing to a transfer of customers, but over 2000 people 
were in each store during that day. The sales for Store 
No. 1 for the month and a half that it has been operating 
have averaged $5,000 per week, and the companies expect 
that with the increase of customers due to Store No. 2 
the gross income from sales will average fully $8,000 per 

At the present time the two stores are carrying a stock 
of goods valued at between $6,000 and $7,000. This is 
practically turned over every week, almost half of it being 
disposed of on Saturdays. The stock consists of all classes 
of foodstuffs carried by groceries and meat markets, pro- 
vided they are not of an extremely perishable character. 
Staple groceries and meats, dairy products such as cheese, 
butter and eggs, canned goods, the less perishable vege- 
tables like beets, potatoes and carrots, breadstuffs, fruits — 
all these are offered for sale and in several different grades, 
in order that the employees may have a wide basis of 

New York Co-operative Stores — Vegetable and Fish De- 

choice. It has been found, however, that there is more call 
for the better grades of goods than for the poorer. It is 
expected that the important items of cream and milk will 
soon be added by the companies to the list of available com- 
modities at these stores. 

Thursday is the day on which the stock is replenished. 
Each store is in charge of a manager, who makes a requisi- 

tion for supplies to Mr. Gard, a representative from the 
purchasing department. D. W. Ross, who as vice-president 
in charge of contracts and supplies controls this depart- 
ment, was for two years general purchasing agent for all 
the commissary supplies with the Isthmian Canal Commis- 
sion and the Panama Railroad. His assistant, Mr. Fuhrer, 
was also connected with this work for some time, and Mr. 

New York Co-operative Stores — Canned Goods and Staple 
Grocery Goods Department 

Gard, who has the actual supervision of the co-operative 
branch of the department, has had extended experience 
along the line of all commodities handled in the co-operative 
stores, having spent twelve years doing purchasing work 
for some of the largest firms in Washington Market. On 
account of the organization and equipment of this depart- 
ment the best possible prices can be obtained for the dis- 
tributing depots, and this, when taken together with the 
fact that supplies for about 15.OCC employees will be pur- 

New York Co-operative Stores — Employees Waiting Turn 
at Meat Counter 

chased regularly, means a material saving. Purchases are 
made as far as possible directly from the producer in order 
to eliminate the profits of the middleman. A storeroom is 
to be constructed in connection with the store at I52d 
Street which will serve as a general distributing center. 
All the supplies ordered by the purchasing agent will be 
stored here, debited to the various distributing points as 



[Vol. XLII, No. 2. 

needed and transported to them by means of auto trucks. 

The fact has been much emphasized by the officials of 
the companies that this co-operative move is by no means 
a philanthropic one. All sales are made on a cash basis 
and at actual cost. No profit of any kind is to be charged 
by the companies, but on the other hand the companies do 
not expect to run up a deficit. The scheme is to make 
both ends just meet. The two largest items of a grocery 
store are eliminated, delivery and advertising, and the rent 
and light expenses are slight, inasmuch as the stores are 
all operated on property owned by the company. Of the 
overhead charges the biggest item by far is the labor and 
clerk hire, and when taken as a whole it is estimated that 
the overhead charges will amount to only approximately 
10 per cent of the gross sales. With all these figured in, it 
is calculated by the companies that a general average 
deduction of 15 per cent to 20 per cent can be made in the 
prices charged by private dealers. No comparative table 
of prices has been compiled, owing to the fact that different 
grades of goods are carried and it is difficult to obtain the 
prices of private dealers for goods of the same standard. 
The best indication that the prices are decidedly satis- 
factory is that the trade at the stores is daily increasing, 
although many of the customers have to travel a much 
longer distance than if they patronized other stores. 

Careful plans have been laid and carried out to insure the 
success of this co-operative undertaking. The accompany- 
ing views, taken at Store No. 1, are illustrative of condi- 
tions and scenes at the new stores. They are thoroughly 
equipped with modern fixtures and apparatus. The new 
ones have ammonia refrigerating plants, and everything 
possible has been done to conform to the sanitary laws and 
the wishes of the employees. The location of the stores 
themselves was an important factor, and after a study of 
the locations of the residences of the employees, the offi- 
cials endeavored to locate the stores at the centers of popu- 
lation near terminals, carhouses and shops, in order that 
the greatest number of people might best be served. An- 
other essential point was the provision for the serving of 
none but employees. At present the men are allowed to 
enter the stores by means of their pass cards. Dependent 
members of their families are provided with identification 
cards by the companies and one of the clerks is stationed 
at the front door of each store to prevent the entrance of 
all other persons. 

It has been a question whether the companies would 
eventually extend the co-operative system to include ice and 
fuel, as in the case of the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Com- 
pany. In view of the fact, however, that this would neces- 
sitate a delivery system and much additional expense and 
that the average New York employee lives in a flat where 
he does not need to buy coal, it is doubted that the com- 
panies will make such extensions. Such practices may be 
advisable in the "city of cottages," but conservative man- 
agement rules otherwise in New York. 

Considerable interest has been manifested by other elec- 
tric railway companies in the progress of these co-operative 
stores, and developments are being closely followed. As 
the matter stands now, sales are increasing daily, and it 
will probably not be long before the full chain of four 
stores as planned will be established. The employees have 
the certainty of securing good quality, full weight and 
complete measure at a substantial cut in price, and they 
have supported the movement beyond anticipations. The 
companies have not instituted this system as a mere grocery 
business or entered into a destructive competition with ex- 
isting merchants, but they have simply utilized their im- 
mense buying power for the advantage of their employees. 
The general result has been to raise the purchasing power 
of the wages paid, to lower proportionately the cost of 
living of the employees, and at no expense to the company 
to make for better service and efficiency on the part of the 


The importance of accident prevention on street rail- 
ways has attracted the interest of many thoughtful students 
of industrial economy within the last few years. Among 
the investigators in the field of conservation of human 
life who have given particular attention to the causes of 
accidents on electric traction systems, Prof. Hugo Mun- 
sterberg, of Harvard University, occupies a foremost place, 
and in his recently published volume, "Psychology and In- 
dustrial Efficiency," he presents an outline of various re- 
searches upon the psychological characteristics of motor- 
men in relation to the avoidance of accidents which sug- 
gests an entirely new method of attacking the important 
problem of selecting suitable employees for the front end 
of the car. The work was conducted through the co-oper- 
ation of the Boston Elevated Railway Company, which fur- 
nished a large number of motormen of varying ability and 
lengths of service for the experiments, and while the latter 
are regarded as in large measure preliminary, the results ob- 
tained were consistent with the theory on which the tests 
were planned and indicate the possibility of discriminating 
between safe and unsafe motormen by psychological tests 
at the time of application for employment. 

Without going into the minor details of the investiga- 
tion, it may be pointed out that Professor Munsterberg 
sought at every step to reproduce by practical apparatus the 
mental reactions accompanying the efforts of a motorman 
on a car continuously to adjust himself to the changing 
panorama of the street. The use of model cars in a labo- 
ratory was considered inappropriate in connection with 
collision studies as tending to arouse ideas, feelings and 
volitions which have little in common with the processes of 
actual life. There are differences between the simulated 
and the real performance which appear to vitiate the reli- 
ability of such methods in testing motormen, the essential 
point being not the external similarity of the apparatus but 
exclusively the inner similarity of the mental attitude. The 
method of examination promised to be valuable if it showed 
good results with good motormen and bad results with un- 
reliable ones and, secondly, if it vividly aroused in all the 
men the feeling that the mental function which they were 
going through during the test had the greatest possible 
similarity with their experience on the front platform of 
the electric car. 

The tests were made by requiring a motorman in the 
laboratory to call out unit areas designated by letters on a 
track 13 in. long and ^ in. wide upon which an assumed 
pedestrian, horse-drawn vehicle or automobile would land 
by passing from positions outside the track across the latter 
in accordance with numbers designating their positions and 
indicating by the color and digit employed whether a given 
number of steps would occupy or clear the track space. 
The track lines were drawn upon a card 9 in. wide, and 
a window attached to a belt and giving the motorman an> 
advancing view of 2^ in. down the track was passed over 
the card in the test at a speed determined by the rate at 
which a crank driving the belt was turned by the man 
under examination. The areas at each side of the track 
contained both black and red digits, the former repre- 
senting vehicles and pedestrians moving parallel to the 
track and therefore not in dangerous positions, and the 
latter representing persons and vehicles crossing the track 
in front of the car. The man to be experimented upon 
ascertains as quickly as possible those points on the track 
which are threatened by the red or dangerous digits. In 
some cases the red digits are negligible because the num- 
ber of unit steps which they represent would carry them 
clear across the track ; in others they fall short of the 
track, and in the remaining cases they occupy it. The task 
is difficult, as the many black figures divert attention and ' 
as the red figures too near or too far are easily confused 
with those which are just at the dangerous distance. 

July 12, 1913.] 



In conducting these tests Professor Munsterberg employed 
a dozen such cards, timed the motormen with a stop-watch 
and carefully analyzed the errors and omissions made by 
each man in calling off the so-called dangerous digits. The 
motormen agreed that in undergoing the test they passed 
through the experiment with the feelings which they have 
in car service. Professor Munsterberg states that the neces- 
sity of looking out in both directions, right and left, for 
possible obstacles, of distinguishing those which move to- 
ward the track from the many which move along the lat- 
ter, the quick discrimination among the various rates of 
speed, the steady forward movement of the observation 
points, the constant temptation to give attention to those 
which are still too far away or to those which are so near 
that they will cross the track before the approach of the 
car — in short, the whole complex situation with its de- 
mands on attention, imagination and quick readjustment — 
soon bring the men into an attitude which they themselves 
feel as identical with that in practical life. Again, the re- 
sults show a far-reaching correspondence between effi- 
ciency in the experiment and efficiency in actual service, 
and for this reason the method deserves further study as a 
possible agency in the scientific selection of potentially 
competent motormen. 


The British Board of Trade has issued under date of 
Jan. 14, 1913, statistics relating to tramways and light rail- 
ways in the United Kingdom for the calendar year 19 11- 
1912. The report includes particulars relating to 290 under- 
takings, 172 of which belong to the local authorities and 
118 to companies or other parties. The number of passen- 
gers carried is shown to be equal to about sixty-nine times 
the estimated population of the United Kingdom. The total 

509 was paid in relief of rates or taxes. The balance, 
£975,504, was carried to reserve and renewals funds. The 
returns show that in twenty-two cases it was necessary to 
obtain aid from the municipal funds to meet some part of 
the charges for the year. The total sum thus obtained was 

Table I 






1 898 



1 910—1 1 

Miles 01 route open. . . 

2 63 7 

2 597 

1 ,064 

321 .27 

Total number of pas- 


2,907,1 77,120 

1 en (tot rt r 

Number of mjles run 





Capital expend itu re 

per mile of single 

track open \ 

Lines and works .... 

tA 3,623 


3 ,534 


£ 7,7/0 






Percentage of net earn- 

ings to total capital 


7 . 50 


6 . 38 

3 .97 

Percentage of net earn- 

ings to net capital 

outlay (eliminating 

amounts expended 

on construction or 

purchase of old lines 

and works now su - 








Percentage of operat- 

ing expenses to gross 



61 .70 



Passengers carried per 

mile of route open , , . 





Passengers carried per 

car mile 





Average receipts per 


1 .079d 

1 .089d 

1 .23d 

1 .84d 

Number of horses 

1 ,579 

1 ,880 



Number of locomo- 






Number of cars (elec- 



12,120 1 

Number of cars (non- 

5 ,335 

1 .610 



589 ) 

Kilowatt-hours used. . 



Table II 










Total capital expended 

Miles of route open 

Number of horses 

Number of locomotives 

Numbers of cars, all kinds. . 
Number of electric cars 

2 ,642* 
1 ,579 

12,9 4 
12 ,435 

£ 8,924,420 
£ 5,801,648 

1 ,8f0 


£ 8,500,941 
£ 5,276,060 

11 ,746 
2 ,454,k07,487 

£11,849,1 75 
£ 7,363,762 
£ 4,485,413 

1 ,840 
15 ,353 
1 ,799,342,673 


1 ,484 
24, 120 

37 ,481 



1 ,124 

Passengers carried 

Units of energy used (kw- 






Gross earnings 

Operating expenses 

Net earnings 

£4,81 7,873 



£2.021 ,556 


*Including 5 miles of trackless trolley. 

Table III 








Number of undertakings: 

Owned by muni ipalities 















Route length (miles): 

1 ,782 

1 ,744 

1 ,571 

1 ,148 











Single-tra' k length: 




1 ,915 

1 ,465 



1 ,275 

1 ,261 

1 ,212 





"apital expenditure: 















capital expenditure on 2637 miles of lines open for traffic 
was £77,377,390, and the number of passengers carried dur- 
ing the year 3,127,000,000. Of the total mileage, 1777 
miles of line are owned by local authorities, all but 206 
miles of which are operated by the authorities themselves. 

The returns also mention 5 miles of trackless trolley route 
operated by the Leeds and Bradford corporations. The 
figures show an increase of 40 miles in electric mileage. 
The net receipts of municipally worked tramways amounted 
to £4,233.874 on the year's traffic, and of this sum £1,247,908 
was applied to the reduction of tramway debt, while £488,- 

£62,032, as compared with £68,055 m the previous year. 
The net receipts from all tramways amounted to £5,801,648. 
The detailed figures on which the foregoing totals are based 
appear in three accompanying tables from the report. 

Active construction is now under way on the Nortr.- 
South subway, the first crosstown rapid transit line of 
Berlin. The present subway-elevated system connects the 
residential districts of the west with the business district 
of the east, but the new line will join the factory and work- 
ing-class districts. 



[Vol. XLII, No. 2. 



In many cities of which I have knowledge the transpor- 
tation departments do not maintain an elaborate system for 
handling the numerous articles left on the company's cars 
or property. In Boston, however, a system has for some 
years been in vogue which, although it puts the company 
to considerable trouble and expense, is considered to be very 

Figs. 1 and 2 — Boston Lost Articles — Conductor's Notifica- 
tion Tag and Manifest Signed by Receiver 

efficient. The ordinary passenger, however, knows little 
of this burden placed upon the company and so long as 
he is not affected cares less. Even some who have bene- 
fited by the efficiency of the system consider that they have 
no reason to be grateful for the return of their property, 
as the company is no more than living up to its duties as a 
public servant in return for the valuable franchises which 
have been granted to it. There are many, however, who 
deeply appreciate a system whereby articles, sometimes of 

Dan Found 

/Af CO. 

ly Date luri^d in 


lime luun.l 




Route Ho. Car No. 



Found by 




19 To 

Kt ward 


Delivered by 


Electric Ry.Joumal 

Fig. 4 — Boston Lost Articles — Colored Card for More Valu- 
able Articles and Other Purposes 

considerable value, which they had lost by their own care- 
lessness have been returned to them. These people ex- 
press their appreciation and feel that the company has 
gone to much trouble for them. The good will which such 
patrons spread probably more than offsets the cost entailed. 
The following account of our system may be of interest. 

When an employee finds an article he assumes the care 
of it and upon reaching a carhouse he fills out the tag form 
reproduced as Fig. 1 and attaches it to the article, tearing 
off the bottom half. This bottom half he turns in with his 
regular work to the receiving cashier, who in turn for- 
wards it to the lost article clerk in the office of the super- 

intendent of surface lines for checking purposes. Each 
day the official in charge of the station where the article 
has been received forwards promptly all turned-in articles 
to the receiving station of the division. He uses the mani- 
fest, Fig. 2, to insure safe arrival of the articles. The 
receiver checks the manifest with the articles and then 
returns the manifest, signed, to the local station. 

The receiver classifies the articles according to a printed 
guide which contains ten general classes and fills out in 
duplicate Fig. 3, which is of convenient filing size, namely, 
5 in. x 3 in. These slips are filed according to the classifi- 
cation number which is printed on an extension in the upper 
edge of the slip. The original is retained and the duplicate 
forwarded to the lost article clerk at the office of the 
superintendent of surface lines. These records are then 
checked against the lower portion of the tag which has 

Date Found 

Date Turned In 




Time Found 

_ . Station 


Route No. Car No. 



Found By 

Occupation No. 


19 to 



Reward Paid 


Electric Ry.Joumal 

Fig. 3 — Boston Lost Articles — White Card for Indexing 
According to Class of Article 

been received through the receiving cashier from the em- 
ployee as noted above. 

If an article is delivered promptly either at the carhouse 
or at the division receiving office to the rightful owner, the 
form shown in Fig. 4, which is printed on blue paper, is 
filled out in duplicate in order to complete the record. The 
original is retained in the division in the dead file and the 
duplicate is sent to the lost article clerk in the office of the 
superintendent of surface lines to check with the tags re- 

Department, of Transportation 


Article answering description of one lost by you has not been found. 
Same may be had by presenting this card at once and identifying article. 

AT Receivers Office at 

Hours AM. to M. P. M. to P.M 

AT Treasurer's Office at JOJ Milk; Street, Room 401, on or 


Hours 9 to 4, Saturday 9 to t. 

Article No By 

Fig. 5— Boston Lost Articles — Post Card Notification to 
Owner of Lost Article 

turned and then filed in the dead file. Each day, also, this 
form is filled out for all articles which have been delivered 
since the original classification cards (Fig. 3) were sent in 
and forwarded to the lost article clerk in order that these 
classification cards may be removed from the live files. 

Valuable articles are held three days in the division and 
then forwarded to the treasurer's office. In this event 
Fig. 4, but printed on green paper, is also used. The three 
copies made out are forwarded to the treasurer with the 
valuables. One is retained by the treasurer, one forwarded 
to the lost article clerk and one returned to the division re- 
ceiver signed as a receipt for the safe arrival of valuables. 



ni bj-. 
Address - 



u lW r,ropert> of the 
erljr c Jre J lor Dud t 
_n in top with anlcle 

At . 

: lfll_ - 

'1 Stat* Title of Officio! J" 

Article fouud in 

Route Date Founds _ 





1 have this day sent from 

the office of the Receiver the folloiving lost artielei 

Da te 101 Signed 

Received the above articles for delivery to Rei 

Received the above articles from me*i<rnyer 

Electric Ry. Journal 

July 12, 1913.] 



Each month a list is prepared by the lost article clerk of 
the number of tags received from employees for which no 
"classification" or "delivered" card has been received and 
also a list of classification cards which have been received 
for which no tag was received. In this way the division 
authorities are advised of the failure of subordinate officials 
as well as of employees. 

Each day the "lost and found" advertisements are clipped 
from the newspapers and if a similarity exists a postal card 
(l H ig. 5) is mailed to the advertiser. When a postcard is 
sent on the strength of the "lost and found" advertisements 
the word "not" in the first sentence is crossed out. The 
word "not" is also eliminated in favorable replies to in- 
quiries, but otherwise it is mailed as printed. 

Many letters are received and answered in the course 
of a year. Approximately 3000 articles are turned in an- 
nually and about 45 per cent are returned to the owners, the 
remaining 55 per cent being returned to the finders at the 
expiration of two months. The direct cost is approximately 
$2,200 a year, although there is a considerable indirect bur- 
den, all of which probably, from the modern advertising 
man's standpoint, does not cost too much in consideration 
of the good will which results from those who appreciate the 
company's motives. 


The official statistics relating to German electric rail- 
ways for the year ended March 31, 1912, show a total of 
283 undertakings, an increase of fifteen as compared with 
the preceding year. More than 25 per cent of the lines 
carry freight. The length of single track is 2983 miles, 
an increase of 174 miles. The average seating capacity 
of the cars is about thirty-five. Of the entire number 132 
undertakings are owned by municipalities and 136 by pri- 
vate companies. There are several traction syndicates, one 
of which operates seven street railways with a total of 87 
miles. The railways carried 2,567,155,295 passengers for 
428,000,100 train miles, which included approximately 
313,100,000 motor-car miles. The increase in car miles as 
compared with the preceding year was about 38,000,000 
car miles, and the increase in passenger travel about 251,- 
000,000. The freight traffic also increased from 1,460,664 
metric tons to 1,794,585 metric tons. The greatest density 
of traffic was shown by the Berlin subway-elevated system, 
with 1,122,485 passengers per mile, while the density ot 
traffic on the surface system in Berlin was 645,669 per mile. 
The subway-elevated company also carried 7.2 passengers 
per car mile as compared with 6.9 passengers per car mile 
on the surface system. The total gross earnings, exclusive 
of non-reporting companies which operated a total of 120 
miles of track, were $65,180,626, compared with $59,763,- 
595 in 1910. The highest earnings per mile of track were 
achieved by the Berlin subway-elevated system, with $161,- 
404, comparing with $67,856 by the Berlin surface system. 
The operating expenses, including employees' welfare, 
taxes and franchise payments, amounted to 86.4 per cent 
of the gross earnings. Tax and franchise payments con- 
stituted 7.4 per cent of the gross earnings. Of 170 Prussian 
railways sixteen paid no dividend, three had a dividend up 
to 1 per cent, thirteen up to 2 per cent, seventeen up to 3 
per cent, twenty-six up to 4 per cent, nineteen up to 5 per 
cent and sixty-eight of 5 per cent to 10 per cent and eight 
more than 10 per cent. Five of the non-dividend lines were 
newly constructed. 

During the year 236 passengers or pedestrians and seven 
employees were killed and 1060 passengers or pedestrians 
and eighty employees severely injured. Hanover holds the 
record for the greatest mileage according to population, 
namely, 2.68 miles per 10,000 inhabitants. The total popu- 
lation of Hanover is 376,000. The greatest density of traf- 
fic was achieved by Dresden, namely 238 rides per annum 
per inhabitant, and the corresponding figures for other 

German cities were: Frankfort-on-Main, 239; Cologne, 
2ii ; Leipsic, 204; Munich, 194; Diisseldorf, 187; Berlin, 
186; Stuttgart, 153, and Hamburg and Breslau, 151 each. 
These figures are considerably less than for American cities 
of like size. 


Following an investigation of the fatal explosion of the 
economizers in a large Eastern power plant, in which it was 
shown that the principal damage resulted from an econo- 
mizer unit which was idle at the time, the investigators 
give some pointed advice for observance in shutting down 
economizer units when not in service. 

Two theories were brought forward to explain the acci- 
dent. According to the first an explosive mixture of coal 
gas and tar might have been confined in the idle econo- 
mizer, although this presupposes both poor combustion con- 
ditions in the furnace itself and some manner of firing the 
explosive gas after it was entrapped in the economizer 
chamber. The other and more probable theory is that the 
idle unit may have been fully or partly filled with water 
which was then so shut off that internal pressures which 
were generated could not be relieved. Leakage in the flue 
dampers might have admitted hot gases to the economizer 
chamber, raising the temperature and pressure of the con- 
fined water until destruction occurred. 

To prevent the bursting of idle economizers, either from 
gas explosions or from the accumulation of water, it is im- 
portant, therefore, when putting them out of service, to 
open up the soot clean-outs and any other openings that 
there may be into the gas chambers and to close the damp- 
ers as tightly as possible. When dampers become warped, 
or do not fit properly for any other reason, they should be 
promptly repaired. It is also highly important to maintain 
the safety valves on economizers in good condition, at all 
times. If they leak they should be repaired at once, instead 
of being screwed down tighter. In fact it would be well 
to adopt lock valves for economizers, so that they cannot 
be tampered with by irresponsible or thoughtless persons. 
To guard against the accumulation of steam or water within 
the idle economizer, its blow-off valve and air vent should be 
left open, so that no harm will result if the inlet should 
leak and admit water. If these precautions are taken in 
every case, according to the inspection division of the Trav- 
elers' Insurance Company, which made the investigation, 
the two causes of explosion that have beeen suggested in 
connection with this accident will be avoided. 


Work is well in hand on the conversion of the railway 
between Christiania and Drammen, Norway, a distance of 
about 33 miles, from 3 ft. 6 in. to standard gage, electric 
traction. A double track will be laid as far as Sandviken, 
8^4 miles, but whether energy shall be taken from private 
companies or whether the government will establish its 
own power station has not yet been decided. As to rolling 
stock, seventeen electric locomotives of from 320 hp to 
800 hp and eleven combined locomotives and carriages of 
300 hp have been ordered. The latter are intended for use 
with a trailer on the Christiania-Asker section of the line, 
which is 14 miles long. 

The Lexington (Ky.) Utilities Company, which is the 
local subsidiary of the Kentucky Traction & Terminal Com- 
pany, has protested that 643 names on the petition which 
resulted in a popular referendum and consequent cancella- 
tion of its franchise are not registered or are otherwise 
invalid. It is now therefore possible that the referendum 
will be declared null and void, and in this case the fran- 
chise which was originally granted by the city commission 
of Lexington will became effective. 



[Vol. XLII, No. 2. 


The general plan of inspection followed by the com- 
panies forming the so-called Beebe syndicate is based upon 
steam railroad practice. All track is covered by track 
walkers twice a day and every incentive is given the men 
to observe the condition of rails and ties closely. A 
premium of $1 is given for each discovery of a broken 
rail. The bridge supervisors inspect all bridges at least 
once in two months. All of this inspection is recorded on 
report forms, and upon the inspection records are based 
the annual estimates of necessary renewals. 

The fiscal year of the several companies making up the 
syndicate begins July 1, on which date the budget is adopted 
for the ensuing year. To be included in the budget, requisi- 
tions must have been turned in before the end of the pre- 
ceding December, and preferably in September, so that the 
necessity for the construction and repair covered by the 
requisitions may be investigated before winter sets in. 
Requisitions originate in general with the track foremen, 
who are in close contact with the details and who turn 
them in to the four supervisors. On receiving the requisi- 
tions from the supervisors the chief engineer and the road- 
master personally investigate the condition of the track or 
other structure on which repairs have been recommended. 
Knowing approximately the amount of money which will 
be available during the coming year, these officials prepare 
a reasonable budget in detail for submission to the presi- 
dent. After allowances for the various divisions of the 
work have been made, plans are prepared for getting all 
track construction completed by Sept. 1 if possible so that 
it may be well settled by winter. Ties, rails and sundries 
are ordered in January for delivery between June I and 
July 15- 


The experience of the past few years has determined sev- 
eral fundamental maintenance precedents. In the first place, 
the type of catenary overhead construction adopted in 1909 
and modified slightly after a few months' operation is an 
unqualified success. Future replacement of span and 
bracket construction will be with catenary, which costs com- 
paratively little more. The maintenance cost of the caten- 
ary is very small, certainly less than one-half that of the 
wooden pole construction. The original catenary structure 
consisted of light steel A-frames made up of channels and 
stiffened with diagonal sway braces, the track being spanned 
with a light truss joining two A-frames and braced against 
side motion by means of diagonal braces. It was found, 
soon after commencing operation, that the sway braces 
made the frames too stiff in the direction of the track and 
they were accordingly removed. This change allowed a 
couple of inches motion of the top of the frame and thus 
removed the strain due to contraction and expansion of the 
messenger and trolley wires. At first the catenary hangers 
were spaced 10 ft. apart. Experience showed that the trol- 
ley wire thus hung was too stiff and the hangers were being 
twisted out of the horizontal with consequent hammering by 
the wheels. The interval between hangers was increased 
by steps up to 60 ft., which is now standard, and the flexi- 
bility of suspension is such that no trouble at the hangers 
is experienced. The original catenary messenger wire was 
a plow-steel cable, the feeders being carried on brackets at- 
tached to the A-frames. 

In considering methods for reducing the cost of con- 
struction the engineers decided first to mount the feeders on 
top of the trusses on insulators similar to those used for 
the messenger wire. Further consideration led to the sub- 
stitution of the 500,000-circ. mil, nineteen-strand, hard- 
drawn feeder cable for the steel messenger wire, and this 
plan has proved very satisfactory besides cutting down the 
cost of material and labor. Trouble was at first expected 

from side-swaying of the contact wires. To prevent this 
the wires were side-guyed to the A-frames on both sides 
with insulated guy wire large enough for 1200 volts work- 
ing pressure. 

The first line was put in operation before all these guy 
wires were installed, but the side sway developing even 
on the unfinished work and on a stormy February day was 
negligible. The guys are still used at the supporting 
bridges, but as only 550 volts d.c. is used, the insulators 
were removed and the ordinary Brooklyn strains employed 
to insulate from the steel bridges. These bridges are 
placed 300 ft. apart. By these changes the construction was 
reduced in cost by $800 per mile or more and the operation 
was improved at the same time. 


A second fact that has been settled is that creosoted ties, 
if properly selected and treated, are economical. Approxi- 
mately 15,000 creosoted ties have already been installed and 
about 50 per cent of the replacements are of this type. 
The ties are of long-leaf yellow pine, sound and square- 
edge quality, impregnated to the heart with creosote oil 
of the best quality and at the rate of 10 lb. per cu. ft. 
The railway employs R. W. Hunt & Company to inspect 
the ties, the creosote oil and the impregnating at the 
treating plant. Long-leaf yellow pine, prime quality heart 
timber and winter-cut second-growth chestnut ties com- 
pose the rest of the supply. These are untreated and are 
used to save excessive first cost. As the life of the treated 
ties is estimated at eighteen years, they will predominate 
more in numbers each year until finally practically all will 
be of this variety. 

A third item of standard practice is the thorough in- 
spection of all other supplies as well as ties. The whole 
construction of the Beebe lines was based on the prin- 
ciple of the scientific use of materials. Rails, ties, bal- 
last, drainage, etc., are all expected to yield the maximum 
return for the cost. If a 70-lb. rail is used, it is because 
that weight of rail has been determined, by the consideration 
of loads, speed and supports, to be the economic weight and 
size. But this economy of material means close inspection 
both of material and of condition after installation. The 
result of this care is a present track maintenance cost of 
less than $500 per mile of single track. 

Following are the specifications under which ties are 
now being bought. 

Rochester, Syracuse & Eastern Railroad Company Specifications fo* 


Long-Leaf Yellow Pine — Untreated: 

All ties to be freshly manufactured from live Georgia or Florida long- 
leaf yellow pine timber, of good sound quality, straight^ and free from 
loose or unsound knots, wind shakes or other imperfections that would 
affect their strength or durability. Ties to be hewn smooth on four 
sides with ends sawed square. One inch of sap will be allowed on each 
corner measured across the face. 
Long-Leaf Yellow Pine — Treated: 

All ties to be freshly manufactured from live Georgia or Florida long- 
leaf yellow pine timber, of sound and square-edge quality, hewn on four 
sides, with the faces true and parallel, free from deep score marks, 
splinters and other injurious inequalities of surface: with the ends sawed 
square. The variation in thickness shall not be more than y 2 _'ti. and 
the variation in length not more than 1 in. On an 8-in. face tie there 
shall be allowed on the face of the tie 1 in. of wane, which may be either 
% in. on each side or 1 in. on one side — giving a measurement between 
the wanes of 7 in. They are to be creosoted, and each tie must contain 
10 lb. of dead oil of coal tar per cubic foot after treatment. ' The coal 
tar to be in accordance with the following specifications: 

The oil used shall be the best obtainable grade of coal-tar creosote: 
that is, it must be a pure product of coal-tar distillation and must be 
free from a mixture of oils, other tars or substances foreign to pure 
coal tar: it must be completely linuid at 38 deg. C. and must be free 
from suspended matter: the specific gravity of the oil at 38 deg. C. 
must be at least 1 03. When distilled according to the common method — 
that is, using an 8-oz. retort, asbestos covered with standard thermometers, 
bulb y 2 in. above the surface of the oil — the creosote calculated on the 
basis of the dry oil shall give no distillate below 200 deg. C, not more 
than 5 per cent below 210 dee. C. not more than 25 per cent below 235 
deg. C, and the residue above 355 deg. C., if it exceeds 5 per cent in 
quantity, must be soft. The oil shall not contain more than 3 per cent 

Chestnut Ties: 

Chestnut ties to be winter cut from sound, live timber. 

Hewn ties to be 6 in. thick, 8 in. across faces and 8 in. long with s«ore 
marks not deeper than % in. Tiesto have faces true and parallel and 
without splinters or other injurious inequalities of surface and with ends 
sawed square. 

If "pole" ties are furnished (40 per cent of total order), they must 
be peeled, and the minimum face dimension shall be 6 in. 

July 12, 1913.] 




In a decision handed down on May 19, 1913, in the special 
term of the Supreme Court in Monroe County, N. Y., in 
the case of the Electric Railroad Advertising Company 
against the New York State Railways, Justice Sutherland 
warned street railway companies that they must be very 
careful in regard to the wording of advertisements on the 
dashboards of cars and also within such spaces inside cars 
as may be allotted to them by agents who have contracts 
granting exclusive privileges for street car advertising. 

The Electric Railroad Advertising Company has had for 
a number of years an exclusive contract with the New York 
State Railways covering all street cars in Rochester, N. Y., 
and giving to the railway the right to use the dashboards 
of the cars and two spaces near the center of each car for 
its own advertising. These inside spaces have been used 
for cards reading as follows: "Flower Show, Convention 
Hall, Nov. 5-6-7-8-9. Take Lake and Monroe or Hudson 
and South Clinton cars," and "Take cars of Dewey, Emer- 
son and Driving Park lines, Automobile Show, Exposition 
Park, Jan. 27-Feb. 1, inclusive." Recently, however, cars 
appeared bearing outside large posters which read: "Base- 
ball to-day," and on a test case an injunction was secured 
restraining the railway company from advertising on the 
outside of its cars anything except destinations or routes to 
particular places. 

Following an unsatisfactory revision of the baseball sign, 
the suit was next carried to the Supreme Court. In his 
decision Justice Sutherland said in part: 


"I do not think the placards of a flower show at Conven- 
tion Hall and an automobile show at Exposition Park, with 
date and route, violate the injunction. The managers of 
the shows paid the railway company nothing for such 

"It is its own legitimate advertising, under the contract, 
to call the attention of the people to any attraction for the 
purpose of getting them out and persuading them to travel 
upon its lines. The fact that incidentally or equally with 
the carrying railroad the show advertised profits by the dis- 
play which the railway makes does not make the display 
violative of the letter or spirit of the contract or injunction. 

"As to the baseball placards displayed on the dashboard 
of the cars, I think a different conclusion must be reached. 
Under the final injunction, as modified by the Appellate 
Division, the defendant cannot display any advertising mat- 
ter on the outside of its cars, but the use of signs indicat- 
ing the route or destination of its cars, or containing notice 
to its patrons as to the car or line to reach a particular 
place, is not enjoined. The 'Baseball to-day' placards were 
hung not only upon the cars going to the baseball grounds 
but upon cars on other routes. These signs advertised the 
fact that baseball was to be played on that day, but did not 
indicate the route to the grounds." 

Speaking of the revised sign, when the route was added 
to the "Baseball to-day" sign, Justice Sutherland said: 

"The baseball sign seems to violate the injunction at least 
by the use of the word 'to-day,' which does not contribute 
in any degree to the location of a place or the designation of 
a route. 

"If the sign hung on the outside contains any matter 
which has nothing to do with the destination or route but 
is put on there for the sole purpose of calling attention to 
the event itself or the time when it is to be held, the sign 
then becomes objectionable under the judgment which has 
been pronounced construing the contract which the defend- 
ant made with the plaintiff with respect to advertising." 

The Louisville (Ky.) Railway has instructed its con- 
ductors to wait for passengers who are near an intersec- 
tion when the car passes. 


Brown Book No. 3, issued by the Central Electric Rail- 
way Association and the Central Electric Traffic Associ- 
ation, gives the official list of officers, railroad members, 
committees, annual reports, etc., for the year 1913. The 
total mileage of the interurban roads in the association as 
of March 15, 1913, was 3874. The members of the com- 
mittees as published in the Brown Book were given in the 
Electric Railway Journal of March 29, 1913, page 594. 
The charges for interchange of equipment between mem- 
bers of the association are given as well as the rules and 
regulations governing the issue and exchange of annual 
transportation between lines. Other information pertaining 
to the work of the associations is included in the book, 
which is issued from the office of A. L. Neereamer, the 
secretary, Indianapolis, Ind. 

A booklet issued by the Central Electric Railway Ac- 
countants' Association contains various reports and papers 
presented at the meetings of the association, a list of offi- 
cers and committees, a list of members, a brief history and 
the constitution and by-laws. The book was prepared by 
the compiling committee of the association as follows : H. 
B. Cavanaugh, chairman; C. M. Witt, F. T. Loftus, A. F. 
Elkins and L. T. Hixson. 

The following new members have been admitted to the 
Central Electric Railway Association: 

Railway: Mansfield Railway, Light & Power Com- 
pany, Mansfield, Ohio; Stark Electric Company, Alliance, 

Supply: Harry E. Adams, Nagel Electric Company; E. 
G. Beatty, Galena Signal Oil Company; W. K. Archbold, 
Archbold-Brady Company; George Bryant, Bryant Manu- 
facturing Company ; W. H. Brainard, Carnegie Steel Com- 
pany; Norman M. Hench, Carnegie Steel Company; C. E. 
Slack, C. E. Slack Company; J. K. Hoffman, Hale & Kil- 
burn Manufacturing Company; Joseph Hollis, Trolley Sup- 
ply Company ; W. J. Dann, R. F. Johnston Paint Company. 


The Union Switch & Signal Company has recently placed 
on the market an electric train order signal with two arms, 
one for each direction of traffic, and the table lever stand 
used to control it. The signal may be either the well-known 
Style "B" or Style "S." Each arm is arranged to indicate 
in the upper quadrant, working in three positions. The 
lower case may be omitted if desired. Standard automatic 
block signal practice is followed practically throughout. 
Only one lantern is needed in spite of the fact that the 
axes of the semaphore shaft do not coincide. The quad- 
rants are notched in the center as well as at the ends so 
that the levers may be left in any one of the three positions 
corresponding to those of their respective signals. 


In many sections of the country where the humidity is 
comparatively high considerable difficulty is experienced 
in eliminating damage to clothing from rust accumulation 
on the hand rails. This difficulty is experienced particular- 
ly in Texas and has been overcome by the application of 
linen tape coated with shellac on portions of the hand rails 
in the vestibules of the pay-as-you-enter and pay-within 
cars. Those portions of the hand rails and stanchions 
which might come in contact with the passengers' clothing 
are wrapped with one layer of linen tape and receive 
three coats of shellac. After a comparatively short period 
in service, the surface of the paint wears as smooth as the 
iron rail, and there is no tendency for it to ravel. 



[Vol. XLII, No. z. 


A meeting of the joint committee on standard classifica- 
tion of accounts of the American Electric Railway Ac- 
countants' Association and representatives of the Interstate 
Commerce Commission was held in Boston during the last 
week in June. Those present were William F. Ham, Wash- 
ington Railway & Electric Company ; F. E. Smith, Chicago 
Railways; H. L. Wilson, Boston Elevated Railway, and 
W. B. Brockway, Ford, Bacon & Davis, representing the 
Accountants' Association, and Fred W. Sweney, chief ex- 
aminer of accounts, and George Geekie, assistant in charge 
of electric railway accounts, representing the Interstate 
Commerce Commission. Five full days were devoted to a 
consideration of a revision of the road and equipment ac- 
counts, of the operating expense accounts and of the oper- 
ating revenue accounts, as well as a consideration of a 
revision of the income and profit and loss statements and 
the general balance sheet. 

All of these schedules were carefully considered and are 
to be revised and again considered by the committee, after 
which the Interstate Commerce Commission proposes to 
publish all of these tentative schedules and send them out 
to all the electric railway companies for their consideration 
and criticism. When these have been received this com- 
mittee will again meet with the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission representatives for final approval of these classifi- 
cations, and it is hoped and expected that they may be pro- 
mulgated so as to be effective as of July I, 1914. The com- 
mittee has expended a good deal of time over these classifi- 
cations, having spent four days in New York in January, 
five days in Atlantic City in April and five days in Boston 
in June. 


A striking example of what can be done in adapting the 
motor truck to emergency line repairs is found in Detroit, 
where the Detroit United Railway is employing with very 
gratifying results two gasoline motor trucks built by the 
Federal Motor Truck Company, Detroit, Mich. These trucks 
were built according to body designs supplied by E. J. Bur- 
dick, superintendent of power Detroit United Railway. 
One truck is used for hose jumper work, derailed cars, etc., 
and one is used for repairing overhead work. The trucks 
are housed in a building which is operated by the company 
on somewhat the plan of a city fire house, and emergency 
men are available for each wagon at any hour of the day 
or night. 

The body of the truck used as a trouble wagon is 1 1 ft. 
long and built on the frame and is about 5 ft. wide inside. 

Detroit Motor Truck Equipped with Jacks and Other 
Means to Handle Derailed Cars, etc. 

The load is carried 30 in. above the ground, holding the 
center of gravity as low as possible. The truck is equipped 
with Swinehart cellular tires and has a speed of 18 m.p.h. 
There is a partition 5 ft. back of the driver's seat. The 
back wheels are housed, leaving room for tool boxes of 
ample size. The load carried in front of the partition is 
about 1 100 lb. It includes jacks, bull ropes and other equip- 
ment for replacing cars on the track, etc. This load is 

always on the car. The space in the rear end of the truck, 
however, except that which is used for the side tool boxes, 
is available at all times for the use of hose jumper equip- 
ment, etc., which is always kept suspended above the car 
by means of an air hoist. The weight of the hose jumpers, 
etc., is about 2100 lb. A flexible cradle in which the hose 
jumpers rest is suspended from the air hoist. This cradle 
is made of log chains and steel tubing. If a call is received 

Detroit Gasoline Motor Equipped with Tower for 
Emergency Wire Repairs 

for a fire, the load in the cradle is dropped into the rear 
compartment over the wheel housing. The Detroit United 
Railway has an arrangement with the city fire department 
whereby all fire alarm calls are received at the central 
emergency station of the company. The company responds 
to all calls within the i-mile limit which marks the most 
highly congested center, whether or not the fire is on a 
car line. The company responds to calls in the rest of the 
city if the fire is on a car line or if its services are spe- 
cially needed by the city. 

While the emergency trouble wagon, therefore, is 
equipped for constant use and has been found in practice 
to be of great value, the other truck, used for repairing 
overhead work, is equally valuable. This truck is also built 
with a low center of gravity and has installed upon it a 
standard Trenton tower top. The tires of this truck are 
also of the Swinehart cellular type. This truck likewise 
carries a complete set of repair equipment. 


The opportunity for decreasing weight of passenger cars 
of all descriptions and increasing their strength and dura- 
bility by the use of arch roofs has been recognized generally 
during the past few years by electric railways, and a 
marked increase has occurred in the number of new cars 
which have this type of roof specified by their purchasers. 
An important difficulty with this design, however, has been 
the problem of ventilation. Roof ventilators operate under 
many difficult conditions. They must be light in weight, 
they must exert a strong aspiratory effect, they must operate 
regardless of the direction of the wind, even when it takes 
the form of a down draft, and they must eliminate any pos- 
sibility of rain or dust entering the car. 

To meet these conditions the Railway Utility Company, of 
Chicago, has been experimenting with different forms of its 
"honeycomb" type of ventilator, originally applied to cars 
with monitor-deck roofs, and this has resulted in the de- 

July 12, 1913. 



velopment of the ventilator for arch roofs shown in the 
accompanying illustration. The principle upon which it 
operates is exceedingly simple. A curved hood is extended 
out from a hole in the car roof, the hole being covered by 
a grating. The hood is blanked off at the outer end, but 
openings are provided in the upper and lower sides. These 
openings are divided up into a series of small openings by 
diaphragms of galvanized iron, making a structure quite 
similar to a honeycomb. The relatively great depth of the 
diaphragms in comparison to the size of each small opening 
compels any air which passes through the honeycomb to 
move absolutely in vertical lines either upward or down- 

Any current of air which passes vertically across the 
end of the ventilator hood naturally exerts a strong aspirat- 
ing effect on the 
air within the hood, 
tending to set up 
horizontal currents 
which become in- 
termingled with the 
vertical currents at 
the end of the hood, 
thus drawing air 
through the hood 
out of the car. The 
action of a down 
draft is shown by 
the arrows in the 

accompanying line cut. With a wind which is in a per- 
fectly horizontal direction, as under the normal conditions, 
the honeycombs both on the upper and the lower sides of 
the hood exert an aspirating effect and draw air out of the 
hood both in an upward and in a downward direction, the 
currents within the hood still being generally horizontal. 

Rain which beats into the upper honeycomb and cinders 
or dust which happen to be deflected into it are directed 
by the sides of each honeycomb cell straight downward 
through the lower honeycomb openings and out of the venti- 
lator hood, so that there is no possibility for moisture or 


Honeycomb Ventilator 

Ity Juitrnul 

Cross-Section of Honeycomb, Arch- 
Roof Ventilator, Showing Action 
Under a Down Draft 

A new material to take the place of hard fiber, glass, 
porcelain, hard rubber, built-up mica, pressboard, rawhide 
and molded compounds has been developed by the Westing- 
house Electric & Manufacturing Company at East Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. it is known as "micarta" and is used for com- 
mutator bushings, brush-holder insulation, noiseless gear 
blanks, light-weight conduit, refillable fuse tubes, arc shields 
in circuit-breakers, etc. 

Micarta is a tan-brown colored, hard, homogeneous mate- 
rial having a mechanical strength about 50 per cent greater 
than hard fiber. It can readily be sawed, milled, turned, 
tapped or threaded, if a sharp-pointed tool is used and the 
work done on a lathe. It can, however, be punched only 

New Insulating Compound — Harmonic Fracture of a Tube 
Showing Homogeneity of Material 

in thin sheets and it cannot be molded. Micarta is not 
brittle and will not warp, expand or shrink with age or 
exposure to the weather, but takes a high polish, present- 
ing a finished appearance. 

Two grades of the material are made. The grade known 
as "bakelite micarta" will stand a temperature of 150 deg. 
C. (300 deg. Fahr. ) continuously or 260 deg. C. (500 deg. 
Fahr.) for a short time. It is infusible and will remain 
unaffected by heat until a temperature sufficient to carbon- 
ize it is reached. It is claimed to withstand an electric 
arc better than hard fiber, hard rubber, built-up mica or any 
molded insulation containing fibrous or resinous materials. 
Its coefficient of expansion is low, being approximately 
0.00002 per degree C. It is impervious to moisture. The 
other grade has the same mechanical and electrical prop- 

New Insulating Compound — Sample Forms in Which 
Material May Be Shaped 

dust to be entrained or to find its way into the interior of 
the car. 

Tests have shown that with a wind velocity of 10 m. p. 
h. each ventilator exhausts 110 cu. ft. of air per minute. 
At 20 m. p. h. the capacity rises to 230 cu. ft. of air per 
minute, and at 30 m. p. h. 310 cu. ft. of air is exhausted. 
For cars operating at the higher speeds it is generally con- 
sidered advisable to install registers in place of the grating 
over the opening in the car roof, so that the ventilation 
can be controlled. These registers may of course be con- 
nected to operate simultaneously by means of a handle in- 
side the car, similar to the customary method of opening 
sash in monitors. 

erties as the bakelite micarta but differs in its chemical and 
thermal properties, behaving toward chemicals and heat 
very much as an ordinary resin. This grade is not used 
in plate form. 

As proof of the uniformity of structure of bakelite mi- 
carta, the accompanying illustration of a fracture is shown. 
This is not a saw cut, but a natural break. The tube was 
held tight on a metal mandrel and a compressive force was 
applied at one end of the tube and when the force became 
sufficiently great the tube split as shown. Such a break is 
known as a "harmonic fracture." The strains in a homo- 
geneous material under stress follow a sine wave law. If 
one part of the material is weaker than the rest, the strain 



[Vol. XLII, So. 2. 

at this point becomes greater and the harmonic wave is 
distorted. However, it will be seen from the illustration, 
made from a photograph, that the strain followed the true 
harmonic wave almost as closely as the eye can detect. 


The Southwest Missouri Railroad operates 75 miles 
of track, about one-third of which is double track. Cars are 
run at from three to thirty minutes' headway, but the lines 
upon which service more frequent than thirty minutes is 

Dictaphone on Telephone Dispatching Board 

given are double-tracked. For the past twenty years the 
dispatching of cars on this road has been by telephone, 
none of the orders being reduced to writing, and this 
system has been successfully used for a decade. On March 
1 last, however, a new feature was added to the telephonic 
system by the installation of a dictaphone in the dis- 
patcher's room, with the effect that during the last four 
months every order given to trainmen by telephone has 
been duly recorded on the dictaphone and can be repro- 
duced in case of any dispute or misunderstanding. These 
records are preserved for a period of three days, when 


The New Orleans Railways Company has had in opera- 
tion for some time past a number of Herr car fenders. 
As shown in the accompanying illustrations, this type of 
fender is made up of two sections, one horizontal and one 
vertical. These are hinged one upon the other, and in ad- 
dition the horizontal section is hinged to castings attached 
to the bumper by means of extensions of the fender frame. 
As this section is raised, either to raise the fender from the 
rails to normal running position or from normal running 
position to raised position at the rear end of the car, the 
vertical section of the fender slides upward upon two verti- 
cal guide rods, to which it is connected by bent arms or 
extensions of its framework. 

The fender is normally carried in running position by 
means of a pin in each of the vertical guide rods as these 
pins engage with sleeves on the ends of the bent arms which 
slide upon these rods. The rods are, however, furnished 
with cranks at the bottom, and the motorman can turn them 
to an angle of about 45 deg. by means of a handle extend- 
ing up inside of the dashboard. When it is desired to 
drop the fender to the rails the rods are turned, and the 
pins in them engage with slots in the sleeves which slide 
on them, thus permitting the sleeves to drop about an inch 
and consequently permitting the outer edge of the fender to 
fall upon the rail. 

The fender is reset to running position by raising it 
enough so that the sleeves slide up above the pins on the 
guide rods and this permits a spring to turn the guide 
rods back into the normal position. The principle is much 
like that used in raising an umbrella except that instead of 
the catch for the sleeve being pressed by the fingers, the 
catch, which in the case of the fender is a pin, is moved 
around to coincide with a groove in the sleeve and thus lets 
the sleeve pass by it. The fender is held in raised position 
when it is at the rear end of the car by means of a strap 
in the usual manner. 

The new device, which has been developed by William 
Dickenson, master mechanic New Orleans Railways Com- 
pany, is exceptionally light and strong. The total weight 

Manually Operated Fender Folded Up at Rear End, in Running Position and Dropped to Rails 

they are scraped and the blanks are put back into service. 

The officers and employees of the road are highly pleased 
with the results already achieved by the use of the dicta- 
phone in the dispatching service. So far as known, the 
dictaphone in the Southwest Missouri Railroad Company's 
office in Webb City, Mo., is the first one used in train- 
dispatching work. In addition to the dictaphone and 
scraper, thirty-six blanks were purchased and the outfit 
has proved adequate. 

complete with fittings is but 90 lb. Its use in New Orleans 
has been approved by the City Council. 

The Appellate Division of the Supreme Court decided, 
on July 10, that the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company must 
obey the ruling of the Public Service Commission, First 
District, New York, to equip its cars with power and geared 
hand brakes. This order was mentioned on page 96 of the 
issue of this paper for July 20, 1912. 


News of Electric Railways 

Illinois Public Utility Law 

The act providing for the regulation of public utilities in 
the State of Illinois has been signed by Governor Dunne 
and will go into effect on Jan. i, 1914. The act substitutes 
for the present Railroad & Warehouse Commission a 
State Public Utilities Commission, consisting of live mem- 
bers, not more than three of whom may be affiliated with 
the same political party. The annual salary of each com- 
missioner is to be $10,000. Before entering upon the duties 
of his office each commissioner is required to give bond, 
under security approved by the Governor, in the sum of 
$20,000. The usual restrictions are placed on all official 
connections with any corporation or person subject to 
regulation by the commission, and upon receiving any 
emoluments therefrom. 

The commission will have general supervision over all 
public utilities, and it must examine these and keep in- 
formed as to their franchises, capitalization, rates and man- 
agement and operation of property. The term "public 
utility," as used in the act, includes every corporation, com- 
pany, association, joint stock company, partnership or indi- 
vidual, their lessees, trustees or receivers appointed by any 
court (except, however, such public utilities as are or may 
hereafter be owned or operated by any municipality) that 
owns, controls, operates or manages within the State, 
directly or indirectly for public use, any plant, equipment 
or property for the transportation of persons or property 
or the transmission of telegraph or telephone messages 
within the State, or for the production, storage, transmis- 
sion, sale, delivery or furnishing of heat, cold, light, power, 
electricity or water, or for the conveyance of oil or gas by 
pipe line, or for the storage or warehousing of goods, or 
for the conduct of the business of wharfinger, and that may 
own or control any franchise, license, permit or right to 
engage in any such business. The term "service" is used in 
its broadest and most inclusive sense and includes not only 
the use or accommodation afforded consumers or patrons 
but also any product or commodity furnished by the utility 
and the plant or equipment and any facilities employed by 
the utility and devoted to the purposes of the corporation. 
The word "rate" includes every individual or joint rate, 
fare, toll, charge, rental or other compensation of any 
public utility or any two or more of such, and any rule, 
regulation, practice or contract relating thereto. 

In the matter of stock and bond issues, the act states that 
the power of public utilities to issue evidences of indebted- 
ness and to create liens on their property is a special privi- 
lege, the right of supervision, regulation, restriction and 
control of which is vested in the State to be exercised by 
the commission. Provision must be made for the proper 
identification of all issues by means of serial numbers or 
other devices. No issues payable at periods of more than 
twelve months from the date thereof may be issued except 
with the approval of the commission and then only for the 
acquisition of property for extensions, improvements or 
additions, for the lawful re-funding of its obligations, or for 
reimbursements of moneys paid from income not received 
from sale of evidences of indebtedness within five years 
after the application for authorization of the new issue. 
Before issuing any authorization the commission, when it 
is deemed necessary, "shall make an adequate physical 
valuation of the property of the public utility, but a valua- 
tion already made under proper public supervision may be 
adopted, either in whole or in part, at the discretion of the 
commission." Short-term notes for periods of not more 
than twelve months may be issued without the consent of 
the commission, but may not be renewed for an aggregate 
period of longer than two years. The commission has no 
power to authorize the capitalization of the right to be of a 
corporation, or to authorize the capitalization of any fran- 
chise, license or permit in excess of the amount (exclusive 
of any tax) actually paid to the State as consideration 
therefor. The commission also has full power of super- 
vision and restriction over all the forms of intercorporate 
relations. The commission may also ascertain the value of 
the property of any public utility in the State. 

Rates are required to be just and reasonable, and unless 
the commission otherwise orders no change shall be made 
by any public utility in any rate, classification, ruling, 
privilege or facility except after thirty days' notice to the 
commission and to the public. The commission has power, 
upon a hearing upon its own motion or upon complaint, to 
investigate any single rate, classification, etc., or the entire 
schedule, and to establish new rates, classifications, etc., in 
lieu thereof. This provision, however, does not affect the 
act establishing and regulating the maximum rate of charges 
for the transportation of passengers in the State. The 
establishment of through routes and joint rates is ade- 
quately provided for. 

The last part of the act takes up in detail such points as 
the control over car distribution, standards of service, safety 
appliances and the character of proceedings before the com- 
mission and in the courts. The penalty for a violation of 
an order of the commission by a corporation is a line of 
not less than $500 nor more than $2,000 for each offense, and 
a person violating its orders shall be punished by a fine not 
exceeding $1,000 or one year's imprisonment, or both. 

Jamestown Companies to Claim Strike Damages 

The strike of the employees of the Jamestown (N. Y.) 
Street Railway and the Chautauqua Traction Company, 
which collapsed and was declared off on June 29, as noted 
in the Electric Railway Journal of July 5, 1913, page 45, 
was begun on May 1, 1913, following the refusal of the offi- 
cers of the company to comply with the demands of its 
union employees for 25 cents an hour for the first six 
months' service, 27 cents an hour for the second six 
months, 29 cents after one year, recognition of the union 
and the reinstatement of a conductor who had been dis- 
charged a few days before. The company started a par- 
tial service immediately with the men who remained faith- 
ful to it, but for some time no attempt was made to run cars : 
at night because of the fear of violence. 

On May 27, following disorder by strikers and their sym-i 
pathizers, Frank W. Stevens, chairman of the citizens' 
committee which had been named by the Mayor, called a 
meeting of citizens to organize a citizens' police to 
preserve order. Five hundred were sworn in and equipped 
with night sticks and badges. On May 29 Mr. Stevens re- 
ceived from A. N. Broadhead, president of both companies, 
a statement naming the conditions under which he would 
agree to arbitrate. These terms were published in part 
in the Electric Railway Journal of June 14, 1913, page 1081. 
The men rejected, the terms proposed by Mr. Broadhead 
because they did not provide for recognition of the union 
nor for the reinstatement of all the men on strike. Sev- 
eral counter proposals were made, but negotiations for a 
settlement were finally broken off. 

As previously stated in the Electric Railway Journal, 
the company has prepared a list of twenty-five men who 
went on strike who will be reinstated on the terms prom- 
ised by the company about six weeks before the strike was 
called, but at the bottom of the extra list. These terms 
provide for an increase in wages of about iy 2 cents an 
hour for the conductors and motormen, making the mini- 
mum 19 cents an hour and the maximum 25 cents an hour; 
also for the change from the "swing run" to "the early 
and late day" plan. The increase in wages which had been 
promised the men took effect on May 1, and all who re- 
mained with the company and the new men taken on have 
benefited by it. After the strike had been declared off 
Mr. Broadhead issued a statement, in part as follows, in 
which he said that a claim would be filed with the city and 
county for damages sustained by the company on account 
of the strike: 

"The gambling and drunkenness that have been going on 
will not be tolerated and the men that have not 'been honest 
with the company will not receive jobs. There are twenty- 
five of the men who can come back. The rest could not 
work for me if they worked for nothing and paid their own 
board. The strike has greatly injured the city and the lake 
region. I think it has cost the city and lake region at least 

7 6 


[Vol. XLII, No. 2. 

$500,000. We are making out our account to the city and 
county for our loss directly and indirectly and the damage 
to our property, and the county and city will have to pay it. 
I am going to turn in my account for damage to property 
to the county and for loss of business to the city because I 
was not protected in the rights I have here. I expect to 
have every dollar. As soon as the first window was broken 
I gave orders to have the cost of replacing it jotted down. 

"Personally I would rather not open Celoron Park th?s 
year, but instead make many alterations and open a new 
Celoron next year. There is a lot of work to be done 

Railroad Terminal Matters in Chicago 

The City Council of Chicago voted on June 30 to ap- 
propriate $10,000 for the employment of a commission of 
experts to submit a scientific railway terminal policy to the 
city. This action was taken by request of Alderman Geiger, 
chairman of the railway terminal committee, after a meet- 
ing of the committee in which a sub-committee was ap- 
pointed to go into the subject. At the meeting a statement 
was filed by Charles H. Wacker, chairman of the Chicago 
Plan Commission, who urges the adoption of Twelfth 
Street as a location for all of the future railroad terminal 
development in Chicago. 

Mr. Wacker makes the following arguments in favor of 
his plan: 

"Three times passenger capacity. Can be enlarged if 
needed. Can be developed with office buildings as in New 
York. Can carry a subway beneath it. Correlation of 
terminals. Shortening the distance between entrance to 
passenger station and trains. Can carry an elevated line 
right through station if desired. Easy of access and non- 
interference with development of city's heart. Opens eight 
new streets." 

The following criticisms of the plan proposed by the 
Pennsylvania Lines and associated railroads were made by 
Mr. Wacker: 

"Lack of street car transportation and connection with 
proposed subways. No river roads. Trussing of viaducts 
above streets. No opening of Monroe Street. Provision 
for next fifteen years only. Natural limitation of expan- 
sion. Inaccessibility from East or North Side of city. 
Distance between train and coach-cleaning yards, necessi- 
tating heavy switching charges. Tracks approach over 
streets, leaving few unobstructed streets. Location of ware- 
houses across proposed widened Congress Street. Places a 
new freight yard in heart of the city. It will remove from 
taxation 18 acres of down-town city property, meaning 
heavier taxes for West Side owners." 

A. Bement, representing the Western Society of Engi- 
neers, has sent a letter to the committee on railway 
terminals of the City Council of Chicago in reference to 
the proposed railroad terminal development. Mr. Bement 
indorsed the suggestion made by the City Club that a scien- 
tific commission be appointed to study the problem before 
any action is taken on the ordinance authorizing the im- 
provement desired by the Pennsylvania Lines and the 
other companies which are interested with that system in 
the Union Station. Mr. Bement said that he thought that 
the present Union Station would serve all purposes until 
a comprehensive study could be made of the entire problem 
of transportation in the city. 

Final Hearing on Uniform Rules for Interlocking Plants 

On June 26 the engineers for the Railroad Commissions 
of Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin and Minnesota held a final 
hearing in the offices of the Illinois Railroad & Warehouse 
Commission in Chicago on uniform rules and regulations 
governing the construction, reconstruction, maintenance 
and operation of interlocking plants. On June 12, at a hear- 
ing at Madison, Wis., the engineers for the four commis- 
sions presented their revised rules to the committee rep- 
resenting the steam and electric roads in the four states. 
The final hearing held in Chicago, June 26, was to permit 
the engineers representing the steam and electric roads to 
present their objections to the revised rules. 

At this hearing a number of revisions were requested by 
the steam road engineers as regards the merhanical details 

of the plant, the various reports to the commission, and 
locks and seals. Under the latter provision the rules re- 
quire that all interlocking cabinets, time locks, time re- 
leases, emergency switches, indicator and relay cases must 
be provided with suitable covers and fastenings so arranged 
that they may be sealed or locked as conditions require, to 
be opened only in case of emergency. As to special re- 
quirements affecting electric railways, the clause requiring 
electric railways to provide suitable guards of an approved 
design to prevent the trolley from leaving the wire while 
in the act of crossing tracks within the interlocking limits 
was eliminated. The objection against this requirement 
raised at the meeting held March 12, and reported in the 
Electric Railway Journal of March 22, brought about the 
elimination of the trolley guard clause so far as interlock- 
ing crossings are concerned. B. J. Fallon, engineer main- 
tenance of way of the Metropolitan West Side Elevated 
Railway, Chicago, objected to making the minimum length 
of detector bars 53 ft. He stated that there was no neces- 
sity for electric roads to install a 53-ft. detector bar. Ac- 
cordingly the engineers for the commission made the mini- 
mum length 33 ft. and will increase it where the character 
of the rolling stock requires. 

The commission's engineers are now engaged in making 
the final revisions to the proposed set of uniform rules and 
they will be submitted to the four commissions for final 
adoption in the very near future. 

Letter from Company to Council of Cleveland 

In a recent letter to the City Council of Cleveland John 
J. Stanley, president of the Cleveland (Ohio) Railway, ex- 
pressed the hope that the deficit existing in the operating 
balance will soon be made up through the increased charge 
fixed by the board of arbitration. The letter was accom- 
panied by a resolution adopted by the board of directors 
at their regular June meeting authorizing the company 
to take such steps as may be necessary to have the deficit 
made good and to use every reasonable effort to prevent 
other deficits from being created during the succeeding 
months. The directors say they hope and believe that the 
operating expenses of the road for June will be less than 
the new allowance, and that the surplus will within a short 
time wipe out the accumulated deficit. At the same time 
the Council was notified that the new allowance was in- 
sufficient to meet the expenses of the past three months. 

Mr. Stanley has denied the rumor that he will join 
Horace E. Andrews in the operation of the Eastern prop- 
erties in which both are interested. He states that he will 
remain at the head of the Cleveland Railway. 

Mr. Mellen Resigns from Boston & Maine and Maine 
Central Railroads 

Charles S. Mellen, president of the New York, New 
Haven & Hartford Railroad and the Connecticut Com- 
pany, resigned on July 8 as president of the Boston & 
Maine Railroad and the Maine Central Railroad, and Morris 
McDonald, vice-president and general manager of the 
Maine Central Railroad, was elected to succeed him with 
both roads. Mr. Mellen stated that in assuming the presi- 
dency of the Boston & Maine Railroad and the Maine Cen- 
tral Railroad, in addition to looking after the New York, 
New Haven & Hartford's other interests, he had taken 
upon himself "more than one man could satisfactorily 
handle with justice to each." 

In a letter to the stockholders who have deposited their 
proxies with the committee which has been appointed to 
inquire into the affairs of the New York, New Haven & 
Hartford Railroad, the members of the committee under 
date of June 30, 1913, said in part: 

"At a recent conference between a sub-committee of this 
committee and the executive committee of the company 
the latter offered to this committee the fullest information 
'without any restriction,' including free access to the com- 
pany's books, in order to aid the committee in forming its 
own conclusions in the most independent manner. The 
executive committee then appointed a sub-committee, con- 
sisting of Messrs. J. P. Morgan, Milligan, Skinner, Rea and 
Vail, to confer with this committee in order to facilitate its 
work. It is apparent that the criticisms have been gen- 

July 12, 1913.] 



eral, coming from public auhorities, both federal and state, 
and from the press, public bodies and private individuals 
throughout New England. The committee, while not in- 
tending to investigate all the charges that have been pre- 
ferred, desires to inform itself fully as to such transac- 
tions of the past as will enable it to discuss and suggest 
in the interest of the shareholders the best course in fu- 
ture, having especial regard to questions of operation, or- 
ganization and finance, and to those matters affecting the 
public policy which have been so largely discussed in 

First Public Hearing on New Detroit Ordinance 

At the first public hearing on the franchise settlement 
plan submitted to the Council of Detroit, Mich., recently 
by Mayor Marx, Horace G. Williams, representing the 
Municipal Ownership League, argued that the Marx plan 
furthers private ownership. He said that if the ordinance 
is adopted the company will cease to be a trespasser and all 
the work done up to this time will be of no value, except as 
a precedent foreshadowing what the Supreme Court may 
decide in new litigation. Mr. Williams contended that 
municipal ownership cannot be secured by entering into 
a new arrangement that is likely to be the foundation for 
further litigation. John McVicar suggested that the pres- 
ent rental resolution be repealed and that a new one be 
adopted making the rentals $1,000 or even $3,000 per day, 
instead of $300, for the use of the streets. Alfred Lucking, 
acting as the Mayor's adviser, insisted that the people's 
rights are safeguarded under the ordinance and that 
municipal ownership is not endangered. He admitted that 
the company will probably not accept the ordinance as it 
stands, but believes that a compromise can be secured 
that will be an improvement on conditions that now exist. 
He said that if the company is permitted to use the streets 
much longer without an agreement of some kind it will 
gain rights that will be difficult to recall. 

Double transfers have been given on all lines of the De- 
troit (Mich.) United Railway since July 8 in an effort to 
relieve the congestion in the down-town district and facili- 
tate travel in other ways. Patrons are permitted to trans- 
fer to crosstown lines and then transfer again to the inter- 
secting lines that will take them to the desired destination, 
instead of riding to the business section of the city, chang- 
ing there and going thence to their first destination. Those 
who use the workmen's 3-cent tickets do not receive 

Strike on Chicago Suburban Lines 

A strike was called on the lines of the County Traction 
Company and Suburban Railroad, taking effect at midnight 
on the night of Thursday, July 3. The County Traction 
Company operates the lines outside of the city of Chicago 
formerly controlled by the Chicago Consolidated Traction 
Company. About 300 employees participated in the strike. 
The companies have discontinued service as a result of the 
strike, although they have told officials of the numerous 
suburban towns served by the lines that they will operate 
the cars if the towns will protect them in so doing. 

The trouble has been a long time in reaching a head. 
The employees of the County Traction Company were for- 
merly organized in a local union of the Amalgamated Asso- 
ciation. The Amalgamated Association then revoked the 
charter of the local union, and the men were absorbed into 
the union on the Chicago surface lines. The company does 
not pay the scale prevailing on the Chicago surface lines, 
holding to its maximum of 30 cents an hour as compared 
with the maximum wage of 32 cents per hour on the 
Chicago lines. The matter of a strike was before the 
employees of the company in the fall of last year, and it 
was decided at that time that a strike should take place. 
The officers decided that they would order the strike 
just before July 4. That is the best traffic period the 
lines have during the year. On the day before the strike 
took place a committee representing the employees called 
on Emil G. Schmidt, the president of the properties, to see 
whether he had changed his attitude on various questions 
affecting the employees since the previous conference six 
months before. Mr. Schmidt said that the lines were not 

earning operating expenses and told the men that operation 
would be discontinued if they stopped work. Nevertheless 
the strike was ordered. At midnight the employees who 
were on duty at that hour ran their cars into the carhouses, 
made their reports and went to their homes. Everything 
was conducted peaceably, and some of the employees in 
order to get their cars to the carhouses rode 4 or 5 miles 
away from their homes and walked back. 

The Chicago Railways Company has twenty cars which 
are used usually on the lines of the County Traction Com- 
pany. These cars were removed from the carhouse of the 
County Traction Company at Oak Park just before the 
strike took effect in order that no issue might be raised 
that would involve the Chicago surface lines or employees 
in the controversy. 

The issue between the companies and the men is partly 
one of wages and partly one of working conditions and 
union affiliations. The companies were perfectly willing 
to have the men in a union of their own, but when the 
charter of the union was revoked and the men joined the 
larger union of the Chicago surface lines the companies 
did not like the change. Their lines are entirely outside 
of the city of Chicago and they took the position that the 
men should have their own local charter from the Amalga- 
mated Association if they chose to have a union. They are 
not willing to submit this question to arbitration but are 
willing to submit to arbitration the question of whether the 
men shall have the wages prevailing on the Chicago sur- 
face lines. The traffic is mainly a summer traffic made up 
of business to the outlying parks, suburbs and summer 
resorts. President Schmidt expressed the views of the 
management when he said that if the men went out on a 
strike the cars would remain in the carhouses. He said 
that the companies would make no attempt to operate cars 
and so invite riots and trouble, but that they had announced 
to the officials of villages and towns whose inhabitants were 
greatly inconvenienced by the discontinuance of operation 
that they would go ahead and operate if the officials would 
promise to give protection from the attacks of strikers. 
Thus far no assurance of protection has been offered to the 
companies and no attempt is being made to resume op- 

Judge Hook on Form of Kansas City Franchise 

judge William C. Hook in the United States Court at 
Kansas City, Mo., says in regard to the form of the pro- 
posed new franchises on which the receivers of the Metro- 
politan Street Railway and the city are now trying to agree: 

"As I understand it, the important difference between 
the receivers and the city in the negotiations for a new 
contract is over the time when the participation of the 
stockholders in the surplus income shall begin. On the 
one side is the claim that it should begin at once when 
the contract becomes effective. On the other hand, the 
Mayor claims that it should be postponed until the in- 
tangible elements in the agreed capital valuation of $30,- 
000,000 are wiped out. To accomplish this he proposes to 
put back into the property the entire surplus and the city' 1 - 
profit in the tax fund. 

"He also proposes that after this amortization is effected 
the stockholders may have a slightly increased percentage 
of participation. It is urged that the stockholders are al- 
lowed but a slight increase in the property — that is to say, 
the difference between the funded debt and the agreed cap- 
ital value, plus the participation with the city in the sur- 
plus income — and that, as it is estimated that it will take 
eight years or so to effect what the Mayor wants, the partic- 
ipation will not only be postponed that long, but the stock- 
holders will be brought that much nearer the time when 
the city will take over the property absolutely and all their 
interests end. There is force in this. 

"On your basis it means that the stockholders yield one- 
fourth of about $7,000,000, but, on the other hand, the 
Mayor is willing to allow by way of recompense 8 l /3 per 
cent increase in participation after what he desires is ac- 
complished. I think the Mayor's plan is based on sound 
business principles and will work to the advantage of the 
property. I think therefore you should work to an agree- 
ment with the Mayor on the difference mentioned." 



[Vol. XLII, No. 2. 

First Through Train Over Oakland, Antioch & Eastern 

The laying of tracks on the Oakland, Antioch & Eastern 
Railway from Bay Point to Sacramento was completed on 
June 30, and the first through train from Sacramento to 
Oakland left the west end of the Northern Electric bridge, 
Sacramento, on July 2. The party on the train was com- 
posed of Samuel Napthaly, H. A. Mitchell, John I. Walter, 
A. W. Maltby, Henry T. Scott, W. Arnstein, G. T. Marye, 
C. A. Hunt and George T. Weeks. The regular electric 
train service will be begun on Aug. 15. The intervening 
time will be devoted to finishing the electrical equipment 
and ballasting the roadbed. 

The new rolling stock equipment ordered by the com- 
pany is beginning to arrive. Nine passenger coaches, in- 
cluding a parlor and observation car, are already in the 
Oakland yards and eight more steel cars are being built 
in Oakland. Four additional cars are due to be shipped 
from the East on July 15. Two 65-ton high-power electric 
locomotives will be shipped at the same time and two 50- 
ton freight locomotives are on the ground. The larger 
locomotives will be used in the passenger service and will 
be able to develop a speed of 65 m. p. h., drawing trains of 
five coaches each. 

I. C. C. Report on Transportation in New England 

The Interstate Commerce Commission made public on 
July 9 its report on railroad transportation conditions in 
New England. Referring to the increase in the capital 
liabilities of the New York, New Haven & Hartford Rail- 
road since 1903, the commission says in part: 

"June 30, 1903, the total capitalization of the New Haven 
company was approximately $93,000,000, of which $79,000,- 
000 was stock and $14,000,000 bonds. The mileage then 
operated was 2040 miles. On June 30, 1912, the capitaliza- 
tion, excluding stock premiums, was $417,000,000, an in- 
crease of $324,000,000, while the operated mileage was 2090, 
an increase of 50 miles. While the New Haven operated 
2040 miles in 1903, it owned of this operated mileage only 
438 miles. During the nine years this owned mileage was 
increased by about 800 miles, and the New Haven company 
expended approximately $40,000,000 in acquiring this addi- 
tional owned mileage. It expended during the nine years 
something over $96,000,000 upon its railroad for betterments 
and equipment, making a total of $136,000,000 devoted to 
its railroad property proper. This would leave the sum of 
$204,000,000 which in nine years had been expended in 
operations outside its railroad sphere." 

Referring to the activities of the company in absorbing 
electric railways the commission says in part: 

"The first transaction to which reference will be made is 
the purchase of the Rhode Island trolleys. In 1902 the 
United Gas Improvement Company entered the electric 
railway field in Rhode Island. A corporation known as the 
Rhode Island Company was organized which issued its 
capital stock in the sum of $2,000,000 to the Improvement 
Company, receiving in return $2,000,000 in cash. In 1904 
the New Haven purchased a block of the stock of the Rhode 
Island Company. In 1906 it perfected arrangements for 
the acquisition of the entire stock of that company by 
organizing a third corporation, the Providence Securities 
Company, which exchanged its 4 per cent debentures guar- 
anteed by the New Haven Company for the stock, bonds 
and notes of the Rhode Island Securities Company sub- 
stantially at par. There was a cash payment of $10 per 
share by the stockholders of the Rhode Island Securities 
Company and an adjustment of $3 per share against this on 
account of interest. In whatever aspect the transaction is 
viewed the New Haven gave $13,500,000 for nothing. Since 
then additional money has been invested by the New Haven 
company in the development of the Rhode Island electric 
railways so that to-day the investment totals about $24,- 
000,000. Professor Swain in his report to the validation 
committee estimated the value of the investment at $6,000,- 

Referring to the New York, Westchester & Boston Rail- 
way, the commission says in part: 

"The New York, Westchester & Boston Railway is a 
four-track electric road extending from White Plains, N. Y., 

to a terminus at Harlem River, a distance of slightly more 
than 20 miles. This road was built and is owned by the 
New Haven. The books of the New Haven company 
offered but little information as to the actual process of 
construction. The road was completed and began opera- 
tions about June 30, 1912, and on that date the New Haven 
had invested, including interest, almost $34,000,000. The 
New York, Westchester & Boston Railway is located en- 
tirely within the State of New York and reports to the 
Public Service Commission of that State. The first report 
of this corporation, under date of Sept. 30, 1912, gives the 
value of its tangible property at somewhat less than $22,- 
000,000. Here, therefore, is an enterprise which has cost 
the New Haven company $12,000,000 in excess of the value 
of its property upon its own showing. In the case of the 
Rhode Island Company it was possible to locate the cor- 
poration, if not the individual, which had ostensibly obtained 
the money, but in this case it is impossible from anything 
upon the books of the New Haven company to do this even 

In its general conclusion the commission says: 
"Our general conclusion is that the outside financial 
operations of the New Haven company for the last nine 
years have been wasteful in the extreme and that the meth- 
ods by which those operations have been conducted are 
unnecessarily involved and complex. The present manage- 
ment started out with the purpose of controlling the trans- 
portation facilities of New England. In the accomplishment 
of that purpose it bought what must be had and paid what 
must be paid. To this purpose and its attempted execution 
can be traced every one of these financial misfortunes and 
derelictions. The Rhode Island Company, the Westchester 
Company, the Billard transaction, the purchase of the 
Connecticut electric railways and the Massachusetts elec- 
tric railways all sprang from the same source. Some of 
these investments have been less costly than others; per- 
haps those expressly referred to may be the extreme cases, 
although the purchase of the Boston & Maine stock, made 
in defiance of the law of Massachusetts and perhaps of the 
federal statute, may prove the most disastrous of all. 
This much is evident: There can be no readjustment of 
these conditions, no advance in rates upon these systems 
can be sanctioned, until it is made reasonably certain that 
the management of these properties will be lawful and 
prudent. Assuming that in some form that assurance will 
be given, we inquire what should be done." 
The commission further says: 

"In our opinion the New Haven should divest itself of its 
trolley lines." 

Analytical Study of Operating Expenses 

An analytical study of electric railway operating ex- 
penses is to be conducted by the new division of electrical 
engineering research of the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology. The cost of this study will be defrayed from 
a fund, of which the donor is yet anonymous, amounting to 
$25,000 and is to be spent at the rate of $5,000 a year. The 
division of electrical engineering research under whose 
direction this sum will be spent has recently been organ- 
ized by the Institute with an extensive laboratory and 
library and will be under the direction of Dr. Harold 
Pender, with H. F. Thompson as secretary. In addition 
to the gift already mentioned the laboratory has received 
an endowment of $10,000 a year for five years from the 
American Telephone & Telegraph Company, and the same 
company has also donated the Dering Library of more than 
30,000 titles. The laboratory has also received a gift of 
$2,000 from the Boston & Maine Railroad and the New 
York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad to be used for the 
study of handling freight at terminals both inside and out- 
side freight houses. This research is along the lines of 
work which technology has been doing for the past two 
years, an example being shown in the study of electric 
motor vehicles undertaken at the initiative of the Edison 
Electric Illuminating Company of Boston and financed by 
that company to the extent of $7,500. 

Some other work on which Dr. Pender is engaged at 
present is a study of the effect of phase relation of har- 
monics in sound waves as affecting clearness of speech in 
telephone communications and also the resistance of con- 

July 12, 1913.] 



ductors when used for alternating currents. In connec- 
tion with the latter work a 500-ft. section "of a 150,000-volt 
transmission line has been erected on the new site of the 
institute in Cambridge. 

Dr. Pender, who has been connected with the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology since I9°9, is a graduate 
of the Johns Hopkins University and also studied at the 
Sorbonne, Paris. Later he was with the Westinghouse 
Electric & Manufacturing Company and in the electrical 
engineering department of the New York Central & Hud- 
son River Railroad and has been connected with the work 
of the McCall Ferry & Power Company, the International 
Railway and the electrification of the Cascade Tunnel of 
the Great Northern Railway. 

Delos F. Wilcox Reports on Newark Traffic Conditions 

The issues of the Newark Evening Nczvs for July 7, 8 
and 9 contained a review by Delos F. Wilcox, formeriy 
franchise expert of the Public Service Commission of the 
First District of New York, of traffic conditions in New- 
ark with particular reference to the proposed downtown 
terminal of the Public Service Railway. Dr. Wilcox states 
that apparently there is no way in which there could be 
public control of the terminal operations; that the fran- 
chise for the subway would be perpetual; that the power 
of the city to compel the construction of half-mile exten- 
sions of trolley lines or the re-routing of cars is doubtful; 
that the franchise requirements by the suburban towns of 
Montclair, Bloomfield and Bellevilie, which stipulate that 
cars from those towns shall run to the Market Street 
(Newark) station of the Pennsylvania Railroad, is against 
public policy; that electric railway service on Broad and 
Market Streets, the principal business streets of Newark, 
is not operated to its present full capacity, and that ade- 
quate relief from existing and future congestion can be 
brought about only by a revision of the city's street plan. 
Dr. Wilcox holds that a downtown terminal is not needed 
at present on account of the small number of interurban 
and semi-interurban cars and asserts further that the ter- 
minal route would divert passengers from their natural 
destination and make proper transfers inconvenient. Con- 
gestion if relieved at the intersection of Broad and Market 
Streets would be increased at other points, particularly as 
the use of a tunnel and elevated structure for the terminal 
would prevent through traffic on certain adjacent streets. 
Furthermore, the terminal site is badly located for street 
railway operation and, if any place at all, should be near 
the terminal of the Hudson Companies. Some provision 
should also be made whereby the tunnel to the terminal 
would not interfere with the later development of a regular 
subway system. Dr. Wilcox believes that traffic may be 
accelerated at congested corners by using cars which do 
not load and unload at the same end, by the operation of 
trailers, by having cars cross in groups, etc. He suggests 
also various modifications of the proposed re-routing plan 
of the Public Service Railway. In conclusion, Dr. Wilcox 
recommends that if the railway's terminal plans are ap- 
proved the contract should acknowledge the city's right to 
make over the system, the right to compel the re-routing of 
cars and the power to compel the construction of short 

Strike of Linemen in Lexington. — Linemen employed by 
the Kentucky Utilities Company in street railway work at 
Lexington, Ky., have gone on strike. The strikers are de- 
manding a nine-hour day at 30 cents an hour, instead of 
ten hours at 27^2 cents an hour. Officers of the company 
have announced that the places of the strikers will be 
filled if they do not return to work. 

Long Dispute Settled. — The Ohio Public Service Com- 
mission has arranged a settlement of the dispute between 
the Western Union Telegraph Company and the Cleveland, 
Painesville & Ashtabula Railway. The high-tension wires 
of the railroad and the telegraph lines were strung close 
together and the telegraph company complained to the 
commission on account of the danger to its men. 

Conference Proposed in Regard to Erdman Act. — Presi- 
dent Wilson will confer at the White House on July 14 
with representatives of the railroads as well as of the 

Brotherhoods of Conductors and Trainmen to seek an 
agreement upon legislation for the amendment of the Erd- 
man law for the arbitration of wage controversies between 
railroads and their employees so as to meet the crisis which 
threatens to tie up the Eastern railroads with a strike. 

Progress of Arbitration in Cincinnati. — The board of 
arbitration which is considering the differences between the 
employees and the Cincinnati Traction company had under 
consideration the latter part of the week ended on July 5 
the extra pay that the men should receive for extra work. 
After hearing several motormen and conductors, the board 
suggested that the men endeavor to arrange this with the 
division superintendents before the boards go any further 
with it. 

New York Registration Law. — There is some doubt in 
the minds of lawyers as to whether the new stock transfer 
tax law of New York State which went into effect on July 
1 requires all corporations to file with the State Comptroller 
a certificate of the office where the transfers are made, etc., 
but as the law exacted a penalty in case these data are not 
tiled by July 10 there was considerable activity throughout 
the State by corporations in applying for certificates and 
filing them. 

Turnstiles in New Subway in New York. — The Public 
Service Commission of the First District of New York has 
granted permission to the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Com- 
pany to use turnstiles in the Centre Street loop subway 
in collecting fares. The commission specified in granting 
the company's request that the use of the turnstiles should 
be considered experimental only and not as committing 
it to allowing their use in the Fourth Avenue subway, 
Brooklyn, and on the other new lines to be operated by 
the company. 

Forty- Year Bonds Recommended for Municipal Line. — 

It has been decided by the public utilities committee to 
recommend to the Board of Supervisors of San Francisco, 
Cal., that the proposed issue of $3,500,000 of bonds, bearing 
annual interest at 5 per cent, for the purpose of making ex- 
tensions to the Geary Street Municipal Railway, shall run 
for forty years, redemption to begin five years after issu- 
ance, at the rate of $100,000 a year. It was suggested that 
the city should reserve the option to redeem the bonds at 
any period after twenty years from date of issuance, but it 
was thought this might detract from the attractiveness of 
the offering. 

The Work of the Ohio Public Service Commission. — 

The Ohio Public Service Commission was organized on 
June I, 191 1, and up to June I, 1913, issues of stock of 
companies in Ohio amounting to $39,382,289 and bond 
issues amounting to $101,135,660 had been approved. Dur- 
ing the same period authority to issue $7,204,55 stock 
and $13,275,250 bonds had been refused. Of the stock 
issues authorized, $26,283,474 were for railroads and $13,- 
098,815 for public utilities, and of the bond issues, $86,- 
973.500 w'ere for railroads and $14,126,150 were for utility 
companies. Of the issue refused $6,460,000 stock and $12,- 
962,000 were for railroads, while $744,550 of stock and 
$313,250 of bonds were for public utility companies. 

Chicago Union Station Company Organized. — The Union 
Station Company has been organized in Chicago with a 
capital of $50,000,000 in the interest of the Pittsburgh, Cin- 
cinnati, Chicago & St. Louis Railway, the Chicago, Burlington 
& Quincy Railroad and the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul 
Railroad. Of the total capital stock, $25,000,000 will be held 
by the Burlington road and $12,500,000 by each of the other 
two roads. The company was incorporated in accordance 
with an amendment to the State railroad act which became 
effective on July 1. Frank J. Loesch, attorney, on whose 
petition the articles of incorporation were issued, said that 
the question of a site for the proposed new union station 
was not concerned in the proceedings. 

Petition Dismissed in Bridge Case. — Judge Anderson at 
Indianapolis has dismissed the petition of the Evansville 
& Henderson Railway to compel the Henderson Bridge 
Company to permit it to use the bridge across the Ohio 
between the two cities. The company desires to operate an 
electric railway between Evansville and Henderson, and to 
use the bridge for that purpose. The court held, on the re- 
port of a master appointed to take evidence, that unless the 



[Vol. XLII, No. 2. 

railway agreed to double-track the bridge approaches, to 
maintain a block system on the bridge and to furnish its 
own electrical equipment on the structure, its petition was 
without merit. The company refused to make an offer of 
this nature, and the case was accordingly dismissed. 

Birmingham Strike Precipitate, Premature and Unwise. — 

Commenting editorially on the recent strike of fewer than 
100 trainmen of the Birmingham Railway, Light & Power 
Company, Birmingham, Ala., one of the local papers said: 
"There appeared to be no question raised in the union com- 
mittee's demand as to wages, hours or general treatment 
of the men. Apparently all those things were satisfactory. 
The only question was recognition of the union and a 
restoration to employment of discharged men. The griev- 
ance of the union leaders was purely the existence of a 
local union. They undertook to establish their position by 
force instead of by reason. The strike was precipitate, 
premature and unwise." 

Proposed Municipal Extension at Cincinnati. — City So- 
licitor Bettman, of Cincinnati, has proposed to the City 
Council that the municipality construct an extension to the 
street railway line between Avondale and Bond Hill and 
that the Cincinnati Traction Company bear the interest and 
sinking-fund charges. He claims this will obviate the 
necessity of securing consents of property owners. On 
June 24 Judge Pugh rendered a decision to the effect that 
the company cannot build this line without securing the 
consents of property owners on Reading Road. Mr. Bett- 
man says that, under the home rule amendment to the 
constitution, the city will not be compelled to obtain 
consents for a municipal line. 

Agreement to Arbitrate Boston Differences. — An agree- 
ment has been reached on a method of arbitration by which 
it is expected that the differences between the Boston 
(Mass.) Elevated Railway and its employees will be ad- 
justed. James L. Richards for the company and James H. 
Vahey, counsel to the union employees, were delegated on 
July 8 to select a third arbitrator to act with two others, 
one being named by each side. It was on the manner of 
choosing the third member that the strike hinged, an agree- 
ment made a year ago giving to the Mayor the power to 
select that official having proved unsatisfactory to the 
union. The men ask for increased wages and improved 
working conditions. The union had voted in favor of a 

Mayor Harrison on the Illinois Utility Law. — Mayor 
Harrison, of Chicago, has issued a long statement in regard 
to the Illinois public utility bill, declaring that the Gover- 
nor knew that the people of Chicago had regulated their 
utilities satisfactorily in the past and that they wanted 
to retain in their own hands the control of the utilities for 
the future. Mr. Harrison referred to the "viciousness" of 
the bill and said that non-partisan home-rule clubs will be 
maintained in every ward until the Legislature restores 
home rule in Chicago. James G. Skinner, assistant corpora- 
tion counsel of Chicago, declares that the public utilities 
law is unconstitutional because it gives judicial powers 
to a state commission, which is essentially an administra- 
tive body. 

Subway Construction Bids to Be Opened. — On July 

22 the Public Service Commission for the First District of 
New York will open bids for the construction of another 
section of the Broadway subway in Manhattan, to be oper- 
ated by the New York Municipal Railway Corporation 
under the new contracts. This section extends from Union 
Square north under Broadway to about Twenty-sixth 
Street. There will be an express station at Union Square 
and a local station at Twenty-third Street, Madison Square. 
The commission has under consideration bids opened on 
June 24 for the construction of the section immediately 
south of this one, extending from Union Square down to 
the end of the present construction at a point midway be- 
tween Houston and Bleecker Streets. 

First Train Through Loop Connecting New York Bridges. 
— The first train was sent through the Center Street sub- 
way loop, connecting the Brooklyn, Manhattan and Wil- 
liamsburg Bridges, on June 30. The loop, which has been 
under construction since 1907, is now nearing completion. 
The connection with the tracks crossing the Brooklyn 

Bridge is not yet completed, although work is progressing 
rapidly in that direction. The Center Street loop is of 
four and six tracks throughout. Its cost, according to 
Public Service Commission figures, has been $12,884,896. 
A contract will shortly be let for a connection, through 
Canal Street, between the Broadway subway and the Cen- 
ter Street loop. The loop is 6500 ft. long and will be oper- 
ated by the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company under the 
dual subway contracts. 

Decision in Newark Gas Case Involving Intangible 
Values in Rate Making. — The Supreme Court of New Jer- 
sey on Juiy 7, 1913, sustained the validity of the order of 
the Board of Public Utility Commissioners of New Jersey in 
requiring the Public Service Gas Company, a subsidiary of 
the Public Service Corporation of New Jersey, Newark, to 
establish a 90-cent gas rate within the district which em- 
braces Passaic. The decision of the board was published 
in the Electric Railway Journal of Jan. 4, 1913, page 35. 
The principal question at issue was the valuation of the 
intangible property of the company, and in this matter the 
court upheld the ruling of the commission. To determine 
the correctness of the decision on which the order of the 
Board of Public Utility Commissioners was based the com- 
pany, with the knowledge and approval of the commission, 
decided to obey the order and sue out a writ of certiorari 
in the Supreme Court of the State. The company has now 
announced that it will appeal the case to the Court of 
Errors and Appeals. 

The Automatic Stop Competition. — The offer of $10,000 
made by Charles S. Mellen, president of the New York, 
New Haven & Hartford Railroad, for the best automatic 
stopping and speed control device which would safely ar- 
rest trains disregarding fixed signals expired on July 1. On 
that date 2816 persons in all had entered the competition, 
but only 704 of the applicants thus far have submitted plans 
in reply to the circular sent to each applicant giving the 
conditions and requirements of the competition. Despite 
the fact that not all of the requirements have been met, the 
railroad will proceed at once to test the more meritorious 
of the devices submitted. These tests will begin the middle 
of this month and will take place on the western division 
between Hartford and Newington. The two automatic stop 
systems coming the nearest to all of the requirements will 
be tested first. One is the invention of Gene Webb and is 
the property of the International Signal Company. The 
other is an invention of an engineer of the Union Switch 
& Signal Company. 

Dual Subway System Described. — The Public Service 
Commission for the First District of New York has pub- 
lished a pamphlet describing the dual system of rapid tran- 
sit, the contracts for which were signed recently by repre- 
sentatives of the city of New York, the Interborough 
Rapid Transit Company and the New York Municipal 
Railway Corporation. In this pamphlet it is stated that the 
estimated total cost of the new system is $337,000,000, of 
which New York City will supply $171,000,000 and the two 
companies the remainder. The Interborough company's 
total expenditure will be about $105,000,000, of which 
$58,000,000 will go toward the construction of city-owned 
lines. The New York Municipal Railway Corporation will 
expend about $61,000,000, of which about $14,000,000 will 
be applied to the cost of city-owned lines. The balance of 
each company's expenditure will be devoted to the purchase 
of new equipment and the construction of elevated rail- 
roads and additional tracks thereon. The city of New York 
has already expended, or contracted to expend, about $76,- 
000,000 of its contribution. This covers the work already 
completed or going on in the Fourth Avenue subway in 
Brooklyn, the Centre Street Loop subway in Manhattan, 
the Lexington Avenue subway in Manhattan with its 
branches in the Bronx, the Broadway subway in Manhat- 
tan and the elevated railroad in Queens. It is expected 
that the rapid transit facilities will be more than trebled 
upon the completion of the new system in the year 1917. 
The existing lines cover 296 miles of single track, whereas 
the total length of the new system will be 618 miles of 
single track. The existing lines are carrying about 
800,000,000 passengers per annum, and it is expected that 
the dual system, used to its full capacity, will carry more 
than 3,000,000,000 passengers per annum. 

July 12, 1913.] 



Financial and Corporate 

Receiverships for Kuhn Properties 

Stock and Money Markets 

July 9, 1913. 

A fairly steady tone was shown in the early trading on 
the New York Stock Exchange to-day. The prices of nearly 
all the important issues shaded off slightly at the start and 
many issues showed fractional losses in the afternoon, 
among them Interborough-Metropolitan preferred. Amer- 
ican Water Works & Guarantee Company preferred sold 
down from 56 to 47, whereas the most recent sale on the 
exchange was at 95. The common shares fell from 50 to 
19. Sales of West Penn Traction preferred were reported 
at 30 against a recent price of 80, and the common declined 
from 33 to 10. Rates in the money market to-day were: 
Call, 2 @ 2 l / 2 per cent; sixty days, 2-)4 @ zVa per cent; 
ninety days, 4% @ 4!% per cent; six months, S 3 A @ 6 per 

In the Philadelphia market further weakness in arbitrage 
issues was followed by fractional declines. On the reces- 
sions the offerings were quickly absorbed. 

A strong tone featured the stock market in Chicago to- 
day. Bonds were firm. 

In the Boston market to-day business was light and L 'ie 
price changes were small. 

Increased activity was shown in the stock market in Bal- 
timore to-day, with Baltimore Electric 5's the feature. 

Quotations of traction and manufacturing securities as 
compared with last week follow: 

July 1 July 9. 

American Brake Shoe & Foundry (common) 90 8754 

American Brake Shoe & Foundry (preferred) 12654 12654 

American Cities Company (common) 33J4 3354 

American Cities Company (preferred) 63 66 

American Light & Traction Company (common) *365 365 

American Light & Traction Company (preferred) ... .*106 10654 

American Railways Company 38 38 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railroad (common) 40 40 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railroad (preferred) 83 85 

Boston Elevated Railway 84 87 54 

Boston Suburban Electric Companies (common) 7}4 7y 2 

Boston Suburban Electric Companies (preferred) *66 50 

Boston & Worcester Electric Companies (common).... a8 *8 
Boston & Worcester Electric Companies (preferred) ... 42 42 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company 87 86 % 

Capital Traction Company, Washington 115% 114% 

Chicago City Railway * 1 50 165 

Chicago Elevated Railways (common) *2454 26 

Chicago Elevated Railways (preferred) *75 75 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 1 *100 95 54 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 2 24 23 54 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 3 754 7 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 4 *2% 2 J-5 

Cincinnati Street Railway 110 *110 

Cleveland Railway 10254 10254 

Cleveland, Southwestern & Columbus Ry. (common).. *6 6 
Cleveland, Southwestern & Columbus Ry. (preferred) . *29 29 

Columbus Railway & Light Company 18 12 

Columbus Railway (common) 6954 60 

Columbus Railway (preferred) 88 80 

Denver & Northwestern Railway *107 107 

Detroit United Railway 70 *70 

General Electric Company 13554 137 

Georgia Railway & Electric Company (common) 115 115% 

Georgia Railway & Electric Company (preferred) 84 84 

Interborough Metropolitan Company (common) 15 14% 

Interborough Metropolitan Company (preferred) 55% 54% 

International Traction Company (common) *30 30 

International Traction Company (preferred) *95 95 

Kansas City Railway & Light Company (common)... *18 18 
Kansas City Railway & Light Company (preferred)... *36 36 

Lake Shore Electric Railway (common) *6 9 

Lake Shore Electric Railway (1st preferred) *92 90 

Lake Shore Electric Railway (2d preferred) . *25 25 

Manhattan Railway 125 125 

Massachusetts Electric Companies (common) 13 1354 

Massachusetts Electric Companies (preferred) 66 6854 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co. (preferred) . .*100 90 

Norfolk Railway & Light Company 25 25 

North American Company 65 65 

Northern Ohio Light & Traction Company (common) . . 80 
Northern Ohio Light & Traction Company (preferred) . 105 

Philadelphia Company, Pittsburgh (common) 4054 3954 

Philadelphia Companv, Pittsburgh (preferred) 39 39 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company 2154 2154 

Portland Railway, Light & Power Company *62 58 

Public Service Corporation 110 109 

Third Avenue Railway, New York 31 '4 3014 

Toledo Railways & Light Company 2 254 

Twin City Rapid Transit Co., Minneapolis (common).. 102 10 1 54 

Union Traction Company of Indiana (common) *454 454 

Union Traction Company of Indiana (1st preferred).. *80 80 
Union Traction Company of Indiana (2d preferred) . . . *30 30 

United Rys. & Electric Company (Baltimore) 26 2554 

United Rys. Inv. Company (common) 19 17 

United Rys. Inv. Company (preferred) 34 31% 

Virginia Railway & Power Company (common) 52 51 

Virginia Railway & Power Company (preferred) 8754 a92 

Washington Ry. & Electric Company (common) 8954 89 

Washington Ry. & Electric Company (preferred) 87% 87 

West End Street Railway, Boston (common) 71 7054 

West End Street Railway, Boston (preferred) 87 85 

Westinehouse Elec. & Mfg. Company 5854 57 

Wcotinghonse Elec. & Mfg. Company (1st preferred). 105 104 
*Last sale, a Asked. 

The First-Second National Bank, Pittsburgh, Pa., the 
second largest bank in that city, was closed on July 1 by 
order of the Controller of the Currency. The First National 
Bank of McKeesport also closed its doors on the same 
day. Both are controlled by the J. S. & W. S. Kuhn in- 
terests. J. S. Kuhn on the same day had receivers appointed 
for J. S. & W. S. Kuhn, Inc., and the American Water 
Works & Guarantee Company. J. K. Duff, treasurer of the 
company, was appointed receiver for J. S. & W. S. Kuhn, 
Inc., and J. S. Kuhn, W. S. Kuhn, J. H. Purdy and F. G. 
Kay were appointed receivers of the American Water Works 
& Guarantee Company. W. S. Kuhn was president of the 
First-Second National Bank, vice-president of the Amer- 
ican Water Works & Guarantee Company and vice-presi- 
dent of J. S. & W. S. Kuhn. Inc. J. S. Kuhn was president 
of the American Water Works & Guarantee Company and 
chairman of the board of directors of J. S. & W. S. Kuhn, 

In a statement which he made on July 8 W. S. Kuhn 


"The reason for the controller closing the bank in Pitts- 
burgh was simply because the government had a different 
method of valuation for the securities, assets and reserve 
from our own estimate as to their value." 

One of the members of the board of directors of the 
First-Second National Bank said: 

"The bank is solvent. We also are convinced that the 
claims will be paid in full. If the Treasury Department had 
not subjected the bank to rigid examination by special exam- 
iners who were unable to judge values of property and 
securities in this community, we should have been able to 
work out with success the problems which, while existing, 
, were not of our making." 

J. S. & W. S. Kuhn, Inc., are incorporated in Delaware, 
with a capital stock of $500,000. The Kuhn interests have 
centered largely of late in irrigation projects in the West. 
They also control the West Penn Traction & Water Power 
Company and the operations of a group of bituminous 
mines in Pennsylvania, especially the United Coal Com- 
pany, of which W. S. Kuhn is president and director. W. S. 
Kuhn is also a director of the Colonial Trust Company, 
Commercial National Bank and Commonwealth Trust Com- 
pany, Pittsburgh; vice-president and director First National 
Bank, Allegheny; director First National Bank, McKees- 
port; vice-president and director Pittsburgh Bank for Sav- 
ings; president and director Kittanning & Leechburg Rail- 
way; president and director Sacramento Valley Irrigation 
Company and president and director Twin Falls North Side 
Land 6k Water Company. 

James S. Kuhn, besides being president and director of 
the American Water Works & Guarantee Company, is pres- 
ident and director of the First National Bank, Allegheny; 
president and director of the First National Bank, McKees- 
port; director in the Colonial Trust Company and Freehold 
Bank, Pittsburgh; director in Kuhn, Fisher & Company, 
Tnc, Boston; president and director of the Pittsburgh Bank 
for Savings; director of the Security Investment Company 
and Twin Falls North Side Land & Water Company; vice- 
president and director of the United Coal Company and 
West Penn Traction Company, also of the West Penn 
Traction & Water Power Company, and director in the 
Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company. 

The American Water Works & Guarantee Company is 
probably the largest operating water-works company in the 
United States, controlling more than forty such plants 
throughout the country. It was chartered in Pennsylvania 
in 1882 and has an outstanding capital stock of $5,000,000. 
Since 1889 the stock has paid an annual dividend of 6 per 
cent, and in June last year a stock dividend of 150 per cent 
was declared from the surplus. This called for the dis- 
bursement of more than $5,000,000. 

The West Penn Traction Company, formerly the West 
Penn Railways, was incorporated Feb. 18, 1904, under the 
laws of Pennsylvania, and is a consolidation of the Pitts- 
burgh, McKeesport & Connellsville Railway, the Union- 
town & Monongahela Valley Railway, the Connellsville 
Suburban Street Railway, the Greensburg & Southern Elec- 
tric Street Railway and a number of electric lighting com- 



[Vol. XLII, No. 2. 

panies operating throughout the western part of Pennsyl- 
vania. In May, 1906, the West Penn Company acquired a 
controlling interest in the McKeesport & Duquesne Bridge 
Company and the entire capital stock of the Latrobe Street 
Railway. A year later the company secured a majority of 
the stock of the Pittsburgh, McKeesport & Greensburg 
Railway. The company was twice reorganized and has 
authorized $25,000,000 in bonds, of which $6,584,000 are out- 
standing. In February, 1910, the American Water Works & 
Guarantee Company of New Jersey agreed to guarantee all 
the bonds of the West Penn Traction Company, and at that 
time agreed to purchase all the bonds of the West Penn 
Traction Company that might be issued within two years 
from that time. 

Financing the Proposed Toronto Purchases 

' A, great deal of interest attaches to the means which are 
likely to be adopted if the city of Toronto should conclude 
the negotiations which are being conducted with the end in 
view of taking over the properties of the Toronto Railway 
and the Toronto Electric Light Company. Financial in- 
terests in Toronto point out the growing cautiousness of 
London in taking Canadian municipal debentures and the 
trouble experienced by the city of Toronto last year in 
trying to float $6,000,000 of bonds. One man who special- 
izes in municipal securities is quoted as follows: 

"Money is very tight, and it is difficult to dispose of 
municipal securities of any kind. The English market has 
been flooded with Canadian municipals. Home Payne's 
speech in which he warned English investors against Cana- 
dian municipal debentures may not reflect the opinion of 
English financial men accurately, but it at least shows there 
is a growing feeling against them. Toronto's experience 
last year is another case in point. Besides, many capitalists 
do not look with favor on municipally owned railways or 
lighting systems. As things are I am quite sure that 
Toronto cannot float debentures for $25,000,000 except at 
a ruinously high rate." 

Mayor Hocken would not say just how the city would 
finance the deal, but indicated that it would not be necessary 
to float debentures in London. He is quoted as follows: 

"I do not anticipate any difficulty in the financing of the 
purchase of the street railway and the Toronto Electric 
Light Company by the city, if the citizens decide to go 
ahead with the project. If the city had to float $25,000,000 of 
municipal debentures in the open market in order to pay 
cash, I would not be very sanguine of the agreement going 
through as we could only get the money on very high 
terms, if at all, and the city's credit for years to come 
would be curtailed." 

Columbus Railway & Light Company, Columbus, Ohio. — 

The time for depositing securities of the Columbus Rail- 
way & Light Company and the underlying corporations has 
been extended to July 15. 

Commonwealth Power, Railway & Light Company, Grand 
Rapids, Mich. — The quarterly dividends of 1^ per cent on 
the preferred and 1 per cent on the common stock of the 
Commonwealth Power, Railway & Light Company are the 
initial dividends on the enlarged capitalization of the cor- 

Goldsboro (N. C.) Traction Company. — The Goldsboro 
Traction Company has been placed in the hands of R. W. 
Winston, Jr., Raleigh, as receiver by Judge Henry G. Con- 
ner of the District Court of the United States for the 
Eastern District of North Carolina, on the application of 
the Mercantile Trust & Deposit Company, Baltimore, Md., 
trustee representing the holders of the bonds of the com- 
pany. The property has not been operated for three 
months. The company purchased power from the plant 
owned by the city. This plant was taken over some time 
ago by the Carolina Power & Light Company, and the 
Goldsboro Traction Company, unable to arrange to pur- 
chase power from the new company except at terms which 
it considered exorbitant, suspended the service. 

Lehigh Valley Transit Company, Allentown, Pa. — R. P. 
Stevens, president of the Lehigh Valley Traction Company, 
has been elected president of the Easton Consolidated Elec- 
tric Company, control of which is now owned by the Le- 

high Valley Transit Company. Mr. Stevens, J. C. Dawson 
and Albert L. Smith have been elected directors of the 
Easton Consolidated Electric Company to succeed Joseph 
S. Lovering, Robert L. Montgomery and John S. Bioren. 

Ocean Shore Railroad, San Francisco, Cal. — The Railroad 
Commission of California has authorized the Ocean Shore 
Railroad to execute its promissory notes in the sum of 
$22,986 to make rental payments upon locomotives which it 
uses, and to execute notes in the sum of $29,615 as part 
payment upon forty freight cars. 

Pacific Coast Railway, San Luis Obispo, Cal. — Upon mo- 
tion of the Railroad Commission of California to ascertain 
the various elements entering into the value of the prop- 
erty of the Pacific Coast Railway, findings of fact were 
made as follows: That the "reproduction value" of the 
operative physical property of the company as of June 30, 
1912, is $1,970,843, and that the "present value" is $1,529,646. 
Owing to the fact that the original cost records of the 
company were destroyed in the San Francisco fire in 1906, 
no report is given by the commission on the original cost 
of the property. 

Railways Company General, New York, N. Y. — A special 
meeting of the stockholders of the Railways Company Gen- 
eral has been called for July 15 to consider a proposal to 
.decrease the capital stock of the company from $500,000 
if} $400,000. The company was incorporated in 1899 to 
Acquire, lease, sell and operate electric railways and other 
utilities. The original capital stock was $1,500,000. In 
September, 1905, it was reduced to $900,000, the stockhold- 
ers voting to cancel the stock bought in by the company. 
In September, 1906, it was further reduced to $700,000 by 
similar action and again in December, 1908, a reduction to 
$500,000 was authorized to be made by retiring shares 
owned by the company and by purchase of shares not over 
par. An initial dividend of 10 per cent was paid out of 
surplus earnings in September, 1909; in 1910 14 per cent 
and in 191 1 9 per cent were similarly paid out of surplus 
earnings. In 1912, and thus far this year, regular dividends 
have been paid by the company quarterly at the rate of 4 
per cent per year. 

Southern Power Company, Charlotte, N. C. — The South- 
ern Public Utilities Company, a subsidiary of the Southern 
Power Company, has taken over the Anderson Water, 
Light & Power Company, Anderson, S. C, and Z. V. Tay- 
lor, president of the Charlotte Eiectric Railway, one of the 
Southern Power Company properties, has been elected 
president of the Anderson Water, Light & Power Com- 

Washington (D. C.) Utilities Company. — The Public 

Utility Commission of Washington, D. C, has decided that 
the Washington Utilities Company can hold the $2,900,000 
worth of Washington Railway & Electric Company stock 
under the anti-merger law, but the commission has refused 
to approve an issue of $10,000,000 of bonds because the 
Washington Utilities Company has acquired or seeks to 
acquire more than 20 per cent of the common and preferred 
stock of the Washington-Virginia Railway. The Washing- 
ton Star says: "The decision of the commission will not 
prevent the Washington Utilities Company from presenting 
a new bond issue plan which will not take into account the 
stock of the Washington-Virginia Railway, more than 20 
per cent of which, the commission holds, is held by the 
corporation in violation of the anti-merger act. At the 
recent hearing before the commission, officials of the Wash- 
ington Utilities Company stated that that concern, prior to 
trie going into effect of the anti-merger law, owned a large 
amount of the stock of the Washington Railway & Elec- 
tric Company. A sufficient number of shares of this stock 
subsequently were disposed of to reduce the holdings of 
the company to less than 20 per cent, the limit fixed by 
the anti-merger act, it was stated. It was further con- 
tended by the corporation representatives that Congress 
did not contemplate that no stocks or bonds of a local 
public utility could be held by another foreign or local pub- 
lic utility corporation, the provisions of paragraph 54 of the 
act being cited in support of this contention. It was learned 
that officials of the corporation already have taken up in- 
formally consideration of a new plan for financing the im- 
mediate and future needs of the company." 

July 12, 1913.] 



Dividends Declared 

Brooklyn (N. Y.) City Railroad, quarterly, 2 per cent. 

Chicago (111.) Railways, 6 per cent, participating certifi- 
cates, series one; 4 per cent, participating certificates, series 

Commonwealth Power, Railway & Light Company, Grand 
Rapids, Mich., quarterly, i l / 2 per cent, preferred; quarterly, 
1 per cent, common. 

Green & Coates Streets Passenger Railway, Philadelphia, 
Pa., quarterly, $1.50. 

Kentucky Securities Corporation, Lexington, Ky., quar- 
terly, i l / 2 per cent, preferred. 

Lewiston, Augusta & Waterville Street Railway, Lewis- 
ton, Maine, quarterly, per cent, preferred. 

Mexico (Mex.) Tramways, quarterly, i$i per cent. 

Middlesex & Boston Street Railway, Newtonville, Mass., 
4 per cent. 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Company, Milwau- 
kee, Wis., quarterly, ij^ per cent, preferred. 

West Penn Traction Company, Connellsville, Pa., quar- 
terly, iy 2 per cent, preferred. 

West Penn Traction & Water Power Company, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., quarterly, i]/ 2 per cent, preferred. 

Youngstown & Ohio River Railroad, Leetonia, Ohio, 
quarterly, three-fourths of 1 per cent, preferred. 



Gross Operating Net Fixed Net 

Period Earnings Expenses Earnings Charges Surplus 

lm., May, '13 $168,721 '$105, 3S0 $63,341 $33,226 $30,114 

1 " " '12 159,362 '98,089 61,173 30,966 30,207 

12 13 1,770,937 '1,061,547 709,390 355,288 354,102 

12" " '12 1,664,062 *985,948 678,114 348,036 330,078 


lm., May, '13 $10S,624 $62,528 $46,096 $31,589 $14,507 

1 12 100,774 57,921 42,854 30,638 12.216 

5 13 463,557 293.572 169,986 155,804 14,182 

5 12 435,701 271,021 164,681 151,604 13,077 


lm., May, '13 $1,172,683 $770,082 $402,556 $179,567 $222,989 

1 12 995,581 600,362 395,218 175,635 219,583 

5" " '13 5,208,515 3,441,855 1,766,660 896,862 869,798 

5 " " '12 4,445,499 2,826,804 1,618,696 889,852 728,844 


lm. May, *13 $79,475 $26,771 $52,702 $24,111 $28,591 

1" " '12 71,392 30,470 40.921 18,209 22,712 

5" " '13 363,329 124,341 239,099 120,533 118,555 

5" " '12 314,624 129,103 185,521 91,252 94,269 


lm„ May, '13 $2/9,993 $167,697 $112,295 $58,131 $54,164 

1" " '12 255,104 142,804 112,299 43,821 68,478 

5" " '13 1,205,720 750,103 455,616 284,500 171,116 

5" " '12 1,100,375 638,341 462,033 219,108 242,925 


lm., April, '13 $13,701 '$14,088 $387 $7,339 t$7,726 


12 ' 
12 ' 



f 16,264 


7,131 230 
87,276 6.871 
83,289 14,530 

lm., Aprih '13 $689,941 *$414,102 $275,839 $171,728 $104,111 
1 12 969,409 *393,186 276,223 164,898 111,325 
12" " '13 8,320.185 *4,865.208 3,454.977 2,011,187 1,443,790 
12" " '12 


lm., April, '13 $66,378 '$43,687 $22,689 $22,553 $136 

1 12 60,721 *44,763 15,958 15,953 5 

12" " '13 776,153 '564,357 211,795 211,289 506 

12 12 717,590 '529,791 187,799 186.667 1,132 

lm., May, '13 $98,836 '$61,337 $37,499 $20,198 $17,301 

1 12 94,248 '57,618 36,630 19,710 16,920 

12" " '13 1,210,026 *683,796 526,230 238,224 288,006 
12" " '12 1,137,216 *687,325 449,891 232,882 217,009 

lm., April, '13 $60,181 '$33,105 $27,075 $4,551 $22,524 


12 1 

12 ' 





4.262 23,956 
54,810 311,337 
57,671 267,609 


lm., May, '13 
1 12 

5" " '13 

5" *' '12 

$742,1 53 $356,946 $385,207 

690 630 331,905 358,725 

3,476,037 1,802,983 1,673,053 

3,233,703 1,712,753 1,520,950 

$149,905 $235,301 

143.079 215,646 

733,186 936,867 

712,395 808,554 

Traffic and Transportation 

Brooklyn Company's Medical Inspection Bureau Made 

"Includes taxes. tDeficit. 

The Brooklyn (N. Y.) Rapid Transit System has made 
permanent the medical inspection bureau which was organ- 
ized and put on a temporary basis in December, 1912, to 
provide free medical attendance to the operating employees 
of the system and compulsory medical inspection prelim- 
inary to sick excuse. This bureau, conducted by physicians 
directly in the employ of the company, has made a record 
in the past six months in the reduction of the sick list 
on the system. 

The idea of establishing a medical inspection service for 
the purpose just described grew out of an examination of 
the company's welfare system which T. S. Williams, presi- 
dent of the company, began in the fall of 191 1. It ap- 
peared in the course of this examination that material 
variations existed between the different depots and ter- 
minals in the treatment of sick excuses, and that these vari- 
ations responded more or less to local conditions and were 
subject to a large extent to the individual determination of 
assistant superintendents in charge of the various operating 

There had also grown up in the operating department a 
custom to report sick when men wanted time off for recre- 
ation, and from this evasion of the letter of the law in the 
matter of sick excuses a tendency was observed to justify 
other evasions of operating requirements. Therefore the 
proposal to establish a medical inspection bureau was ad- 
vanced, based fundamentally on the following propositions: 

First — If a man is sick, it is contrary to the interests of 
the company, as well as the man, that he should be re- 
'quired to work. 

Second — The proper individual to determine a condition 
of sickness or health is not an operating official but a 

Third — When a man is excused on account of illness it is 
quite as important that his recovery for work should be 
certified as his original sick excuse. 

Fourth — A proper amount of time off should be allowed 
for recreation, but recreative excuses should be granted as 
such and not under guise of sick excuse. 

A study of conditions on the system and of the medical 
records of the benefit association whose members had re- 
ceived free medical attendance from the association's phy- 
sician when they asked for it resulted in a plan put into 
effect on Dec. 20, 1912, by which the medical inspection 
bureau came into existence. Dr. H. H. Stearns, the chief 
physician of the employees' benefit association, was placed 
in charge of the bureau. Medical inspection offices were 
established at East New York and at Thirty-ninth Street 
and Fifth Avenue, in South Brooklyn, at which physicians 
were present during certain hours of the day to conduct 
examinations. Dr. Stearns' headquarters in Brooklyn was 
availed of for consultation calls at hours other than those 
of the inspection offices, and a routine was laid down which 
very briefly may be described as follows: 

When a man reports sick at his depot or terminal he re- 
ceives an excuse card which entitles him to go to the 
nearest examination office at the next office hour to have 
his ailment diagnosed. The doctor at the inspection office 
examines him and either excuses him indefinitely, excuses 
him for a limited period, as in cases of minor ailments, or, 
in the event that it appears that the man is feigning illness, 
orders him to report back to his depot, where discipline is 

In case a man is excused indefinitely, he receives treat- 
ment during his illness at home or at the doctor's office, 
as the case may be, and upon recovery receives a certifi- 
cate saying when he is required to report back for work. 
He then resumes his run in the regular course. 

In case a man reports ill from his house and is not able 
to go to his depot, the depot notifies the headquarters of the 
medical inspection bureau, and within six hours a doctor 
calls at the man's house and issues an excuse card under 
the same conditions described above, or in the event of 
feigned illness orders him back to work. If a man is ex- 
cused for a limited time and is unable to return to work at 

8 4 


[Vol. XLII. No. 2. 

the expiration of that time, he reports sick at his depot or 
from his house again and receives a new excuse card, after 
which the same routine is followed. This system, accom- 
panied by constant exchange of information between the 
medical bureau and various depots and terminals, has 
worked, almost without a hitch, to the accomplishment of 
a very substantial reduction in the days of work lost on 
account of illness in the first six months of 1913 as com- 
pared with the first six months of 1912. 

In that period of 1912 the aggregate sick list represented 
the loss of 44,459 days' work among approximately 9000 
operating employees of the system, whereas in the six 
months ended June 30, 1913, the aggregate time lost on ac- 
count of sickness was 34,148 days' work — a gain of 10,311 
days' work, or 23 per cent of the entire sick list for the 
first six months of 1912. 

The observation of the physicians in charge of the medi- 
cal inspection work, entirely confirmed by the record of the 
last six months, indicates that the gain in the sick list is 
due not t to a reduction in the total number of cases reported 
sick but to a reduction of the time lost by men who are 
sick — in other words, a shortening of the period of illness. 
Prior to the establishment of the medical bureau, Dr. 
Stearns and his assistants were providing medical attend- 
ance as asked for to about 7000 members of the benevolent 
association. The number of calls, office and house, answered 
by the doctors, exclusive of the examination period at the 
two medical inspection bureaus, was approximately double 
in the first six months of 1913, when about 9000 men were 
under attendance, the number of calls answered in the cor- 
responding period of 1912. 

In a circular to employees dated July 1 J. F. Calderwood, 
vice-president and general manager of the company, an- 
nounced the permanent establishment of the medical bu- 
reau. Commenting upon the results attained, he said: 

'The result is highly satisfactory from the point of view of 
the company because it means more consistent and efficient 
operation of the lines. It is equally fortunate from the 
point of view of the men who operate these lines because 
every day's sickness saved not only represents a gain in 
health and comfort but it means a gain in earning capacity. 
The public, in whose interest the system is operated, also 
shares largely in the achievement, for the satisfactory oper- 
ation of our lines is in no small degree dependent upon 
the standard of health which we are able to maintain. 

"So far as is consistent with operating requirements, the 
officials of the operating department have endeavored, in 
connection with the work of the medical inspection bureau 
during the past six months, to make systematic provision 
for excuses from work for the purpose of recreation. This 
effort will be continued. But all employees should remem- 
ber that the first consideration in such a system as ours is 
to meet the demands of the public for service, and that on 
such days as Saturdays, Sundays and holidays, when the 
public requires the operation of the maximum amount of 
equipment, application should not be made for excuses for 
purely recreative purposes. 

"The all-important thing in making the operation of the 
medical inspection bureau as satisfactory permanently as it 
has been during the last six months is co-operation between 
the management and the men in living up to the spirit of 
the plan under which the bureau has been established. The 
management has every reason to believe that the employees 
of the operating department will continue to co-operate in 
this matter as they have done during the six months 
ended June 30, 1913." 

The company plans to widen the usefulness of the medi- 
cal inspection bureau. Dr. Stearns is studying the facili- 
ties offered for first aid to the injured in the shops, power 
houses, depots and terminals of the company and will in 
the near future arrange for systematic instruction at these 
operating centers in first-aid treatment. The medical in- 
spection bureau also proposes systematically to follow up 
cases in which men have been admitted to service suffer- 
ing from some minor ailment not severe enough to warrant 
their rejection from employment but detracting from their 
general state of health. It is planned to chart such cases 
upon original examination for employment and require the 
men to report to the physicians of the medical bureau and 
to remain under treatment until they receive a certificate 
of health. 

Philadelphia Co-operative Plan Indorsed 

The motormen and conductors in the employ of the Phil- 
adelphia (Pa.) Rapid Transit Company voted on July 7 in 
favor of continuing in force for another year the Mitten 
co-operative plan adopted in November, 191 1, under which 
22 per cent of the gross receiptr of the company is set aside 
to pay the wages of the motormen and conductors. The 
vote was 4320 in favor of the plan as compared with 2028 
against it. In Co-operative Bulletin 19, dated July I, 1913, 
in which the announcement in regard to the election was 
made, T. E. Mitten, chairman of the executive committee 
of the company, called attention to the large advance in 
wages and general improvement in the relations between 
the men and the management that has taken place under 
the co-operative plan. Referring to the new wage scale 
effective that day, ranging from 24 cents an hour for new 
men to 29 cents for five-year men, it is shown that the max- 
imum pay has been raised 6 cents an hour under the present 
management. Men holding regular runs are guaranteed 
against reduction during the re-routing now going on. New 
regular men are guaranteed $2.25 per day, Sundays excepted. 
Extra men are guaranteed $12 per week. Mr. Mitten also 
repeated the assurance that on Sept. 1 there will be another 
wage raise, putting new men at 25 cents and five-year men 
at 30 cents. A striking result of the co-operative plan has 
been the great reduction that has taken place in the number 
of dismissals. Discharge is now the last resort in admin- 
istering discipline. Dismissals for a number of years, ended 
May 31, compare as follows: 


. . 1287 
.. 1374 
.. 2038 
. . 1075 


.. 2376 
.. 1635 

Schenectady Railway Ordered to Reduce Round-Trip 
and Commutation Fares. 

The Public Service Commission of the Second District of 
New York has issued an order directing the Schenectady 
Railway to reduce its round-trip and commutation fares 
between Ballston Lake and Schenectady. Commissioner 
Hodson says that the fare charged by the company be- 
tween the lake and Schenectady "is unfair and unreason- 
able and should be reduced." The commissioner believes 
the single fare is satisfactory on the present zone basis, 
and should not be disturbed. An order has been entered 
embodying the following reductions in fares: 

First, that beginning July 15, 1913, the company shall sell 
a round-trip ticket upon its railroad between its station at 
Ballston Lake and any station in Schenectady, either way, 
at the regular rate and price of 25 cents for the round trip 
between such points, said round-trip ticket to be sold at its 
offices in Schenectady and at Ballston Lake. 

Second, that beginning July 15, 1913, the company shall 
sell a monthly commutation ticket upon its railroad be- 
tween any point in Schenectady and Ballston Lake at a 
rate and price of $5.40, good for twenty-seven round trips 
between Ballston Lake and Schenectady, either way, within 
the month of its issue, such tickets to be sold at all times 
after July 10, 1913. 

Third, that beginning Sept. 1, 1913, the company shall 
sell a monthly school commutation ticket upon its railroad 
between any point in Schenectady and Ballston Lake at the 
rate and price of $4.60, good for twenty-three round trips 
between those points within the month of its issue. The 
company is requested to notify the commission on or be- 
fore July 10 of its acceptance of the order. 

Ruling in Regard to Indianapolis-Louisville Shipments. — 

The interurban electric railways which operate between 
Louisville, Ky., and Indianapolis, Ind., were ordered on 
July 9 by the Interstate Commerce Commission to estab- 
lish through routes and joint rates on less-than-carload 
shipments between the two terminal cities and to inter- 
mediate points. Specific class rates are prescribed by the 

Accident Report of United Railroads of San Francisco. — 

The United Railroads, San Francisco, Cal., filed on June 
30 its reports of accidents covering the three months which 

July 12, 1913.I 



ended on March 31. It shows six fatalities and a total of 
280 injuries of all characters. One of the fatal accidents 
was reported to have been due to a car collision, two to 
collisions between cars and automobiles, one to a collision 
with a wagon and one to a leap from a moving car, while 
the sixth victim, a boy, was fatally hurt through having 
skated against a moving car. 

Accident in Ogden Canyon. — Five persons were probably 
fatally injured and more than twenty-five others received 
serious hurts on July 4 in a head-on collision in the Ogden 
Canyon between two cars of the Ogden (Utah) Rapid 
Transit Company, each drawing trailers. P. D. Kline, 
general manager of the company, was quoted by the Salt 
Lake Tribune in its issue of July 5 as follows: "All of the 
men who were not injured in the accident are busy getting 
the cars in operation again and I have made no effort as 
yet to place the responsibility." 

New High-Speed Service Between Newark and Trenton. — 
The Public Service Railway, Newark, N. J., has established 
a new high-speed through service between Newark and 
Trenton, cars leaving either terminal on the hour, the first 
car at 6 a. m. and the last at 9 p. m. The cars from Newark 
follow the route of the Elizabeth car to the arch in Eliza- 
beth and proceed down South Broad Street and over Bay 
Way and through a private right-of-way for 12 miles to 
Bonhamtown. Thence the regular route is used through 
New Brunswick and Milltown, after which a private right- 
of-way is used to Trenton. 

Officials and Directors Charged with Manslaughter. — 
Fifteen prominent officials and directors of the Metropolitan 
West Side Elevated Railway and the Aurora, Elgin & Chi- 
cago Railroad, Chicago, 111., have been arrested on a charge 
of manslaughter. This proceeding arises from an accident 
which occurred recently when an automobile was struck by 
a train and two persons were killed. The arrests were 
' made in accordance with a finding of the coroner's jury. 
The officials and directors who were arrested were forced 
to remain several hours in the Criminal Court building, but 
were finally released on bonds of $5, 000 each. 

I. C. C. Decision on New Haven Commutation Rates. — 
The Interstate Commerce Commission decided on July 9 
that the existing scale of commutation passenger fares of 
the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad from 
points in Connecticut to New York City was not unreason- 
able, generally, although certain stations were found to be 
unjustly discriminated against. The commission held it to 
be discriminatory against Connecticut commuters for th,e 
company to refuse to sell them reduced rate fifty-trip 
family tickets, while such tickets are sold by the road be- 
tween New York City and all points situated within New 
York State. 

Kansas Commission Reserves Decision in Transfer Case. 
— The Public Utilities Commission of Kansas has reserved 
its decision after hearing testimony relative to the transfer 
system maintained by the Metropolitan Street Railway and 
the Kansas City- Western Railway. The demand is for the 
interchange of transfers between the two roads. The Kan- 
sas City-Western Railway has a stub line known as the 
"Kensington Branch," running through the western part 
of the city. A 5-cent fare is charged and no transfer is 
given. The city contends that transfers should be ex- 
changed between this line and the Metropolitan Street 

Passes Ordered Abolished in Washington. — As the re- 
sult of an opinion submitted by Corporation Counsel E. H. 
Thomas to the effect that the issuance of free passes in 
the District of Columbia is prohibited by the new utilities 
act, the Public Service Commission has issued an order 
practically abolishing the use of passes on the electric rail- 
ways in the District. Street railways will be permitted to 
provide their own employees with free transportation. The 
only other exception to the ruling is the case of persons 
who have contracts for placing advertising in cars. The 
prohibition also will apply to them, however, upon the ex- 
piration of the present contracts. 

Welfare Program of Lehigh Valley Transit Company. — 
On July 4 the Lehigh Valley Transit Company, through R. 
P. Stevens, president, announced an extensive plan of in- 
surance, sick benefits and pensions financed entirely by the 

company. The plan affects all employees of the company 
and employees also of the Lehigh Valley Light & Power 
Company. The plan includes the payment of $200 death 
benefits, the payment of $1 per day in case of illness and 
retirement at $20 per month after twenty-five years' serv- 
ice with the companies. The plan also contains provisions 
for social affairs for the employees and their families and 
for free medical and surgical treatment under certain con- 

Part of Accident Payment Returned.— The Louisviile 
Railway reports that a recipient of damages for injuries 
suffered while riding on one of its cars returned part of 
the money on the ground that the amount paid was ex- 
cessive. The person injured was a woman prominent in 
church and charity work in Louisville. After the accident, 
which it appeared was due to negligence on the part of 
employees, the legal department recommended a settle- 
ment without trial for $2,000, which was paid. Recently the 
lady in question presented a check for $750 to the com- 
pany with the explanation that her injuries were not as seri- 
ous as she feared they would be, and that the cost of 
medical services was also less. She believed that $1,250 
was the amount to which she was justly entitled. 

Free Transportation for Policemen and Firemen in Perth 
Amboy.— As a result of an order of the Board of Public 
Utility Commissioners of New Jersey which went into ef- 
fect on June 12, 1-913, the Public Service Railway which 
operates in Perth Amboy, N. J., must furnish free trans- 
portation within the city limits to all policemen and paid 
firemen while on duty. It was held by the board that noth- 
ing exists in the state laws to abrogate the city ordinances 
requiring such free transportation, as was claimed by the 
railway company. Evidence showed that the policemen of 
Perth Amboy might be on duty while not in uniform, and 
it in this case free carriage was denied to them the com- 
pany would fail to observe the ordinances in question. How 
the company is to determine just when a man is "on duty" 
and the obligation of free carriage is incumbent on it the 
hoard did not state, but it did say that if it sets up tests, 
such as that of uniform, which work to violate its obliga- 
tions under the franchise, it would become liable therefor. 

Extension of Co-operative Buying in Philadelphia.— The 
board of trustees of the co-operative beneficial association 
organized among the employees of the Philadelphia (Pa.) 
Rapid Transit Company has approved contracts with addi- 
tional merchants who are now authorized to accept coupons 
from members of the association in payment of goods 
thereby opening up forty-two additional places at which 
cash coupons of the association will be accepted the 
same as though the cash itself was used in payment -for 
goods. A revised list of merchants has been published 
covering more than 100 stores now open to the patronage 
of the members of this association. Under the contracts 
which the company has with the stores included in the list 
the merchants agree to accept, in payment of purchases 
cash coupons of the co-operative beneficial association at 
the face or purchasing value, the cash coupon books being 
sold by the association to its members at a discount of 8 
per cent. 

Illinois Valley Wonderland.— The Chicago. Ottawa & 
Peoria Railway, Joliet, 111., has issued a booklet descrip- 
tive of its lines entitled "Illinois Valley Wonderland." The 
booklet contains twenty-four pages and cover and is pro- 
fusely illustrated. The cover is in colors and is especially 
decorated to symbolize the country as it was in its primi- 
tive state. It shows the view from Starved Rock, where the 
fllmi Indians made their last stand. All of the historic 
territory thereabouts has been purchased by the State Of 
Illinois for a public park and is being preserved in all its 
pristine splendor. The Chicago, Ottawa & Peoria Railway 
is the only means of direct transportation to the park 
and the trip to the park is made down the famous Iliim trail 
through the Valley of the Illinois. The text of the book- 
let, which is by Edward C. Clark, contains besides a general 
description of the territory served by the lines of the com- 
pany brief descriptions of Joliet, Ottawa, Morris, Seneca and 
other cities on the line. A page at the back of the booklet 
is devoted to the subject of passenger rates and special cars 
to Starved Rock. On the outside of the back cover there 
is a map of the territory served by the company's line 



[Vol. XLII, No. 2. 

Personal Mention 

Mr. O. P. Davis, assistant superintendent of the South- 
ern division of the Pacific Electric Railway, Los Angeles, 
Cal., has been advanced to the position of superintendent 
of that division, to succeed Mr. F. T. Annable. 

Mr. S. E. Wilson, chief dispatcher of the Pacific Electric 
Railway, Los Angeles, Cal., has been appointed assistant 
superintendent of the Southern division, to fill the va- 
cancy created by the promotion of Mr. O. P. Davis. 

Mr. R. P. Stevens, president of the Lehigh Valley Transit 
Company. Alientown, Pa., has been elected president of 
the Easton (Pa.) Consolidated Electric Company, which 
has been taken over by the Lehigh Valley Transit Com- 

Mr. William E. Leffingwell, Watkins, N. Y., has been 
nominated by Governor Sulzer as a member of the Public 
Service Commission of the Second District of New Y ork to 
succeed Mr. Frank W. Stevens. Mr. Leffingwell is a hotel 

Prof. E. A. Hitchcock has resigned from the department 
of mechanical engineering of the Ohio State University at 
Columbus to become consulting engineer for the E. W. 
Clark Management Corporation, Philadelphia, Pa. He will 
make his headquarters at Columbus. 

Mr. F. L. Annable, formerly superintendent of the South- 
ern division of the Pacific Electric Railway, Los Angeles, 
Cal., has been appointed superintendent of the Northern 
division of the company, to succeed Mr. J. C. McPherson, 
whose appointment to the Southern Pacific Company was 
noted recently in the Electric Railway Journal. 

Mr. Z. V. Taylor, president of the Charlotte (N. C.) 
Electric Railway, one of the Southern Power Company 
properties, has been elected president of the Anderson 
Water, Light & Power Company, Anderson, S. C, which 
has been taken over by the Southern Public Utilities Com- 
pany, a subsidiary of the Southern Power Company. 

Mr. Charles J. Chase, Croton-on-the-Hudson, has been 
nominated by Governor Sulzer as a member of the Public 
Service Commission of the Second District of New York to 
succeed Mr. Curtis N. Douglas. Mr. Chase has been in 
the employ of the New York Central & Hudson River Rail- 
road for more than twenty years as a locomotive engineer. 

Mr. F. A. Nims, who has been secretary and treasurer 
of the Muskegon Traction & Lighting Company, Muskegon, 
Mich., has been elected president of the company to suc- 
ceed Mr. John T. Young, who has been elected vice-presi- 
dent, general manager and a director of the Grand Rapids 
(Mich.) Gas Light Company. Mr. Young has been elected 
vice-president of the Muskegon Traction & Lighting Com- 

Gen. George H. Harries, president of the American 
Electric Railway Association and an officer of several pub- 
lic utility properties controlled by H. M. Byllesby & Com- 
pany, has been elected president of the Louisville Gas & 
Electric Company, chartered in Kentucky as a consolida- 
tion of the Louisville (Ky.) Gas Company and four other 
utility companies. Mr. H. M. Byllesby is chairman of the 
board of the new company. 

Mr. T. W. Shelton has been appointed general superin- 
tendent of the Kankakee & Urbana Traction Company, 
Urbana, 111., a newly created position with the company. 
Mr. Shelton was formerly master mechanic of the Fort 
Dodge, Des Moines & Southern Railroad, Fort Dodge, la., 
and previous to that was connected with the Indianapolis, 
Columbus & Southern Traction Company. He was also 
connected with the Northern Ohio Traction & Light Com- 
pany, Akron, Ohio, the Fort Wayne & Springfield Railway, 
Decatur, Ind., and the Peoria (111.) Railway. 

Mr. William F. Woerner has been appointed the fifth 
member of the Public Utilities Commission of Missouri by 
Governor Major. For several years Mr. Woerner has been 
identified with municipal affairs, having been associate city 
counselor during the administration of Mayor Rolla Wells. 
He was the Democratic nominee for Mayor in 1909. Mr. 
Woerner has been rather prominent in Democratic politics 
since 1898, when he was a candidate for probate judge. He 

served as police commissioner for one month under Gov- 
ernor Dockery. He served two years as associate city 
counselor and was later appointed by Mayor Wells to revise 
the ordinances of St. Louis. Mr. Woerner holds the chair 
of "wills and administration" at St. Louis University school 
of law. 

Mr. Albert Benham, formerly assistant general manager 
of the Ohio Electric Railway, Springfield, Ohio, who has 
been appointed general manager of the company, was born 
in Ohio in 1868. He entered railway work with the Fifth 
Avenue Cable Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., in 1891, and con- 
tinued in the service of that company and the Consolidated 
Traction Company, Pittsburgh, in various departments, 
until January, 1901, when he became identified with the 
Cincinnati (Ohio) Traction Company, acting in the ca- 
pacity of inspector and assistant general superintendent 
until March, 1906, at which time he was appointed general 
superintendent of the Indiana, Columbus & Eastern Trac- 
tion Company, with headquarters at Columbus, Ohio. In 
1908 he was appointed assistant general manager of the 
Ohio Electric Railway. 

Mr. R. E. Lee, whose resignation as general superintend- 
ent of the Cincinnati (Ohio) Traction Company to become 
connected with the Firestone Rubber & Tire Company. 
Akron, Ohio, was noted in the Electric Railway Journal 
of July 5, 1913, began his street railway career in February, 
1886, as a conductor on one of the horse car lines of the 
Baltimore (Md.) City Passenger Railway. After serving in 
various capacities with this company he was appointed di- 
vision superintendent in October, 1894, and remained in 
that position until April, 1899, when he became connected 
with the Washington Railway & Electric Company, Wash- 
ington, D. C., as general superintendent. He resigned from 
the Washington Railway & Electric Company in April, 
1903, to become general superintendent of the Cincinnati 
Traction Company, which position he will relinquish on 
July 15. 

Mr. William McClellan, who resigned a short time ago as 
chief and engineer of the division of light, heat and power 
of the Public Service Commission of the Second District, 
has been retained as assistant to the president of the Buf- 
falo (N. Y.) General Electric Company. Mr. McClellan was 
educated at the University of Pennsylvania and is a member 
of the council of the University of Pennsylvania Club of 
New York City and president of the Associated "Pennsyl- 
vania" Clubs, an organization of the alumni associations of 
the University of Pennsylvania in all parts of the world. 
He is a member of the Railroad Club of New York, of the 
Engineers' Club of New York City and of the University 
Club of Albany. He is a fellow and manager of the Ameri- 
can Institute of Electrical Engineers and a member of the 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers. He is a direc- 
tor of the Automatic Train Stop Company and of the Cam- 
pion McClellan Company, engineer and constructor, with 
offices at Philadelphia. Mr. McClellan will establish offices 
in New York City and will assist in the operation and man- 
agement of public service properties. 

Mr. J. F. Rodgers has been appointed superintendent of 
track of the Chicago (111.) City Railway to succeed Mr. 
W. F. Graves, whose resignation was mentioned in the 
Electric Railway Journal for May 24. Mr. Rodgers was 
graduated from Tuscarora Academy in 1893. He then en- 
tered Pennsylvania State College. After leaving college he 
began work as assistant engineer with the Pennsylvania 
Traction Company, Lancaster, Pa. In 1898 he was made 
superintendent of construction of the Tennis Construction 
Company, Philadelphia. While in the employ of this com- 
pany Mr. Rodgers ha'd charge of the construction of the 
Williamsport & Montoursville line, now a part of the Mon- 
toursville Passenger Railway, Williamsport, Pa., and the 
line between Trenton and Bordentown, N. J. In 1899 he 
was made manager of the Philadelphia, Bristol & Trenton 
Street Railway, Philadelphia, Pa., following which he ac- 
cepted a position with the transportation department of the 
North Jersey Street Railway Company, Jersey City, N. J. 
During the time he was there Mr. Rodgers served in various 
positions and was finally made assistant superintendent of 
one of the lines. In 1904 Mr. Rodgers accepted the position 
of assistant engineer with the United Railroads, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal., where he was engaged in rehabilitation work 



H. C. Hazzard 

before and after the earthquake and fire. In July, 1907, he 
accepted a position as assistant engineer on the Board of 
Supervising Engineers, Chicago Traction. The following 
year he was made field engineer in charge of track and 
roadway construction, in which position he remained until 
January, 1913, when he was appointed engineer of track 
and roadway. 

Mr. H. C. Hazzard, who has been elected permanent sec- 
retary of the Pacific Coast Electric Railway Association 
with offices in the Electric Building, Portland, Ore., was 
graduated from Leland 
Stanford, Jr., University 
with the degree of A. B. and 
from Columbia University 
with the degree of LL. B. 
He was admitted to the 
New York State bar in 
1899 and the following 
year began the practice of 
law in New York City as 
the junior partner of the 
firm of Thompson & Haz- 
zard. In 1905, when, as the 
result of the legislative in- 
vestigation into the gas 
rates charged by the Con- 
solidated Gas Company, 
New York, the State Com- 
mission of Gas and Elec- 
tricity was established, Mr. 

Hazzard was appointed secretary of the commission and 
held that position until Mr. Charles E. Hughes became Gov- 
ernor and the New York State Public Service Commissions 
superseded the Gas Commission, Railroad Commission and 
Rapid Transit Commission. Mr. Hazzard then announced 
his intention of retiring from public office and returning to 
the practice of law, but was prevailed upon by the mem- 
bers of the Public Service Commission of the Second Dis- 
trict of New York to organize and become executive head 
of the division of light, heat and power of the commission. 
During the five years he served in this capacity his work 
was not confined to that of routine supervision over the 
gas and electrical matters immediately under the jurisdic- 
tion of that division, out concerned the wide responsibilities 
relating to fundamentals of all utilities over which the com- 
mission had supervision. The legal as well as the execu- 
tive character of his work enabled Mr. Hazzard to become 
acquainted with problems confronting governmental regu- 
lation and the difficulties with which the public utilities 
have to contend. Following the ideas of Governor Hughes, 
.he Legislature of California enacted, to take effect March 
23, 1912, an act enlarging the powers and jurisdiction of 
the then existing railroad commission, and in the same 
month of that year Mr. Hazzard resigned from the Public 
Service Commission of New York to become assistant at- 
torney of the State Railroad of California and continued in 
that capacity up to the time he accepted the position of 
permanent secretary of the Pacific Coast Electric Railway 

A new workmen's compensation act, approved by Gov- 
ernor McGovern of Wisconsin, which goes into effect on 
Sept. 1, provides that every employer of four or more per- 
sons will be subject to the provisions of the act, unless 
he specifically elects otherwise. The benefit to injured 
employees or their dependents remains almost unchanged, 
the chief exceptions being in the case of workmen per- 
manently disabled, in which event the compensation is ex- 
tended six years from the date of the injury. The new act 
abrogates the defense of contributory negligence. The act 
of 1911 abolished only the two defenses of assumption of 
risk and negligence of a fellow servant. The provision 
under which employers automatically will come under the 
law unless they elect to the contrary will affect approx- 
imately 2000 employers in the State, 1500 employers hav- 
ing already come under the law. The new act contains 
provisions of considerable importance to contractors, who 
are made liable for injuries to employees of sub-contractors. 
Special provision is made, however, for the contractor to 
protect himself against losses. A new section requires all 
employers to carry insurance unless specially exempted. 

Construction News 

Construction News Notes are classified under each head- 
ing alphabetically by States. 

An asterisk (*) indicates a project not previously re- 

*Minnesota Central Railway, Brainerd, Minn. — Applica- 
tion for a charter has been made by this company in Minne- 
sota to build an electric railway to connect Brainerd, Iron- 
ton, Crosby, Cuyuna, Deerwood and other towns on the 
North Cuyuna range, and with Barrows, on the south 
range. Capital stock, $250,000. Incorporators: Joseph 
Ferrier, Duluth; George Reid, William F. Henry and John 
Hill, Ironton and Duluth. 

*Niobrara, Sioux City & Omaha Railway, Omaha, Neb. — 

Application for a charter has been made by this company, 
which proposes to build an interurban railway in Nebraska 
through the counties of Holt, Knox, Dixon, Dakota, 
Thurston, Burt, Cuming, Stanton, Antelope, Pierce, Madi- 
son, Platte, Colfax, Dodge, Washington and Douglas. The 
Baker Construction Company and the Niobrara Power 
Company, interrelated companies, have also filed articles 
of incorporation. Capital stock, $100,000. Incorporators: 
Charles Baker, Herman Buhman, Henry Ruwe, Frank 
Gelston, Chancy Snyder, John Lowery and Peter Mangold. 

*Maryville-Knoxville Interurban Railway, Knoxville, 
Tenn. — Incorporated in Tennessee to build an electric rail- 
way to connect Knoxville, Marysville, Vestal, Madisonville 
and Vestal. Capital stock, $10,000. Incorporators: Howard 
Cornick, John H. Frantz, T. G. McConnell, Charles M. 
Seymour and R. M. Mitchell. 

*Dallas, Fairfield & Gulf Railway, Fairfield, Tex.— 
Chartered in Texas to build an interurban railway to con- 
nect Dallas, Ferris, Fairfield and Jewett, a distance of 100 
miles. Capital stock, $105,000. Incorporators: T. Alex- 
ander, Teague; W. H. Miller, R. N. Compton and W. F. 
Storey, Fairfield; R. L. Harrer, W. J. Hall. Corsicanna and 
J. W. Wright, Ferris. 

Gulf, Freeport & Northern Railway, Freeport, Tex. — 
Chartered in Texas to build an 85-mile electric interurban 
railway between Freeport, Sealy, Brazoria and West Co- 
lumbia. The power plant will be located in Freeport. Capi- 
tal stock, $100,000. Incorporators: C. L. Sharp and J. H. 
Bartlett, Marshall, Tex.; R. B. Loggins, J. S. Bartlett, C. 
E. Clark and George Edwards, Columbia, Tex.; D. A. 
Barr, Freeport, Tex.; William L. Hall, C. Davis, T. C. 
Millard and C. L. Pierce, Damon, Tex. 


*Mount Pleasant, Ark.— G. Haggard Rider, Mount 
Pleasant, has received a franchise from the City Council 
to build an electric railway in Mount Pleasant. 

West Vancouver, B. C— The Pacific Great Eastern Rail- 
way has asked the City Council for a franchise to build an 
electric line between West Vancouver and Dunderave. 
Taxpayers of West Vancouver have asked the Council to 
grant the request. Work will be begun as soon as the 
permission is granted. 

Los Angeles, Cal.— The Los Angeles Railway will ask the 
City Council for a franchise to change its motive power 
from steam to electricity over Hoover Street in Los 

Santa Barbara, Cal.— The Santa Barbara & Suburban 
Railway has received a franchise from the Council to ex- 
tend its lines to the Normal School Grounds on Mission 

Solano City, Cal. — The Sacramento Valley Electric Rail- 
road has received a franchise through the Solano Irrigated 
Farms and has arranged for terminal facilities at Solano 
City. C. L. Donohue, Willows, president. [E. R. J., April 
26, '13.] 

Mount Vernon, 111.— The Mount Vernon Traction Com- 
pany has asked the City Council for a franchise in Mount 
Vernon on Broadway and Sixteenth Street, Casey Avenue 
and Twenty-fourth Street; from the south city limits on 
Tenth Street to Broadway; from Broadway on Ninth 
Street to and across Taylor Avenue, and on Pace Avenue 
and Oakland Avenue to and across Twelfth Street. 



[Vol. XLII, No. 2. 

Tisbury, Mass. — The Martha's Vineyard Street Railway 
has received permission from the Board ,of Railroad Com- 
missioners to extend its tracks in Beach Road to Tisbury 
and for location of tracks in Wamsutta Avenue, Back Alley, 
Circuit Avenue, Kedron Avenue, Siloam Avenue and Dukes 
County Avenue in Oak Bluffs. 

West Orange, N. J. — The Orange Mountain Traction 
Company has received a fifty-year franchise from the 
Council in West Orange to double-track its line from the 
Swamp Line tracks along Olaf Place to Valley Road to 
Central Avenue to the Orange line. 

Maryville, Tenn. — The Maryville-Knoxville lnterurban 
Railway, the incorporation of which is noted elsewhere in 
this issue, has asked the County Court for a franchise along 
the Maryville pike from Vestal to Stock Creek or the 
Blount County line. A similar franchise will be filed in 
Maryville for the section of the line between Maryville and 
Stock Creek. 

Jackson, Tenn. — The Jackson Railway & Light Company 
has asked the City Council for a fifty-year extension of its 
franchise in Jackson. 

Richmond, Va. — The Virginia Railway & Power Com- 
pany has received permission from the Council to extend 
its lines along Broad Street from Robinson Street to Rose- 
neath Road in Richmond. 

Anacortes, Wash. — George W. Krebs, Anacortes, has 
asked the Council for a franchise over the main streets of 
Anacortes. He agrees to have 3 miles of the line in opera- 
tion in two years. 

Parkersburg, W. Va. — The Charleston, Parkersburg & 
Northern Railroad has received permission from the Wood 
County Court for right-of-way across the county roads. 
This 47-mile electric railway will connect Parkersburg, 
Charleston and Sissonville. K. B. Stephenson, Parkersburg, 
president. [E. R. J., May 21, '13.] 


*Leeds, Ala. — Citizens of Leeds are taking steps to or- 
ganize a company to build an electric railway to connect 
Leeds and Irondale. 

Phcenix (Ariz.) Railway. — This company has been ordered 
by the Arizona Corporation Commission to double-track its 
West Washington Street line from Seventh Avenue to 
Seventeenth Avenue in Phcenix. 

Northern Electric Railway, Chico, Cal. — Construction will 
soon be begun by this company on its 50-mile line extend- 
ing from the Yuba City-Colusa line at Meridian, on the 
Sacramento River, and extending south through the Fair 
ranch to Woodland, forming a loop and giving direct con- 
nection for all points on the west side with Sacramento and 
San Francisco over the Vallejo & Northern Railway. 

Pacific Electric Railway, Los Angeles, Cal. — Paul Shoup. 
president of the Pacific Electric Railway, stated recently 
that if the rights-of-way were secured and other conditions 
complied with, the work of constructing the proposed elec- 
tric railway from Los Angeles to Santa Monica could be 
commenced within sixty days, and that the new rapid 
transit line would be a reality within fifteen or sixteen 
months. The proposed road will be 9 miles in length and 
will connect with the Eighth Street line in Santa Monica. 
Surveys will be made at once by this company for double- 
tracking its line on Lake Avenue in Pasadena. 

Stockton Terminal & Eastern Railroad, Stockton, Cal. — 
This company has placed orders for rails for its Miner 
Avenue extension in Stockton to the water frontage on the 
north side of Stockton Channel. The company has re- 
ceived a franchise to build this extension and work will be 
begun in the near future. 

Big Four Electric Railway, Tulare, Cal. — Grading of this 
railway from Tulare to Poplar, a distance of 21 miles, has 
been completed. Contracts for the rails have been let. 

Sacramento Valley West Side Electric Railway, Willows, 
Cal. — This company has arranged for the sale of $6,000,000 
of bonds at 80 and will rush construction north to Red- 
ding and from Shasta City to Eureka. C. L. Donohue. 
Willows, president. [E. R. J., April 26, '13.] 

*Buhl, Idaho. — J. Stewart Clark, Twin Falls, and asso- 
ciates plan to build an electric railway between Buhl and 
Wendell via Hagerman, a distance of 25 miles. 

Southern Traction Company of Illinois, East St. Louis, 
111. — Former United States Senator William Lorimer, of 
Illinois, head of the Lorimer-Gallagher Construction Com- 
pany, Chicago, accompanied by M. S. Gallagher, conferred 
in St. Louis recently with C. G. Young, New York, and 
others in regard to the feasibility of adopting storage 
battery cars as a part of the equipment of the Southern 
Traction Company's extension from East St. Louis to 
Belleville. The line has been graded from East St. Louis 
to the bluffs near Belleville and will be put in operation 
by Nov. r. 

Public Utilities Company, Evansville, Ind. — This company 
plans to begin work in August on the extension of the Bell 
Street line from Kentucky Avenue to Walnut Lane, near 
the gates of Woodmere. 

* Hopkins ville, Ky. — It is reported that plans are being 
made in Hopkinsville to build an electric railway in Hop- 
kinsville and extend it to surrounding towns. The names 
of the promoters have not been made public. 

Kentucky Traction & Terminal Company, Lexington, Ky. 
— This company contemplates extending its line to Rich- 
mond and has begun preliminary work. 

Iron River, Mich. — F. D. Sullivan, representing the pro- 
posed 12-mile electric railway in Iron County, states that 
surveys have been made and construction will be begun 
some time in July on the electric line from Spring Valley to 
Stambaugh and Iron River and out to the mines north of 
Iron River. Later a line will be built to Crystal Falls. 
[E. R. J., April 12, '13.] 

*Owosso, Mich. — Joseph Gibson, who with several others 
has been at work securing the right-of-way for an electric 
railway from Owosso to Corunna, states that the Michigan 
Railway Engineering Company, KalamazoG, which is build- 
ing a line from Kalamazoo to Grand Rapids, is behind the 
project. The line will eventually be extended from Owosso 
to Flint via Flushing or Durand. 

Atlantic Coast Electric Railway, Asbury Park, N. J. — 
Plans are being considered by this company to build an 
extension to Brielle 

Chautauqua Traction Company, Jamestown, N. Y. — Work 
of double-tracking this company's line to Lakewood will be 
resumed at once. 

New York State Railways, Rochester, N. Y. — This com- 
pany has placed in operation its extension on West Domi- 
nick Street from Expense Street to Charles Street in Rome. 

Yonkers (N. Y.) Railroad. — This company has awarded 
a contract to Thomas J. Crimmins & Company, New York, 
to double-track, construct additional turnouts and extend 
some of its lines in Yonkers. 

*Hickord (N. C.) Railway. — Surveys have been made by 
this company between Hickory River, Catawba Springs, 
Newton and Lincolntown. This 178-mile line will connect 
Hickory, Newton, Lincolntown, Taylorsville, Lisletown, 
Conover and Wilkesboro. M. E. Thornton, Hickory, presi- 

Toledo, Ottawa Beach & Northern Railway, Toledo, Ohio. 

— Right-of-way has been secured by this company for an 
extension of its line to Monroe, where a connection will be 
made with the Detroit, Monroe & Toledo Short Line Rail- 

Ottawa & St. Lawrence Electric Railway, Ottawa, Ont. — 

Surveys have been completed between Ottawa and Morris- 
burg, 45 miles, and grading will be begun later in the sum- 
mer by this company on its line to connect Ottawa, Morris- 
burg, Brockville and Armprior. John E. Askwith, Ottawa, 
president. [E. R. J., June 28, '13.] 

Lehigh Valley Transit Company, Allentown, Pa. — This 
company has awarded a contract to the Allen Engineering 
& Contracting Company, Netcong, N. J., for the grading of 
3 miles of track north of Quakertown, l / 2 mile at Sellersville 
and 3^ miles between Souderton and Lansdale, all on the 
Philadelphia division. Right-of-way has been secured for 
double track, but only one track will be laid this summer. 
This line is a revision of the existing line, but the present 
line is along the edge of the highway and contains numerous 
sharp curves and heavy grades. 

*Anderson, S. C. — Plans are being considered to build an 
electric railway between Clemson College and a connection 
with the Blue Ridge Railway, by which interurban trains 
could be operated between Clemson College and Anderson. 

July 12, 1913.J 



"Dallas, Tex. — J. S. Kendall and associates are said to be 
considering plans to build an electric railway through the 
Doran-Hughes property east of Dallas and near White 
Rock Lake. 

Dallas-Denton Interurban Railway, Dallas, Tex. — Pre- 
liminary surveys are being made by this company in Denton. 
This is part of a plan to build an electric line to connect 
Dallas, Denton, Carrollton, Lewisville, Grapevine and 
Irving. E. P. Turner, Dallas, is interested. [E. R. J., 
June 28, '13.] 

Texas Traction Company, Dallas, Tex. — Surveys are 
being made by this company for an extension of its Hull 
Street line into South Denison. 

Utah Light & Railway Company, Salt Lake City, Utah. — 

This company is asked to consider plans to extend its line 
to Second North Street and Main Street in Salt Lake City. 

Monongahela Valley Traction Company, Fairmont, 
W. Va. — The grading for the Lumberport extension of this 
company's line is completed and rails and overhead work 
will be finished about the time that the new bridge being 
built at Lumberport across the West Fork River is com- 
pleted. This line will extend across the new bridge and 
connect Lumberport and Haywood. 

Northfork, W. Va. — Plans are being made to build an 
electric railway between Northfork and Keystone. L. G. 
Toney, Northfork, is interested. 


Charlotte (N. C.) Electric Railway. — Material has been 
ordered and work will be begun at once by this company 
on rebuilding its carhouse in Dilworth, which was destroyed 
by fire recently. 

Scioto Valley Traction Company, Columbus, Ohio. — The 
plans of the Columbus Depot Company, which is controlled 
by the Scioto Valley Traction Company, for a modern 
fireproof terminal building have been approved by the com- 
mittee on railroads and viaducts of the City Council. The 
building will be located on property bounded by High, 
Front and Town Streets in Columbus and the company 
plans to commence construction work at an early date. 

Springfield (Ohio) Railway. — Plans are being considered 
by this company to build new carhouses and machine shops 
in Springfield. 

Bartlesville (Okla.) Interurban Railway. — This company 
has been authorized to begin at once the construction of its 
new carhouses and also to make other improvements in 
Bartlesville costing approximately $12,000. The structure 
will be 150 ft. x 40 ft. and of brick and steel construction 
and capable of holding a dozen cars. It will be constructed 
on property of the company adjoining the company's power 
house in the east section of Bartlesville. 

Salt Lake & Utah Railway, Salt Lake City, Utah.— The 
selection of the site for the joint terminal station in Salt 
Lake City of the Salt Lake & Ogden Electric Railway and 
the Salt Lake & Utah Railroad has been announced. The 
structure will be located on West Second South Street 
between West Temple and First Street and will cost $40,000. 

Fort Wayne & Northern Indiana Traction Company, Fort 
Wayne, Ind. — This company, which will build soon a 34-ft. x 
142-ft. addition to its Spy Run power house, plans to install 
two 6250-kw General Electric turbines, which will generate 
at 4000 volts, three-phase, 60-cycle. The company will also 
install two 1000-kw motor-generator sets to take care of the 
Fort Wayne city service, retaining the present station. 
Contracts have been let with the General Electric Company 
for the electrical equipment, the Worthington Company 
for the condenser apparatus, the Adams Construction Com- 
pany for the building, the Northern Engineering Works for 
the crane, and the Alberger Company for the pumps. 

Southern Traction Company, Dallas, Tex. — Work has 
been begun by this company on its new substation in 
Ennis. The structure will be 40 ft. x 50 ft. and of brick 
construction. The other substations will be built at Waxa- 
hachie, Hillsboro, Corsicana and Lisbon. The stations will 
be equipped by the General Electric Company. 

Gulf, Freeport & Northern Railway, Freeport, Tex. — This 
company plans to build its main power house in Freeport. 

Manufactures and Supplies 


Bartlesville (Ohio) Interurban Railway is in the mar- 
ket for one or more new cars. 

Charleston (W. Va.) Interurban Railroad has placed an 
order with the Jewett Car Company fur two 35-ft. inter- 
urban cars. 

Cleveland (Ohio) Railway, noted in the Electric Railway 
Journal of June 14, 1913, as expecting to purchase fifty 
cars, has ordered these cars from the G. C. Kuhlman Car 

Puget Sound Traction, Light & Power Company, Seattle, 
Wash., noted in the Electric Railway Journal of May 17, 
1913, as having ordered ten prepayment, semi-convertible 
cars from the Cincinnati Car Company, has specified the 
following details for these cars: 

Seating capacity 62 Underframe steel 

Bolster centers, length, Air brakes West. 

29 ft. o in. Bumpers, 
Length of body. .. .38 ft. 4 in. Hedley anti-climber 
Length over vestibule, Car trimmings Dayton 

48 ft. 4 in. Curtain fixtures National 

Width over sills.... 8 ft. 4 in. Curtain material ... Pantasote 

Width over all 8 ft. 8 in. Destination signs Hunter 

Height, rail to sills . 33 3/16 in. Hand brakes Peacock 

Sill to trolley base, Sanders Ohio brass 

8 ft. 6 1/16 in. Sash fixtures Edwards 

Body semi-steel Seats, style H. B. & W. 

Interior trim mahogany Seating material birch 

Headlining carline finish Step treads Mason 

Roof, type turtle-back Trucks, type Standard 

West Jersey & Seashore Railroad, Camden, N. J., noted 
in the Electric Railway Journal of June 7, 1913, as hav- 
ing ordered twenty-six 34-ft. cars from The J. G. Brill 
Company, has specified the following details: 

Seating capacity 54 Curtain fixtures .. Cur. S. Co. 

Weight (car body only), Curtain material ... Pantasote 

16,000 lb. Destination signs Hunter 

Bolster centers, length, Lifeguard H. B. 

24 ft. 6 in. Gears and pinions G. E. 

Length of body. 34 ft. 1^8 in. Gongs Dedenda 

Length over bumper, Hand brakes Brill 

45 ft. 2 in. Heaters Cons. 

Width over posts.. 8 ft. 5 in. Headlights Dayton 

Width over all 8 ft. 6 in. Journal boxes Brill 

Height, rail to sills, Motors.. G. E., outside-hung 

2 ft. 654 in. Paint Murphy 

Sill to trolley base .9 ft. oy 2 in. Sanders Ohio brass 

Body wood and metal Sash fixtures Brill 

Interior trim . oxidized bronze Seats, style ... Brill "Winner" 

Headlining maple veneer Seating material . spring cane 

Roof, type plain arch Springs Brill 

Underframe metal Step treads Universal 

Air brakes G. E. Trolley catchers or re- 
Axles hammered steel trievers Keystone 

Bumpers channel iron Trolley base U. S. 

Cables G. E. Trucks, type Brill 

Car trimmings Brill Varnish Murphy 

Conduits and junction Ventilators Brill 

boxes G. E. Wheels rolled steel 


George E. Austin, president, American General Engi- 
neering Company and Imperial Rubber Company, New 
York, N. Y., sailed for Europe this week in the interest 
of his export business. 

P. V. Martin and E. L. Adams, New York, N. Y., for- 
merly of the sales department of Waterbury & Company, 
have opened offices at 8-10 Bridge Street as manufacturers' 
agents for electrical material. 

Curtain Supply Company, Chicago, 111., has received an 
order from the Southern Pacific Company to equip eighty- 
nine of its new cars with curtains, using ring No. 88 fix- 
tures and Rex all-metal rollers. 

J. G. White Engineering Corporation and the J. G. 
White Management Corporation, New York, N. Y., both 
declared an initial dividend at rate of 7 per cent per annum 



[Vol. XLII, No. 2. 

for five months ended June 30, 1913, on preferred stock, 
payable Sept. 1, 1913, to stock of record Aug. 20. 
H. W. Johns-Manville Company, New York, N. Y., has 

recently opened a branch office at Charlotte, N. C. The 
new office, which is located in the Commercial Bank Build- 
ing, is in charge of E. U. Heslop, who is assisted in cover- 
ing the western section of North Carolina by P. J. McCus- 
ker and Paul W. Whitlock. 

The J. G. Brill Company, Philadelphia, Pa., has recently 
received an order from the Chicago Railways for 400 39-E 
trucks and another from the Nashville Railway & Light 
Company for one pair of the same type. The Charleston 
Consolidated Railway & Lighting Company has also placed 
an order for one 21-E truck. 

Van Dorn Electric Tool Company, Cleveland, Ohio, 

which was noted in the Electric Railway Journal of July 
5, I9 J 3, as having been formed to take over the portable 
tool department of the Van Dorn & Dutton Company, was 
through error said to have its main office in Chicago, 111. 
This should have been Cleveland, Ohio, as stated above. 

Siemens Company of Canada, Ltd., Montreal, Can., has 
appointed Arthur S. Herbert general manager of the branch 
offices in Australia. Mr. Herbert, who was formerly gen- 
eral manager of the company, is now in England, but will 
return to Canada for a few weeks in July, sailing for 
Australia about the end of August. He will be succeeded 
in Canada by C. A. Ablett. 

Curtain Supply Company, Chicago, 111., has received an 
order from the Southern Pacific Company to equip eighty- 
nine of its new cars with curtains, using ring No. 88 fix- 
tures and Rex all-metal rollers, and also another curtain 
order from the New York State Railway to equip the 
twenty-five new trail and the twenty-five new motor cars, 
using ring No. 89 fixtures and Rex all-metal rollers. 

Atlas Preservative Company of America, New York, 
N. Y., has received recent orders for its Atlas-A weed killer 
from the following electric railways: Fort Dodge, Des 
Moines & Southern Railroad; Elmira, Corning & Waverly 
Railroad and Northwestern Pennsylvania Railway. The 
company has also received orders for Atlas-A weed killer 
from the Pennsylvania Railroad and the Southern Railway. 

Universal Lubricating Company, Cleveland, Ohio, ha>- 
recently been reorganized in order to take better care of 
its rapidly growing business. Under the new organization 
G. W. Schofield was re-elected president and C. B. Arthur 
was elected secretary-treasurer and placed in active charge 
of sales. Edward Dreher has been appointed assistant to 
Mr. Arthur. C. B. Emery, who was formerly with the 
company, is no longer in its employ. 

Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., has sold to Kuhn, Loeb & Company an issue 
of $3,250,000 of two-year 6 per cent notes to retire a like 
amount of the $4,000,000 issue which matures on Aug. 1, 
1913. The balance will be paid off from cash now in the 
company's treasury. Since April 1, 1913, the company has 
reduced its obligations by $1,500,000. The new notes are 
to be offered to holders of the maturing issue in exchange, 
and the balance which is not taken by the present holders 
will be offered for subscription at a price around 99. 


Green Fuel Economizer Company, Matteawan, N. Y., 

has issued a leaflet entitled "Green's Conical Flow Fan." 
This leaflet illustrates and describes the company's fan or 
blower, which is of novel design. 

Ohmer Fare Register Company, Dayton, Ohio, has is- 
sued a folder describing its register and also contains a 
list of some of the companies from which new and renewal 
contracts and additional orders have been received since 
Jan. 1, 1913. 

Charles N. Wood Company, Boston, Mass., general sales 
agent for Chapman automatic signals, has issued a very 
attractive catalog describing these signals and containing a 
number of illustrations showing them in operation through- 
out the country. 

Ideal Case-Hardening Compound Company, New York, 
N. Y., has just issued for free distribution the fifth edition 
of its pamphlet on case-hardening. This is entitled "Case- 
Hardening and Heat-Treating of Steel." As its title im- 

plies, the new edition has been substantially broadened in 
scope, although the material contained in the preceding 
edition has been retained. By the addition of numerous 
practical rules and the amplification of the theoretical 
discussions, the pamphlet has been developed into prac- 
tically the form of a work of reference of exceptional 
value to every one interested in the use or fabrication of 
steel which is used in the manufacture of machinery. 

General Electric Company, Schenectady, N. Y., has issued 
Bulletins Nos. A4121, A4123, A4127 and A4129. The first 
is a revision of its bulletin on direct-current motors of the 
commutating-pole design. The next describes its auto- 
matic voltage regulators for the regulation of generation 
voltage, which are made for use with both alternating and 
direct current. The third describes its straight and auto- 
matic air-brake equipment designed for use on either single 
cars or trains of three or more. The last illustrates and 
describes in considerable detail its small feeder voltage 
regulator, which is of the pole type and is built for use 
on single-phase feeders only. It is made in two designs, 
one for outdoor installation and automatically operated 
and the other for hand operation and to be installed indoors 

Electric Service Supplies Company, Philadelphia, Pa., has 

issued a new supplement to Catalog 4, Volume 2, listing, 
describing and illustrating many new devices recently 
placed on the market. This new supplement catalog con- 
tains the first complete listing ever published of Imperial 
luminous arc head lights and parts and a full listing and 
description of Keystone car destination signs. Other new 
devices listed are the new International coin registers, 
Keystone vacuum sanders, Keystone pneumatic gong-ring- 
ing devices, Keystone trolley pick-ups, Union standard trol- 
leys, sanitary hand strap covers, Keystone cord connectors, 
Garton-Danils lightning arresters, automotoneers, Key- 
stone motorman's seats, Keystone lamp guards, Keystone 
air valves and many other devices which make it of great 
interest to operating men. The 172 pages contained in this 
book are beautifully bound in cloth. This book may be had 
by operating men whose requests may be sent to any of 
this company's offices. 

Street Railway Extensions for Chicago in 1913 

The local transportation committee of the City Council 
of Chicago, 111., has agreed on the location of the exten- 
sions to the street railway lines for 1913, and the Chicago 
City Railway and the Chicago Railways have been instruct- 
ed to build the following extensions: Chicago Railways 
Company, Western Avenue, from Lawrence Avenue to 
Bryn Mawr Avenue; Armitage Avenue, from Forty-eighth 
Avenue to Grant Avenue; Belmont Avenue, from Mil- 
waukee Avenue to Fortieth Avenue; Division Street, from 
Grand Avenue to Forty-eighth Avenue. In addition to 
these extensions this company has already been ordered 
to build the following lines: Elston Avenue, from Law- 
rence Avenue to Montrose Avenue; Harrison Street, from 
Forty-eighth Avenue to Sixtieth Avenue; Fullerton Ave- 
nue, from Fortieth Avenue to Forty-eighth Avenue. All of 
these extensions to the Chicago Railways Company total 
approximately 12.4 miles of single track. Under the 1907 
ordinance requirement, the Chicago Railways Company 
also is required to build the following extensions: Ashland 
Avenue, from Belmont Avenue to Fullerton Avenue, 2 
miles in length; Armitage Avenue, from Milwaukee Ave- 
nue to Elston Avenue, 2.4 miles in length, and Milwaukee 
Avenue, from Lawrence Avenue to the city limits, 6 miles 
in length. 

The Chicago City Railway has been instructed to build 
the following extensions this year: Forty-third Street, 
from Ashland Avenue to Kedzie Avenue, and Robey Street, 
from Forty-seventh Street to Sixty-third Street, a total, 
distance of 8 miles of single track. In addition to these 
the Chicago City Railway is required to build an extension 
on Forty-seventh Street, from Kedzie Avenue to Archer 
Avenue, a distance of 1 mile. The total mileage repre- 
sented in the foregoing extensions is 33.8 miles of single 

In addition to this construction work considerable re- 
habilitation of existing tracks will be undertaken this year 
by both companies. 

Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. XLII 


No. 3 


McGraw Publishing Company, Inc. 

James H. McGraw, President C. E. Whittlesey, Secretary and Treas. 
239 West 39th Street, New York. 

Chicago Office 1570 Old Colony Building 

Philadelphia Office Real Estate Trust Building 

European Ofi-ice. .. .Hastings House, Norfolk St., Strand, London, Eng. 

Terms of Subscription 

For 52 weekly issues, and daily convention issues published from time 
to time in New York City or elsewhere; United States, Cuba and Mexico, 
$3.00 per year; Canada, $4.50 per year; all other countries, $6.00 per year. 
Single copies, 10 cents. Foreign subscriptions may be sent to our 
European office. 

Requests for changes of address should be made one week in advance, 
giving old as well as new address. Date on wrapper indicates the month 
at the end of which subscription expires. 

Copyright, 1913, by McGraw Publishing Company, Inc. 
Entered as seoond-class matter at the post office at New York, N. Y. 

Of this issue of the Electric Railway Journal. 8000 copies are printed. 


Charles J. Chase may be a most 

APPOINTMENTS competent man at the engine throt- 
IN NEW YORK . . „ T t. 

tie and William J±. Lernngwell a 

most genial hotel proprietor and worker in village politics, 
but just why these excellent qualities per se should entitle 
their possessors to appointments on the Public Service Com- 
mission of the Second District is beyond our comprehension. 
Admitting that the last Democratic convention favored 
"the appointment of a practical railroad man" on the com- 
mission, we insist that if mere words are to be considered 
a track inspector might as well have been chosen for a 
practical railroad man as a locomotive engineer. Remedial 
and constructive rulings always require a common-sense 
liberal interpretation of the intent of the makers, and we 
believe that the words "railroad man" connote a man who 
has a wider business knowledge and breadth of mental 
activities than one who has lived his life in the cab. If 
either of the gentlemen appointed have any evidence of 
other qualifications for the high responsibilities that attach 
to the office they have been designated to fill, it is a safe 
assumption that Governor Sulzer would have mentioned 
them. A good public service commissioner must have more 
than a narrow technical experience or a capacity for lead- 
ing local politics. He must be at once a man thoroughly 
versed in transportation and public utility problems, an 
economist, a financier. Indeed, public service commission 
work, properly conducted, requires the services of the 
brainiest and broadest-minded men of the community. We 
admit, of course, that a man properly qualified by nature 
might grow into a fitness for the position after appointment, 
but the commission is not and should never be a training 
school. The very essense of the success of that body means 
the putting of all complex and delicate questions involving 
the conduct of public utilities into the hands of men who 
are first, last, and all the time thoroughly competent to deal 
with them. These appointments have not yet been con- 

firmed by the Senate, but whether they are confirmed or 
not, the making of them is a blow at the heretofore exist- 
ing confi^e J UGe-of^the public in the competency and ability 
of the wh*k ^co'm^ijrts^jsn. 

/ s ^\ 

ARE MODERN One of the many interesting ques- 

CARS TOO tions brought up by the multiple- 

LARGE ? unit tj * ain tests jn Newark, the re- 

sults of which were published two weeks ago, is that of the 
most profitable size of car. The tests have shown conclu- 
sively that, as the capacity of the unit increases, whether it 
is a single car or a two-car train, the number of stops in- 
creases also, not in direct proportion, but in accordance 
with a law which is surprisingly well defined when it is ex- 
pressed as a curve. This curve will naturally vary some- 
what according to the character of service on the line under 
consideration, but its general form is probably the same for 
all lines and classes of service. Hence it is obvious that an 
increase in the number of stops, especially where this is 
already high, and where there is no chance to make up time 
between stops, is bound to affect the schedule detrimentally. 
Eventually, the size of the car or train unit will reach a 
point where a further increase in size will make compara- 
tively little difference, as, for instance, where stops are 
made at every corner ; but this point, as shown by the tests, 
is considerably beyond any capacity of the car or train 
which has received any consideration up to the present 
time. On the other hand, the increase in the number of 
stops per mile caused by an increase in capacity of a very 
small unit, such as a twenty-passenger car, is of serious pro- 
portions, and it is evident that an appreciable slowing down 
of schedules must have accompanied the change from the 
old single-truck 20-ft. electric car to the modern double- 
truck equipment with seats for fifty or more passengers. 
The exact extent of this general decrease in schedule speed 
is necessarily obscure, yet its presence is a matter well 
worthy of the most careful study, for it is certain that 
slower schedules mean higher operating costs in almost 
exactly inverse proportion. 



On some roads which are too small 
to afford a shop clerk the master 
mechanic is just about as keen to 
keep car records as the average auditor is to pack a jour- 
nal box. He will not deny the worth of such data, but he 
does feel that pen and pit are too much of a combination 
for the same man. So from day to day he may tinker with 
car defects, but he will make no great effort to cure them 
unless his memory is good enough to catch what the shop 
man calls "repeaters," namely, those troubles which recur 
again and again despite renewals. To be sure, it is per- 
haps unreasonable to expect a ten-car or twenty-car rail- 
way to keep the mileage of a dozen items, yet a great deal of 


good will be obtained from a simple diary of every car. 
This fact was proved lately on a line where four cars of 
new type had been paying daily visits to the shop at an 
upkeep cost of 2]/ 2 cents per mile run. The first master 
mechanic had kept no records but had merely put in new 
parts as fast as the old ones failed. His successor, how- 
ever, began to keep a log of all defects, one card being 
used for each car. Tn very short order he saw that one 
car was giving far more trouble from damaged brushes 
than any of the others. At first the brushes were replaced 
without thought, but the rapid returns of this car to the 
shop, as exposed by the record, forced a search for the 
cause of the evil. It was simply too much play in the 
brush holders. Grounded headlight resistances were found 
to be common on all of the cars, but this trouble was also 
rooted out as soon as it was found that the resistances 
needed shields to protect them from splashing water. 
Half a dozen other repeaters were detected, analyzed and 
removed by means of this simple record. It is likely that 
from now on the cost of repairs on that road will be far 
less than when the cars were new. 


The Illinois public utility law, to which we briefly alluded 
in our news notes last week, illustrates the cumulative effect 
of the spirit of regulation which has prevailed in the coun- 
try during the last few years. It aims to give power to 
regulate and to surround that power with various protective 
measures which shall make it easy for the regulators to 
regulate and hard for the regulated to object to any act 
which inexperienced commissioners may do. 

In many of its essentials the law follows both the form 
and the spirit of older laws in other states whose influence 
has been wholesome, but in some respects it permits a 
course of action which under the guiding hand of a polit- 
ical or ultra-radical commission may nullify the desire 
which should exist in a state to upbuild and protect the 
utility properties. 

Section 8 provides that the commission "shall inquire 
into the management of the business" of all public utilities. 
We had thought in our ignorance that the management of 
the business was the affair of those who owned it, provided 
they conducted it with due regard to the law and the rights, 
safety and comfort of customers, and that state interfer- 
ence should take place only when these fair methods of 
operation were not observed. The new commission will 
have an opportunity to interpret the power given to it, and 
we hope that it will do so in such a way so as to avoid 
undue interference with the development of business. We 
also trust that its "management" of the properties will be 
such that the managers who are really responsible will not 
have to dissipate their time by unnecessary attendance at 
commission hearings or be involved in wasteful expendi- 
tures for letters and reports to the commission. 

Section 9 says that whenever required by the commission 
every public utility shall deliver to the commission inven- 
tories of its property. This clause wisely leaves action to 
the discretion of the commission. Few companies have 
inventories and those that have not prepared any can get 
them ready only by a material expenditure of time and 

WAY JOURNAL [ Vol. XLII, No. 3. 

money. This section should be read in connection with the 
reference to physical valuation in the part of the law which 
relates to the approval of new security issues. Under that 
section the commission, when it deems necessary, shall 
make an "adequate physical valuation of all property."' 
Likewise we find in Section 22 a stipulation that in cases, 
of reorganization the capitalization authorized by the com- 
mission "shall not exceed the fair value of the property 
involved." There is a broader, but less definite, reference 
to valuation in Section 30, which deals specifically with this 
subject. The commission receives power "to ascertain the 
value of the property of every public utility * * * and 
every fact which in its judgment may or does have any 
bearing on such value." The intent is, therefore, to give 
the commission full leeway to determine what, in its opin- 
ion, value comprises and the extent to which different ele- 
ments constituting total value may be taken into consid- 
eration. In other words, what the law does not do- 
specifically it puts within the power of the commission to 
do, as the judgment of the commissioners dictates. There' 
is more room for justice in this section than in the restric- 
tion to physical valuation imposed by the section bearing 
upon security issues. 

In Section 29 the disappointed home-rule advocates in 
Chicago find ground for complaint. This states that no 
contract or agreement with reference to franchises shall be 
valid unless it shall have been approved by the commission. 
Thus the state strengthens its potential control over matters, 
in the cities. 

The clause exempting municipally owned or operated, 
utilities from the jurisdiction of the commission is of itself 
an unjustifiable piece of legislation; but it does not receive- 
the full force of the injustice with which it should be 
credited until it is read in conjunction with the bill passed 
by the same Legislature authorizing cities to acquire, con- 
struct, own and to lease or operate public utilities and to 
provide the means therefor. In other words, cities are 
encouraged to embark on this uncertain field and have an 
additional spur by the promised exemption from the regu- 
lation to which the private utility is subject. 

Among other clauses in the law we find that a known, 
false statement in a stock or bond proceeding may constitute 
a felony on the part of the unfortunate individual, punish- 
able by imprisonment, and that other similar penalties may 
be exacted for other acts of omission or commission. This 
is not the first injection of a provision for criminal punish- 
ment in a state public utility law, but it shows the extremes- 
to which the country has passed. 

The law provides for the identification of all securities 
issued with the approval of the commission. It may be 
difficult to keep this device from tending to operate to the- 
disadvantage of that part of the securities of a utility which 
came into being before the commission entered office. Lest 
it should be thought that the stamp of approval of the state 
on securities passed by the commission constitutes an evi- 
dence of value the law includes a sweeping disclaimer to 
the effect that the acts of the commission shall not be held 
to mean that past and future issues represent actual value 
of property owned or to be owned by a public utility or the- 
value of such property for rate-making purposes. We think 

July 19, 1913.) 



that the state, notwithstanding its disclaimer, cannot escape 
a moral responsibility in the matter. 

Several other clauses should be mentioned, such as the 
provision that the commission may order physical track 
connection between street railroads ; that every accident 
causing the loss of life or limb to any person shall be com- 
municated immediately to the commission by the speediest 
means, which of course is the telephone and will involve 
heavy expense unless modified; that any complaint may be 
made by any person, whether responsible or irresponsible; 
and the apparently far-reaching stipulation that the com- 
mission shall have power to examine books, etc., of con- 
struction or other companies or of firms or individuals with 
whom the utility shall have had financial transactions. 

When we say that the law outlines the procedure in case 
of court review we do not state all the facts; for it stipu- 
lates that no new or additional evidence may be introduced 
in any proceeding, but the appeal shall be heard on the 
record of the commission and the findings and conclusions 
of the commission on questions of fact shall be held prima 
facie to be true; and that furthermore a rule, regulation, 
order or decision shall not be set aside unless it clearly 
appears that the finding of the commission was against the 
manifest weight of the evidence, or that the matter was 
without the jurisdiction of the commission. If legal, this 
will be a great advantage to the commission in any court 

We believe firmly in a wise policy of regulation, but hold 
that both the law and the administration thereof should be 


An act recently passed in Massachusetts, which is of su- 
preme interest to the people of the western part of the 
State, provides for the unification of the electric lines in 
the State under the control of the New York, New Haven 
& Hartford Railroad, and the expenditure by this line of 
$5,000,000 for the building of new trolley lines and exten- 
sions to existing lines. The prompt and decisive passing 
of this bill over the veto of Governor Foss is quite indica- 
tive of the fight the hill-town people have been making, for 
its passage is simply the culmination of several years' work 
in electing legislators pledged to its support. The trolley 
question is an all-important one to the so-called five west- 
ern counties, for in these, comprising an area of 4450 square 
miles, there are thirty-three towns with neither steam nor 
electric lines of any sort. According to Leonard Hardy, 
these towns have lost 50 per cent of their population since 
1820, and intercourse, high-school transfer facilities and 
general prosperity have all suffered. Notwithstanding these 
facts, Governor Foss vetoed the bill on the ground that in- 
stead of providing merely for the needs of western Massa- 
chusetts the measure also gives a monopoly of the transpor- 
tation throughout the center of the State, and that the 
$5,000,000 appropriated will not build the mileage specified 
in the act. 

We believe that at least the $5,000,000 can be spent in a 
profitable manner, and central Massachusetts also can well 
utilize additional trolley lines. On the point of monopoly 
the power of the Railroad Commission is worth noticing. 

Besides the usual regulatory power, the commission is 
authorized to determine the cost of construction and main- 
tenance of the roads, to decide what lines and extensions 
shall be built, and, if the commission is satisfied that the 
railroad is financially unable to make the improvements, the 
law becomes inoperative. If the company fails to construct 
the lines, it must forfeit a bond of $2,000,000. 

From such facts we are led to conclude that the com- 
mission has sufficient power to see that the law is carried 
out by the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad 
along the channels desired, and we hope soon to see the 
completion of the proposed electric roads, opening up the 
central and western territory for improved farming and 
summer vacation land, and in general so quickening the 
whole territory that even the most hazardous line will soon 
pass into the actual profit-making class. 


Lack of legible and definite destination signs on the cars 
was the reason given by the Supreme Court, Appellate 
Term, New York, for the award, on July 5, of $50 to a 
passenger who had sued for the statutory penalty for the 
refusal of a transfer. On the route in question only two 
classes of cars are operated in each direction. The com- 
plainant thought that he was on a through car and there- 
fore did not comply with the company's rule that even a 
continuing-trip transfer must be requested on paying fare. 
'On learning that he was on a shuttle car he asked for 
such a transfer, but it was refused. The court admitted 
that the company's regulation as to the time of issuing 
transfers was reasonable, but held that the passenger was 
justified in his contention that the sign on the car was 
too inconspicuous at night. The destination indicator on 
this particular line is a block sign only 4 in. deep, and the 
lettering, of course, is still smaller. Although the sign is 
suspended from the front of the hood, it is not illuminated. 
It is almost necessary on this line, therefore, for the 
experienced passenger to signal the first car that comes 
along on this line, and, if it is the wrong car, to let it pro- 
ceed, thereby putting the company to the delay and expense 
of an unnecessary stop. On the other hand, the chances, 
are about even that the novice will board the wrong car 
and remain unconscious of his mistake until he is ordered 
more or less politely to get out. 

We believe that the matter of car signs is very much neg- 
lected in this country, largely because their importance 
is underestimated. The elaborate European "story" signs are 
hardly necessary here, but better signs could usually be 
added to advantage. One company whose practice on 
signs is worthy of commendation is the Philadelphia Rapid 
Transit Company. The combinations of route and destina- 
tion signs used in that city embody the best features of 
European practice and really improve on them, as the signs 
are not cumbersome and are placed to greater advantage. 
The consequence of this wise policy is that the stranger 
who desires to go to a certain suburb, say Darby, after he 
has left the West Philadelphia station of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad, will recognize his car at once and by the aid 
of street signs will be able to go to the very spot where 
his car will stop. 



| Vol. XLII, No. 3. 

Power-Generating Equipment on the Cleveland, 
Painesville & Eastern Railroad 

This System, Which Has Recently Consolidated Its Power Plants Into a Single Large Station Possessing Many Novel 
Features, Supplies Electric Power for Lighting and Industrial Service in Addition to That Required 
by Its Cars — Electric Current Is Distributed to Substations Equipped with Both 
Rotary Converters and Frequency Changes 

A tendency toward the development of a broader field 
has of late been reported to exist among interurban elec- 
tric railways. Following along this line, the Cleveland, 
Painesville & Eastern Railroad has adopted the policy of 
entering the lighting field in the towns traversed by its 
lines, as the company believes that the benefits gained by 
the recent consolidation of its plants in the railway field 
may be extended to the other branches of public service. 

The town of Willoughby, Ohio, where the company's 

month. Power rates are based on a sliding scale de- 
pending on the load factor. They vary from 5 cents per 
kw-hr. to 1 }i cents per kw-hr., with a guaranteed mini- 
mum of $1 per month per hp of connected load. Another 
schedule in force makes use of a maximum demand meter, 
with the same rates for installations over 50 hp in capaci- 
ty, in which case the customer furnishes the transformer 
equipment and buys energy on the high-tension side at 
2200 volts. 

C, P. & E. Power — View of Power House, Showing Coal Bunker Under Main Line Trestle 

headquarters are located, has a municipally-owned plant 
and current is bought by it from the railway company at 
the switchboard. Power in large quantities, however, is 
sold directly to the user by the railway company. From 
Willoughby lighting lines are extended to Wickliffe on 
the west and Mentor on the east. From a substation in 
Painesville will be fed the towns of Perry, Richmond and 
Fairport, and the Geneva substation will supply Madison, 
Unionville and Saybrook, the average run being about 8 
miles on each side of the generating plant or substation. 

The company has been in the lighting business fcr only 
eighteen months and already has secured loads of over 
250 kw in the towns of Willoughby and Mentor, and this 
without making any extensive campaign for lighting busi- 
ness. It is now negotiating with several municipalities 
for pumping their water supply and has excellent prospects 
of securing some good business along these lines. 

The rate charged for lighting is 11 cents per kw-hr., 
less 2 cents discount if paid on or before the tenth of the 

The company has not entered into an active cam- 
paign for domestic appliances as yet, though a great many 
are in use on its lines, believing it best to develop the terri- 
tory and secure customers before making a campaign of 
business development. The entire railway traverses a 
well-populated, fertile country, abounding in agricultural 
and dairy products and having great natural beauty. 
About 40,000 people are located in the territory served by 
the line. 


The power house is located in the town of Painesville, 
Ohio, on the banks of Grand River. It consists of a main 
building approximately 97 ft. x 105 ft. and an annex J2 ft. 
x 21 ft. The chimney is of Custodis radial brick 200 ft. in 
height and 13 ft. in inside diameter, built to take care of an 
ample increase in boiler capacity. 

Coal is obtained over the tracks of the Lake Shore & 
Michigan Southern Railroad, and the method of handling 
it is one of the most unique features of the station. A 

July 19, 1913. | 



steel hopper with a capacity of 500 tons which receives coal 
direct from railroad cars is built into the trestle over which 
pass the tracks of the electric railway. The railroad car 
containing the coal is taken out on the trestle between the 
scheduled times for the interurhan cars by a home-made 
electric locomotive, and the coal is dumped direct into the 
hopper, the entire unloading' being accomplished in a period 

dropped direct into the stokers as required. The average 
coal consumption is about 40 tons a day. 

The ashes drop into brick-lined steel hoppers equipped 
with Hunt gate valves of the same type as those used for 
the coal. The ash tunnel is located directly under the fur- 
naces, and ash cars run from there to an elevator, where 
thev are hoisted to an outside track. The ashes are used 

C, P. & E. Power — Interior View of Engine and Turbine Room 

of about ten minutes. The hopper has sufficient capacity 
for approximately ten days' supply. 

The locomotive, shown in the upper illustration on 
page 97, was made in the company's shops at Wil- 
loughby. It is weighted down with steel punchings from 
the shop and is equipped with two 50-hp motors and auto- 

for filling in the low ground adjacent to the power house. 
The ash cars are interchangeable with those used for haul- 
ing the coal, and it is proposed to extend the elevator at 
the end of the ash tunnel over the railroad tracks so as to 
enable the ashes to be raised and dumped directly into 
ballast cars. 

C, P. & E. Power — Pump House, Intake Well and Discharge Line 

matic air brakes. It will haul two gondola cars of coal at 
each trip and obviates the necessity of sending a work car 
and its crew from the carhouse at Willoughby whenever 
it is desired to unload coal. 

From the hopper the coal falls by gravity into cars run- 
ning on a track beneath, which is seen in the illustration. 
These run into the boiler room upon an elevated track 
located above the stoker hoppers as shown. Here it is 


The boiler plant consists of three batteries of two 
166-hp Stirling boilers, aggregating 2200 hp in capacity. 

Cooling water for the surface condensers is taken from 
the Grand River, and the siphon circulating system used 
possesses some novel features. A pump house is located 
on the banks of the river approximately 350 ft. from the 
power house. It is a brick building with dimensions ap- 

9 6 


[Vol. XLII, No. 3. 

proximately 26 ft. x 17 ft., and, owing to its proximity to 
the river bank it was found impossible to secure even a 
clay foundation on which to build it. Consequently it was 
constructed in the form of a reinforced concrete basket 
set on concrete piling. 

In order to secure an uninterrupted supply of circulating 
water free from all debris, a concrete intake box having 
two sets of screens was sunk near the edge of the main 

C, P. & E. Power — Exterior View of Willoughby Substa- 
tion, Showing Cable Racks at Front of Building 

channel of the river. The upper portion of the box is cov- 
ered with a perforated caisson built of boiler plate and 
having a screen bolted to the top so that even when flood 
waters completely cover the intake clean water can be 
secured. The intake box is connected with a 24-ft. storage 
well just outside of the pump house by a 48-in. tiling some 
80 ft. in length. The water before entering the well passes 
through another box equipped with double screens, and it 
has been found that an ample supply of clean water is 

C, P. & E. Power — Main Switchboard in Power House 

assured without the use of the twin strainers or similar 
appliances usually introduced in circulating lines. 

The pumping equipment consists of two 14-in. centrifu- 
gal pumps, each having a capacity of 500 gal. per minute 
and driven by a 50-hp, 440-volt induction motor. These 
motors are controlled entirely from the power house, al- 
though air-break switches are installed at the pump house 
for use in case of emergency. It is unnecessary, therefore, 

for anyone to visit the pump house except for purposes 
of inspection. 

Each pump has a separate suction pipe to the well, but 
they both discharge into a single 20-in. main leading to the 
power house. The various condensers receive water from 
this single main and discharge it into another single 20-in. 
main which leads back to the river, making a completely 
closed siphon circuit. These pipes are cast iron, having 

C, P. & E. Power — Interior View of Willoughby Substation, 
Showing Rotary Converters and Frequency Changers 

flanged joints, and they are laid in a 6- ft. concrete tunnel 
extending from the power house to within 75 ft. of the 
pump house. Gate valves operated from the turbine floor 
control the supply and discharge lines to each condenser, 
so that any condenser may be taken off the line for pur- 
poses of inspection or repair without breaking the siphon 
effect of the circulating system. At the same time these 
permit regulation of the amount of water used in the con- 
densers under various operating conditions. A combination 

C, P. & E. Power — Interior of Pump House 

wet and dry pump is installed to start the system if for 
any reason it should lose the vacuum in the siphon. The 
discharge pipe to the river is provided with a Y connection 
which it is proposed to tap with a pipe and thus provide a 
supply of warm water to get rid of any needle ice which 
may gather at the intake in the winter. 

Owing to the fact that the system embraces a siphon, 
the motor-driven pumps have only to overcome the friction 

July 19, 1913.J 



of the complete circulating system, thus calling for con- 
siderably less expenditure of energy than if they had to 
work against the entire head. A steam-driven centrifugal 
pump is also installed at the pump house for cleaning out 
the well, and a telephone line between the pump house and 
the power house affords a ready means of communication 
when anyone has occasion to visit the pump house for 
purposes of inspection. 


All of the valves used in connection with the engine, tur- 
bines and condenser equipment are controlled from the 
engine-room floor, so that the engineer does not have to 
leave the floor but can control all machinery therefrom. 

Great importance is attached to the value of tests and 
one is being run all the time to ascertain just what is being 
done and what results are secured. Accurate records are 
kept of coal, water and ash, so that the operating efficiency 
can be computed at any time. A water meter accurately 
measures the boiler-feed water, the ashes are weighed, and 
the percentage of ash in the coal is obtained. The total 
operating force consists of eleven men working in two 
twelve-hour shifts. 

The scheme of painting the piping around the station 
in different colors greatly facilitates the work of the em- 
ployees, as one can tell at a glance just what the pipe is 
carrying. Live steam is indicated by green, exhaust steam 
by brown, hot water by red, cold water by black. The 
engine room walls are painted white with a green border. 


The generating equipment formerly consisted of two 360- 
kva, twenty-five cycle G. E. generators, direct-connected to 
two 18-in. x 36-in. x 42-in. Cooper Corliss engines deliver- 
ing current at 6600 volts. The natural increase in load, 
however, and that due to extensions and other business 
secured, required additional station capacity, and the fol- 
lowing apparatus was installed in 1912: Two 1670-kva, 
twenty-five cycle, 1500-r.p.m., 6600-volt Westinghouse 

C, P. & E. Power — View of Boiler Room, Showing Push 
Car Bringing in Coal from Outside Bunker 

turbo-generators and two 50-kw, 125-volt turbo-exciter sets, 
together with a twenty-two-panel switchboard. 

The switchboard is located on a raised portion of the 
floor overlooking the remainder of the engine room. A 
swinging bracket at the end contains two voltmeters, a fre- 
quency meter and a synchroscope. Each generator panel 
is equipped with an ammeter, a voltmeter, power-factor 
meter, watt-hour meter, field rheostats and non-automatic 

oil switches. The high-tension feeder panels are equipped 
each with three ammeters, a watt-hour meter, an automatic 
oil switch and relays. Eour panels are devoted to the con- 
trol of the exciters with the usual equipment of ammeters, 
voltmeters, rheostats and knife switches. 

A substation, consisting of two 360-kva, 600-volt d.c. 
rotary converters and a portion of the main switchboard 
devoted to their control, is located in the power house. 

C, P. & E. Power — Coal Bunker Built Into Main Line 

An interesting point in connection with the switchboard 
is the use of the 7-in. dial meters, which effect a great 
saving of space and yet do not sacrifice other essential fea- 
tures, such as accuracy or readability. 

The main transformers are arranged in two banks, each 
having three 500-kva units, located in the basement. They 
step up the voltage from 6600 to 13.200 for transmission to 
the other substations at Willoughby, Geneva and Ashta- 
bula. At some later date, however, the transmission volt- 
age will be raised to 22,000. 


The exterior of the substation at Willoughby is shown 
in the illustration on page 95, and the method of bring- 
ing out the low-tension wires is indicated very clearly. The 
three-phase high-tension line is brought in at the rear of 
the building. 

The transformers are in the basement, to which the high- 
tension lines run directly after passing through electrolytic 
lightning arresters and disconnecting switches, which are 
in a small annex on the side of the building where the high- 
tension lines enter. 

The transformer equipment consists of three 115-kva, 
2200-volt, twenty-five-cycle units for the frequency chang- 
ers described below, and six 175-kva, 460-volt, twenty-five- 
cycle units for the rotary converters. These transformers 
are mounted on truck platforms, on concrete foundations, 
so that they can easily be moved for purposes of inspection 
or repair. Three 5-kw, 2200-volt to 440-volt transformers 
are also installed here for the motor-driven exciters. The 
field rheostats for the various machines in the substation 
are all installed on pipe framework in the basement. 

Direct current for the operation of the road is obtained 
through one 300-kw and one 500-kw, six-phase, 600-volt, 
twenty-five-cycle rotary converter. Each rotary is equipped 
with an end-play device. For supplying lighting service to 
Willoughby and the neighboring towns the frequency is 
changed to sixty cycles by means of two motor generators. 
One of these sets consists of a 290-hp, 2200-volt, twenty- 
five-cycle, three-phase synchronous motor, direct-connected 
to and mounted on the same base with a 250-kva, 2300-volt, 

9 8 


[Vol. XLIL No. 3. 

sixty-two-and-one-half-cycle, three-phase generator with a 
6-kw, 125-volt exciter mounted at the end. The speed of 
the set is 750 r.p.m. The second set consists of a 112-hp 
motor, a 94-kva generator and a 5-kw exciter, the other 
characteristics being the same as those of the first set. A 
motor-generator set consisting of a 15-hp, 440-volt, three- 
phase, twenty-five-cycle induction motor and a 10-kw, 125- 
volt d.c. generator, running at 1400 r.p.m., is used to fur- 
nish excitation for the synchronous motor fields. 

All of the apparatus installed throughout the main sta- 
tions and substations, including the turbines, rotaries, 
motor-generator sets, switchboards, transformers and light- 
ning arresters, was furnished by the Westinghouse Electric 
& Manufacturing Company. 


The equipment of the substation at the Painesville power 
house will be increased in the near future by the addition 
of a 500-kw frequency-changer for lighting and power 


Waccifj Die. 

A new building of novel arrangement containing a wait- 
ing station for passengers and a freight station for the 
express company has recently been completed by the United 
Railways Company of St. Louis at St. Charles, Mo., a city 
of 10,000 inhabitants located or. the north bank of the 
Missouri River, 13 miles from the city limits of St. Louis. 
This is the western terminus of the Missouri Electric Rail- 
road Company, a subsidiary of the United Railways Com- 
pany of St. Louis. 

The building is triangular in shape, being 53 ft. in length 
along the Third Street side and extending 50 ft. back from 
this street. It faces the western end of the highway bridge 
across the Missouri River, and the track crossing the 
bridge divides as it approaches the waiting station into a 
switch for passenger cars on the street side of the building 
and a switch for the express cars at the rear of the build- 

The structure is covered with white Portland cement 

St. Charles Terminal — Plan Showing General Arrangement — Front View of Building 

At present the frequency changing equipment consists of 
a 75-kw, 2200-volt, sixty-cycle generator direct-connected to 
a 100-hp motor. 

The Geneva substation is equipped with two 300-kw 
G. E. rotary converters. This station is now being en- 
larged to accommodate one 250-kw and one 150-kw fre- 
quency-changer, built by the General Electric Company. 
The general arrangement of this station will be similar to 
that of the Willoughby substation. At Geneva there is in- 
stalled a 600-kw rotary converter and the same lighting 
equipment and general arrangement as described for Wil- 
loughby. At Ashtabula there is a 300-kw rotary for the 
railroad, but as yet no lighting equipment has been installed. 


All of the engineering and construction work involved in 
the installation and operation of the above-mentioned appa- 
ratus has been installed under the direction of J. G. Swain, 
superintendent of power and shops. 

The Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Wash- 
ington, D. C, has received from Commercial Agent D. C. 
Alexander, Jr., a report on street railways and electric 
lighting in China, which deals chiefly with the financial 
features of concessions and enterprises. The report will 
be loaned to interested persons or firms making applica- 
tion to the bureau. 

plaster laid on metal lath, and it includes a store, waiting 
rooms, express station and office, as well as the necessary 
conveniences for the public. A steam-heating plant is 
located in the basement beneath the express station, and 
the building is electrically lighted, ornamental lamps being 
placed under the eaves and around the tower. The total 
cost, exclusive of tracks for passenger and express cars, 
was about $7,000. 


The American Electric Railway Manufacturers' Associa- 
tion has found it necessary to rearrange the original floor 
plan of the main building on Young's Million Dollar Pier 
for the American Electric Railway Association convention 
in October on account of the large amount of space which 
has been applied for. This includes a rearrangement of 
both the exhibit and reception portions of the building. The 
exhibit committee is now arranging for many new and 
novel features for decorating this reception space and in- 
tends to make it more attractive and inviting than any 
previous convention. It is planned by the committee to 
hold practically all entertainments in the buildings on the 
pier as the rearrangement of the booths will provide a very 
considerable area which can be utilized in this manner to 
the fullest extent. 


New 40-Mile Extension of the Waterloo, Cedar 

Falls & Northern Railway 

An Account of a 600-Volt D. C. Interurban Line Recently Built in Iowa — The Design Includes Permanent Track and 
Roadway Structures, Well-Built Overhead Lines and Adequate Way-Station Facilities 

The Waterloo-Urbana extension of the Waterloo, Cedar 
Falls & Northern Railway, Waterloo, la., is a good example 
of a modern interurban electric railway. In the construc- 
tion of this 40-mi!e section which, in all probability, will 
ultimately extend to Cedar Rapids, la., first cost has not 
been the governing factor, but each item entering into the 
road has been carefully considered with a view to reducing 
maintenance. In addition to providing practically all per- 
manent structures in the roadway, adequate track facili- 
ties have been included at each way station, and passing 
sidings have been made sufficiently long to provide for 
future growth. The new line taps a fertile farming dis- 
trict and growing villages hitherto without rail transporta- 
tion, with the exception of La Porte City, which is served 
by a steam railroad. Although the Waterloo-La Porte 

Waterloo, Cedar Falls & Northern— Standard Flat-Top 
Bridge Over Cedar River 

City section of this line has been in operation but a short 
time, traffic has developed rapidly, and this portion is now 
on a good paying basis. 


The general direction of the new extension is south- 
easterly from Waterloo, and the entire line is constructed 
on private right-of-way varying in width from 100 ft. to 
200 ft., dependent upon the grading and terminal facility 
requirements. To obtain a desirable outlet from Waterloo 
it was necessary to extend the belt line for a distance of 3 
miles along the eastern limits of the city for through 
freight traffic, and one of the street railway lines serves as 
an entrance for passenger trains. Between Waterloo and 
La Porte City, a distance of 17 miles, one 6-deg. curve is 
the maximum, the rest being 3 deg. or less. The maximum 
gradient on this section of the line is 0.1 per cent. On the 
south end of the extension — that is, between La Porte City 
and Urbana, a distance of 22 miles — the maximum curvature 
is 5 deg. and the ruling grade is 1 per cent. This portion of 
the line traverses a comparatively broken country parallel- 
ing the Cedar River, and the maximum gradient is used at 
the point where the line leaves the river valley. 

Grading on the northern section of this extension was 
comparatively light, but south of La Porte City the total 
quantity of earthwork to be moved is large. At the time 
of writing the grading between La Porte City and Urbana 

was 60 per cent completed, and the bridging, which in- 
cludes a reinforced concrete arch bridge containing nine 
80-ft. spans, was 85 per cent completed. All earthwork 
is being handled for 23 cents per cubic yard when the 
haul is less than 500 ft., with an addition of 1 cent per cubic 
yard per 100 ft. for hauls exceeding 500 ft. 

The standard track and roadway design includes a 16-ft. 
roadbed on embankments and 24 ft. in excavation. The 
latter width provides for two 4-ft. ditches paralleling the 
cut slopes, which are \ l / 2 to I, except in rock, when the 
slopes are varied from y 2 to to 1, depending on the 
quality of the material. For a distance of between 3 miles 
and 4 miles in the line between La Porte City and Brandon 
practically all excavation is through limestone. As soon as 
this section of the line is in operation the company in- 

Waterloo, Cedar Falls & Northern— Standard Flat-Top 

tends to install a crushing plant to prepare ballast for the 
entire line. 


All concrete bridges and culverts were designed for 
Cooper's E 60-loading and the wooden trestles meet Coop- 
er's E 50-loading requirements. The former loading is 
based on two 213-ton locomotives each on eight-drive 
wheels, followed by a 6000-lb. per lineal foot uniform train 
load. As these structures are permanent, it was considered 
advisable to design them to meet possible future require- 
ments. All small waterways were provided with Acme 
nestable corrugated culvert pipes. When the opening was 
too large for a corrugated pipe a reinforced concrete flat- 
top arch was built. In a few instances where there were 
unstable foundation conditions and the opening was so 
large as to require pile foundations, ballast-deck trestles 
built of creosoted timber were used. 

Some interest may be attached to the unit cost figures 
for concrete structures. Practically all the concrete bridges 
were built by the Gould Construction Company, of Daven- 
port, la., at the following unit prices: 

Furnishing and driving piles, 40 cents per lineal foot. 

Dry excavation, 50 cents per cubic yard. 

Wet excavation, $5 per cubic yard. 

Cofferdams, $50 per 1000 ft. B. M. 

The foundation specifications called for 1 54 barrels of 



[Vol. XLII, No. 3. 

cement to each cubic yard of mixed concrete, at a unit 
price of $8.20 per cubic yard. The arch ring and spandrels 
were built of reinforced concrete in the proportions of 
1^4 barrels of cement to the cubic yard of mixed con- 
crete, for which a price of $8.90 per cubic yard was paid. 
The price of furnishing and placing reinforcing bars was 
zy'z cents per pound. All bridges and culverts were de- 
signed and built under the supervision of T. E. Rust, 
chief engineer Waterloo, Cedar Falls & Northern Railway. 
Views of two typical bridge and culvert designs are shown 
in the illustrations. 


The main-line track is laid with 85-lb. A. S. C. E. rail 
in standard lengths with Continuous joints and twin termi- 
nal compressed bonds. As is standard with this road, 6-in. 
x 8-in. x 8-ft. cedar ties were used, spaced seventeen 
to a 33- ft. rail. To insure against side shear as well as 
spreading gage on curves, standard tie plates will be em- 
ployed at these points. Other track standards include pass- 
ing sidings 2000 ft. in length, double-ended, with No. 9 
turnouts in the main line. At each way station a passing 
track of this standard length has been built at 18-ft. cen- 
ters with the main track, and industrial or other side tracks 
lead from it. Each turnout is provided with a high Ajax 
Forge Company's switchstand, set on two 6-in. x 8-in. x 
12-ft. creosoted yellow pine head-blocks. 

Just north of La Porte City a comprehensive interchange 

Waterloo, Cedar Falls & Northern — Catenary Construction 
at Sidings 

track layout was installed between the main lines of the 
electric railway and the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific- 
Railroad, on the adjoining right-of-way. It was built to 
relieve the interchange track facilities between these roads 
in West Waterloo, and to serve at the same time for the 
reception and delivery of freight coming from the new 
territory tapped by the electric line south of La Porte 
City. This interchange layout includes two parallel storage 
tracks sufficient in length properly to clear fifteen cars on 
each, one serving as a delivery track and the other as a 
receiving track. Leads from both the steam and electric- 
roads approach these two storage tracks at both ends. As 
mentioned in an article on the operation of this property 
in the Electric Railway Journal for Aug. 24, 1912, ap- 
proximately all the interchange traffic between the steam 
railroads entering Waterloo is handled by the electric 
belt line, which practically surrounds the city. 


A single line of 40-ft. 7-in. cedar poles supports the 
catenary trolley, telephone, telegraph and transmission 
lines. These poles are spaced at 150-ft. intervals on all 
track up to a i-deg. curve, at 120-ft. intervals between a 
i-deg. and 2-deg. curve and at 100-ft. intervals for all 

curves of shorter radius. The catenary line material is of 
the Ohio Brass Company's open-loop hanger design with 
extruded metal clinch ears. These catenary hangers are 
arranged for five-point suspension and support a No. 0000 
grooved trolley from a 7/16-in. galvanized strand messen- 

The catenary trolley construction is carried on a 10-ft. 
mast-arm, provided with a special end casting for pull- 

Electric Ry Journal 

Waterloo, Cedar Falls & Northern — Catenary Feeder and 
Steady Strain Construction 

overs on curves. The use of this special-end casting per- 
mitted the purchase of a standard mast-arm for the entire 
road. As shown in the illustrations, the end casting may 
be applied to the mast-arm for either a left-hand or right- 
hand curve pull-over. On all curves up to 1 deg., where 
the pole spacing is at 150-ft. intervals, pull-overs are in- 
stalled only at each mast-arm. As the curvature increases 
up to the maximum of 6 deg., the number of pull-overs is 
increased to make the trolley alignment conform as nearly 
as possible to the track curvature. Strain guys or catenary 
anchors are installed at each end of every curve. These 

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ric Ry. Journal 

End Elevation of Bent with 15 ft. Reaches 

Waterloo, Cedar Falls & Northern — Cross-Section of Bal- 
last Deck Trestle 

include an additional pole set opposite the one which sup- 
ports the trolley and transmission lines, to which two 
strain guys are attached. These in turn connect to an 
anchor ear on the trolley and messenger 75 ft. distant. 
Back guys from these two poles carry the strains to ordi- 
nary guy anchors. 

Other special features in the overhead-line construc- 
tion embrace the method of supporting the trolley across 

July 19, 1913. 

two reinforced-concrete bridges over the Cedar River. At 
these points tubular steel poles with an 8-in. base are set 
in 10-in. pipe openings, which were embedded in the con- 
crete parapet walls when the bridge was constructed. After 
the trolley pole had been dropped in position it was set 
plumb and surrounded with a sand cushion. It also was 
necessary to insulate the mast arm from the pole. A 
brush or dipped treatment of carbolineum has been ap- 

Waterloo, Cedar Falls & Northern — Standard Way Station 

plied to all pole butts, gains and ridges, and all cross-arms 
have been treated by a similar process. 


The mileage between important way stations on this 
extension made it possible to build a combination pas- 
senger station, freight station and substation at each point. 
The standard design includes a building of brick, concrete 
and steel, 101 ft. in length by 22 ft. in width. The sub- 
station occupies 30 ft. 6 in. at one end of the building, 
adjoining which is a 12-ft. ticket office which extends 
across the width of the building. A waiting room 16 ft. 
in width and a freight room 36 ft. 6 in. long occupy the 
other end of the building. A view of one of these standard 
stations is shown in an accompanying illustration. 

Other station facilities include a team track and well- 
built stock pens and loading chutes. Way-station property, 
wherever possible, includes a strip of land approximately 
300 ft. in width by 2000 ft. in length to permit the railway 
to offer attractive long-term leases for grain elevators, 

Waterloo, Cedar Falls & Northern — Combined Passenger, 
Freight and Converter Station at La Porte City 

coal and building-material supply yards, etc. Each sta- 
tion is provided with a Union Switch & Signal Company's 
manually operated train-order semaphore. Blades dis- 
played in the upper right-hand and left-hand quadrants 
control train movement in both directions. 


At La Porte City a very handsome combination pas- 
senger, freight and substation building has been erected 


on one of the main thoroughfares. To provide access to 
this terminal it was necessary to build a stub track from 
the main line through the city streets for an approxi- 
mate distance of % mile. This arrangement will delay 
passenger traffic but slightly and permit through freight 
movement to be made w ithout local ordinance restrictions. 
This station is of concrete, brick and steel construction, 
50 ft. x 70 ft. in plan. The walls are built of a dark 
cherry-red face brick laid in mortar of a similar color with 
Bedford stone trim and coping. The bracket and eave 
construction is of wood, and the exposed portions of the 
roof are covered with a cherry-red Spanish roof tile. A 
comparatively steep ascending grade on one side of the 
station permitted the freight-room door to be built at an 
elevation suitable for loading to and from cars and wagons. 
The elevation of this floor, as well as the one in the trans- 
former room, is approximately 2 ft. below the waiting- 
room floor level. The interior of the waiting room is fin- 
ished with a dark red quarry-tile floor and walls exactly 
similar to the exterior. The ceiling is paneled and beamed 
and like the rest of the woodwork is finished in natural 
oak. An agent's office occupies one end of the waiting 
room and is separated from it by a built-up brick counter 
surmounted with a Tennessee marble top. 

Interior illumination in the waiting room is obtained 

Waterloo, Cedar Falls & Northern — Waiting Room at 
La Porte City 

from Alba balls mounted on especially designed wrought- 
iron electroliers. These Alba balls are in two sizes, 6 in. 
and 12 in., and the lighting scheme is so arranged as to 
give an evenly distributed but not intense illumination. All 
lighting circuits are carried in conduit to a lighting cabinet 
in the agent's office, where they are divided and controlled 
through separate switches and fuses. The lighting in the 
substation and freight room is also installed in conduit 
and controlled through a central cabinet. Lamps are in- 
stalled where they are required for the operation of the 
substation and the handling of freight. Plans, exterior 
and interior views of this station are shown in the illustra- 


Essentially, the standard substation equipment on this 
road includes a 500-kw Allis-Chalmers rotary converter, 
a four-panel General Electric switchboard with horizontal 
edgewise instruments, and three 165-kva, oil-insulated, self- 
cooled Allis-Chalmers transformers with 44,000-volt or 
22,ooo-vo!t primaries. The a.c. side of the converter takes 
405 volts and produces 650 volts d.c. The switchboard 
consists of four panels — two a.c. converter panels, one 
d.c. machine panel and one feeder panel. The instruments 
include a swinging-bracket d.c. voltmeter with a 750-volt 
range, a power-factor meter on the a.c, converter panel, a 




[Vol. XLII, Xo. 3. 

1500-amp circuit breaker provided with low- voltage re- 
lease connected to the speed-limit device on the converter, 
a 1500-amp indicating ammeter and a 1500-amp GE graphic 
recording meter controlled by an eight-day clock. The 
high-tension oil switches are also of Allis-Chalmers hand- 
operated design. 

Both the trolley and feeder have been sectionalized so 
that any section may be cut out without interrupting the 
others. These sections are approximately 9 miles in length 
and the section insulators are installed near each sub- 
station. In case a section fails a pole switch located near 
the substation serves to cut the line through the faulty 
section. The feeder taps, which are installed at 1000-ft. 
intervals, consist of No. 00 stranded copper insulated from 
the pole and mast arm by porcelain strain insulators. A 
sketch showing the details of the feeder-tap connections 
will be found on page 101. 

The 44,000-volt three-phase transmission line from the 
generating plant at Waterloo also is sectionalized by a 
set of horn-gap, air-brake, disconnecting switches at each 
substation. These switches are mounted on a two-pole 
led-in tower, at one end of the substation building. An 
unusual electrical feature of these substations is that all 
direct current, both positive and negative, passes from the 
trolley feeder on the pole line into the substation by way 
of a manhole and underground conduit. The manhole is 
located near the main-line pole in front of the substation, 
and the circuits from this point to the feeder are carried 
up the pole in conduit. After a little more experience with 
this type of underground feeder connection, the company 
intends to install d.c. lightning arresters in the manhole so 
that discharges will be dissipated before they reach the 
station building. The circuits are installed in conduit 
throughout the building and all lights are fed from the 
lew-tension side of the transformers. The train-order 
semaphores are lighted electrically as they are connected 
with the station lighting. A pilot light in the signal-lamp 
circuit installed in the station advises the attendant when 
the semaphore lamp is not burning. 

At erch joint station the regular force consists of an 

Waterloo, Cedar Falls & Northern — Line Construction and 
Detail of La Porte Station 

agent and a helper. By apportioning the hours between 
these two and requiring the train crews to assist in loading 
and unloading freight and express, no difficulty is ex- 
perienced in handling the necessary work. 

The Waterloo-La Porte City section, including a 3- 
mile extension to the belt line, has been in operation since 
early in January. Judging from the progress already made 
on the La Porte City-Urbana section, the entire extension 

should be in operation before the end of this summer. At 
the present time the regular package-express schedule is 
composed of two trains each way daily, and an hourly 
schedule is maintained for the passenger traffic. Freight 
and express traffic have developed rapidly. 

Electric Ry. Journal 

Waterloo, Cedar Falls & Northern — Passenger, Freight and 
Transformer Station at La Porte City 

The design and construction of this new line have been 
under the general supervision of C. D. Cass, general man- 
ager Waterloo, Cedar Falls & Northern Railway, with 
T. E. Rust, chief engineer, in direct charge of track and 
roadway construction and G. A. Mills, electrical engineer, 
in direct charge of the building of overhead lines and 
equipping substations. 


The rapid advance of the price of crude oil in Texas 
-since- 191 1 has forced a number of companies to change 
from oil to coal as a fuel. In 191 1 the price for crude oil 
was 83 cents per 42-gal. barrel. In 1912 it was 87 cents 
per barrel. In January and February, 191 3, it was $1.10 
per barrel, and since that time it has advanced to $1.20 
per barrel. The necessity of a change in different localities 
in Texas to obtain most economical results depends largely 
on freight rates and boiler room efficiency. The Texas 
Traction Company found it more economical to use coal 
as a fuel when oil was quoted at $1.20 per 42-gal. barrel. 
Pea and slack coal is quoted at $1.40 net at the mine plus 
$1.25 per ton freight, making the cost to the company f.o.b. 
cars at the power station $2.65. Most of this coal comes 
from the Oklahoma and Arkansas fields and averages be- 
tween 10,000 and 13,000 b.t.u. per pound. The quality of 
fuel oil used averages practically 19,200 b.t.u. per pound. 
Average results obtained from both, the fuel oil and coal 
show that it requires approximately 2.6 lb. of fuel oil per 
kw-hr. and 5.5 lb. of coal per kw-hr. 

A number of companies are experiencing considerable 
difficulty in securing a satisfactory automatic stoker which 
will give maximum results with the Texas bituminous coal. 
A problem confronting the manufacturers is one of a chain 
grate which will not permit the fine coal to sift through 
and at the same time keep the fuel in the fire box from 
reducing efficiency through the unusual coking quality of 
Texas coal. Most companies are resorting to hand firing 
and the use of slicing bars until such time as a satisfactory 
automatic stoker may be designed to handle Texas coal. 
Even under these conditions, however, plants which use 
Texas coal are obtaining economies which exclude the use 
of crude oil as a fuel at the existing market price. 

July 19, 1913. | 



Papers Read at Pacific Claim Agents' Meeting 

Abstracts of Papers Read at the Vancouver Meeting Last Week — The Subjects Discussed Include the Organization of Safety 
Committees, Unreported Accidents and the Value of Index Bureaus in Dealing with Fraudulent Claims 

The fifth annual meeting of the Pacific Claim Agents' 
Association was held in Vancouver, B. C, on July 10, n 
and 12. Papers were presented by several members of the 
association. Abstracts of some of these papers are pre- 
sented herewith. 



In discussing how safety committees should be organized 
and put to work, I wish to describe the system of our com- 
pany, not as one exemplifying set rules applicable to all 
companies, for different companies have different needs, 
but simply as the system with which I am most familiar. 
We first incorporated a set of rules as follows: 

"Name. — The name of the organization shall be the Safe- 
ty Committee. 

"Members. — This committee shall consist of a central 
committee and eight sub-committees. The central com- 
mittee shall consist of the claim agent, chairman, general 
superintendent of railways, superintendent of light and 
power, superintendent of transportation, and the superin- 
tendent of construction. The sub-committees shall con- 
sist of : 

"1. Two committees from the street railway department, 
namely: (a) One of the inspectors as chairman, and three 
motormen of the company, (b) One of the inspectors as 
chairman, and three conductors of the company. 

"2. One committee from the shops, namely: (a) The 
master mechanic as chairman, and three members from 
the shops. 

"3. One committee from the track and way department, 
namely: (a) The roadmaster as chairman, and three mem- 
bers from the track and way department. 

"4. Two committees from the light and power depart- 
ment, namely: (a) One of the assistant superintendents 
as chairman and three members of the light and power 
department. (b) One of the assistant superintendents as 
chairman and three members from the power stations. 

"5. One committee from the construction department, 
namely : (a) One of the assistant superintendents as chair- 
man, and three members from the construction depart- 

"6. One committee from the claim department. 

"Duties. — It shall be the duty of the members of these 
committees to report to the chairman of their committee 
all things which might cause injury to employees of the 
company, to the general public, to passengers on street cars, 
pedestrians, or drivers of vehicles, and to make sugges- 
tions as to how changes might be made to prevent acci- 
dents. These reports shall be made on a printed form, and 
it shall be that duty of the chairman of the different com- 
mittees to forward all reports made to them, with their own 
suggestions, to the chairman of the central committee, 
whose duty it shall be to notify the members of the central 
committee to whose department these recommendations or 
reports refer. 

"Term of Office. — These committees shall bold for a 
period of three months, with the exception of the central 
committee, which shall be a permanent committee. The 
members of all committees shall he appointed by the mem- 
bers of the central committee having supervision over the 
respective departments. 

"Meetings. — Regular meetings shall be held by each com- 
mittee at least once a week, and a report of each meeting 
forwarded to the chairman of the central committee, and 
joint meetings of all of the committees shall be held at least 
once a month for the purpose of discussing ways and means 
of preventing accidents. The members of the various com- 
mittees, who are paid by the hour or by the day, shall re- 
ceive compensation for such time as they shall be required 
to spend in attending meetings." 

It will be noticed that the claim agent is chairman of the 
central committee. This is essential, for his work is to 
prevent accidents and he naturally will give more attention 
to it than would any other person connected with the com- 

After appointment the committees are assembled and 
topics outlining the objects of the work and the duties ol 
the members are discussed. Refreshments are served at the 
monthly meeting in order to make them more enjoyable. 

It is the duty of the members of our committee to make 
suggestions that will prevent accidents even though the 
suggestions pertain to matters entirely foreign to our com- 
pany. For instance, if one of them sees a wire of the tele- 
phone company hanging from a pole or the railing upon a 
bridge broken, he immediately reports it to the chairman 
of his committee, or if an emergency exists, the report is 
made directly to the chairman of the central committee, 
who immediately takes steps to see that the matter is 
remedied. If it is a matter that calls for double quick 
action, the report is made by telephone to the chairman of 
the central committee. We have found that such efforts 
on our part are greatly appreciated and have made many 
friends for the company. 

Our employees are very free in making suggestions and 
many of them have been valuable. They are not allowed, 
however, to make suggestions and reports regarding their 
fellow employees. Some organizers of safety committees 
may not agree with me on this point, but I believe that if 
good men are to be obtained to serve on the committee the 
idea must be eliminated that one of their duties is to spy 
upon their fellow workmen. 

At the monthly meeting of the general committee, the 
reports are taken up and discussed, and the disposition of 
the suggestions is explained to the members. If a sugges- 
tion is not accepted by the central committee, it is read and 
the reason given. In this way we avoid any feeling that a 
suggestion has been set aside without any consideration. 
The committee is asked if there are any suggestions which 
have been turned in and which have not been read and dis- 
cussed. The men are allowed to discuss their suggestions, 
and they have an opportunity, if a suggestion has not been 
passed upon favorably, to make their argument in favor of 
it. We have found on a number of occasions that after a 
man has made his argument in favor of the suggestion, the 
central committee has reconsidered it. V ery few foolish 
suggestions are sent in by the committeemen. One reason 
for this is that no man wishes to be placed in a ridiculous 
position as the author of the suggestion when it conies up 
for discussion. 

Companies must expect that they will be called upon to 
spend a large sum of money if thev allow the members of 
the committee to make suggestions, and, if they do not 
make the a'terations and repairs that are pointed out to 
them, they will soon lose the benefit of suggestions, for the 
members will cease to send them in. Some suggestions have 
caused our company to spend considerable money, but we 
have prevented accidents that no doubt would have cost far 



[Vol. XLII, No. 3. 

more. We believe in the theory that safety and comfort to 
both the public and the employees are first, regardless of 

Through the work of the committee the company is 
enabled to undertake an effective campaign against careless 
driving on the streets, all kinds of motor and horse vehicles 
being included. Many letters have been sent to various 
firms calling attention to dangerous chances taken by 
their employees, and each letter has brought a ready re- 
sponse and pledge of future precautions. The men take 
down the exact time and location of every incident showing 
disregard of prudence on the street and it naturally bothers 
the driver, chauffeur or rider to get around this specific 
showing by a general denial, as the committeeman has 
turned in his number. 

Some might imagine that after a period of a few months 
the interest in the safety committee would commence to 
decrease. This, however, has not proved to be a fact, as 
comparative statements show that the third committee 
turned in many more reports than the first, and that a great- 
er percentage was adopted by the company. We keep an 
index file of the suggestions sent in by the members and 
they are kept advised as to the number submitted and the 
ones put into effect. The safety committee has been in- 
strumental in bringing the men closer to the officials of the 
company and has caused them to feel that they are part of 
the organization and have more interest in the company 
than simply to do a day's work. 

During the first year of the safety committee, which 
closed July 1, 1913, 423 reports were handed in. Of these, 
fifty were suggestions pertaining to the protection of the 
public in general and not connected, with our company, 
forty-six for the improvement of track and way, fifty-six re- 
porting careless drivers, twenty-five referring to the in- 
stallation of signs which would assist and protect the pub- 
lic, sixty-two for the betterment of street railway service, 
ninety-six for the improvement of equipment and thirty- 
two suggesting better and safer conditions for employees. 

A few examples will suffice to show the range covered 
by the committeemen's vigilance. One of them noticed that 
visitors to one of the city parks who lived within walking 
distance took the short cut down a steep hillside to the plat- 
form where the cars loop for the return trip. It was a 
dangerous practice, especially when children came scram- 
bling onto the tracks. The erection of a fence there was 
recommended, and the danger was eliminated. 

In trimming arc lights in power stations men climbed 
along the beams, having nothing more than a rail to keep 
foothold on. A misstep would have meant a plunge to the 
concrete floor below, but one of the linemen suggested that 
running boards be put in such places. They were promptly 
put there. 

An aid that every elderly person who rides on street cars 
appreciates fully was the result of a suggestion from the 
shop department. This was simply a brass rail set diagonal- 
ly at the rear entrance inside. It is right where it ought 
to be for anybody who needs something to anchor to. 

One of our conductors offered an improvement on the 
pay-as-you-enter cars that was gladly accepted, although 
it meant much work and no little expense. This is a light 
placed outside and over the rear entrance of the car so that 
on dark nights the conductor will not go ahead and leave 
passengers waiting. Another improvement along this line 
is a glass panel placed low on the rear door so that the con- 
ductor can see approaching children. A hand rail inside the 
car for ladies to hold onto when the car starts before they 
are seated is still another safety committee suggestion. They 
run from these down to the simpler matters, such as a con- 
ductor reporting a plank loose on one of the bridges and 
securing its repair the same day. Ideas on safety stops at 
crossings and congested points are numerous and practi- 
cable. 1 

Most of these things seem of little consequence to the 
citizen whose safety and convenience are largely consulted 
in the safety committee scheme. They are of this much 
consequence, that an apparently insignificant fault remedied 
in time may prevent the loss of one or more lives and the 
destruction of property. It is the unnoticed little things 
that play the mischief in railroading, whether steam or elec- 
tric, just as it is the seemingly simple improvements previ- 
ously outlined that add the most to public comfort. 



For a number of years the Oregon-Washington Railroad 
& Navigation Company conducted superintendents' meetings- 
convening monthly, at which time questions concerning the 
safety of its employees and the remedying of apparent 
faulty appliances and equipment were considered, as well 
as those dealing with the operation of the road. These- 
meetings were composed of the superintendents with their 
assistants and men from various positions in the operating 
department. Yet in spite of the interest of these men and. 
the activity in these meetings, as the lines were extended 
and business increased accidents likewise multiplied. 

One fact, however, had been made to stand out clearly 
before the minds of the members at these meetings. While 
"self-preservation is the first law of nature," yet the indi- 
vidual who, in the face of danger, receives an injury and- 
then says, "Oh, I forgot!" has never ceased to exist. His 
negligence brings dire results not only to himself but 
to others. Believing, therefore, that increased agitation 
would bring more vividly before the minds of such men 
the desolation that their oversight or negligence might bring 
and would reduce the total effect of the human negligence 
factor, the Oregon-Washington Railroad & Navigation 
Company, on July 1, 1912, put into operation along its lines- 
a "bureau of safety." 

This bureau is composed of a central committee of safety,, 
created by appointment and consisting of one assistant gen- 
eral manager as chairman, all other assistant general man- 
agers, the superintendent of water lines, the general store- 
keeper, the assistant general attorney, the general claim 
agent and the chief surgeon. There is also a division com- 
mittee on each division, consisting of the superintendent 
and members of his staff, one conductor, engineer, yardman, 
track employee, brakeman, fireman, agent, signal employee 
and shop employee and such other employees as may from 
time to time seem advisable. A district committee of safety 
is also appointed, consisting of one employee from each of 
the different branches of the shops along the line. 

The members of the central committee and superintend- 
ents and their staff are considered permanent members of 
their respective committees, and the other members of the 
division and district committees serve for a period of three 
months. Obviously the purpose in changing the personnel 
of these committees is to get the benefit of the suggestions 
of as many employees as is reasonably possible in the course 
of a year. 

The division and district committees of the shops hold 
their meetings regularly each month. At such times they 
review all the casualties and personal injuries that occurred 
during the preceding month, offer and consider suggestions 
and make recommendations for the prevention of accidents 
or personal injuries in the future. These matters are fully 
considered and if they are such as can be carried out with- 
out the change of anv standards along the right-of-way or- 
in the construction of equipment, they are ordered made at 
once. If not, then the suggestions are sent to the central 
committee either for approval or rejection. 

When the meetings are called, the employees receive their- 

July 19, 1913.] 


expenses and are credited with their time while in attend- 
ance. Furthermore, when they are appointed upon these 
committees, they are presented with a safety button which 
after their retirement they retain in recognition of their 

We have pursued this method for the past year and have 
made a vigorous campaign to bring about greater precau- 
tion upon the part of the employees for the sake of their 
own safety as well as the safety of others. We have kept 
constantly before them the dire results of their oversight or 
thoughtlessness, and we find after acting upon hundreds of 
suggestions and remedying existing conditions, both in 
operation and in equipment, that we have brought about a 
closer co-operation and greater friendliness between the 
company and its employees and a realization upon their part 
that the movement, through its elimination of accidents, 
alleviation of pain and suffering and banishment of desola- 
tion from the home, was and is for the betterment and 
safety of all. 



Remarkable changes have taken place in the handling of 
accident work of every name and nature within the past 
few years. The claim agent, who a few years ago was not 
of much importance in the operation of a large railway 
system, has to-day become one of the prime factors. He 
is not only an adjuster of claims, but also a deviser of ways 
and means for the prevention of accidents, which means 
far more than the settlement of them. 

The great fight of the claim agent is to protect the com- 
pany's coffers against faking claimants, unscrupulous doc- 
tors and ambulance chasers. The claim department is often 
placed in a position where it must use every device possi- 
ble in an honest and intelligent investigation to uncover 
fraud and endeavor to show, if possible, former injuries, 
upon which the present claim is often based. 

In the handling of this complicated problem an index 
bureau is one of the most valuable and dependable adjuncts 
when it is intelligently used. The various bureaus estab- 
lished in the East and West have all been of great aid in 
meeting their respective local conditions, and I think that 
a closer union between these and an interchange of in- 
formation and ideas would prove of great benefit in the 

Our Pacific Coast bureau was organized June 1, 1912. 
since that time it has received 10,425 cards, and from the 
newspaper clippings it has a record of 6,749 names, mak- 
ing a total of 16,904 records of accident claimants. 

The value of the index bureau is not exactly determinable, 
for without it we may have a very serious case presented to 
us which might, if placed before a jury with no evidence to 
combat it, cost us an unlimited amount of money. With our 
index bureau at hand, however, when a case is presented 
that seems to contain some semblance of fraud, all we have 
to do is to ascertain whether the secretary of our index 
bureau has anv record of the person making the claim under 
the name or alias under which he might be operating, or a 
record of anyone presenting a similar claim where the injury 
would perhaps coincide with the one in question. Our 
bureau might furnish us with information at once showing 
that the claimant has made similar claims in other places 
and this evidence would save the day for us and possibly 
land the repeater in jail. As our report shows, we have 
actually found, since the organization of our bureau about 
a year ago, 129 reoeaters or parties by the same names. 

E. H. Odell had a case in Tacoma where he would 
have cheerfully paid $2,000 in settlement of a collision 
claim, but through the index bureau he ascertained that 
most of the injuries were of long standing, having been 

gotten in an accident about a year before. By using this 
knowledge he got rid of the claimant for $500. This sav- 
ing of $1,500 to Air. Odell's company will pay its dues 
and expenses in the association for a number of years to- 

I could cite three cases of my own where I have been able 
to turn cases down, paying absolutely nothing, where if it 
had not been for the information in our index bureau, show- 
ing the parties to have been repeaters and to have collect- 
ed from other roads on the same injuries on which they 
were trying to collect from us, it would have cost us thou- 
sands of dollars. I am satisfied that the amount we have 
saved in the first year has been enough to pay all the ex- 
pense of the index bureau for the next ten or twenty yeais. 



The value of an index bureau in dealing with fraudulent 
claimants depends, in my opinion, upon the ability of the 
individual claim agent to make use of it. Claim agents, 
of ability and experience may often effect a substantial 
saving of money, some of which they may not even be 
aware of at the time, by making it plain to the suspected 
claimant that they have the facilities ready at hand to ascer- 
tain the true facts in each and every case. 

The report of our index bureau, dated June 10, indicates 
that 9760 cards have been filed during the past eleven 
months. Besides enabling us to locate 118 repeaters, this 
bureau system has supplied us with a great number of news- 
paper clippings, names of attending physicians and lawyers 
and other facts with general reference to these claimants, 
any one or all of which items may prove of inestimable 
value when taken with the known facts concerning a 
fraudulent claim under consideration. 

Let me illustrate how it works in practice. When a 
claimant calls and you discuss with him, first of all, the 
liability, next, the extent of injury, and, last of all, the 
amount of money proportionate to that injury, if you have 
reason to suspect that such claimant has exaggerated his 
injury, is protracting disability or is magnifying the real 
injury in an endeavor to get more than fair compensation, 
just digress for the moment from further consideration of 
the details of his particular claim and describe our organi- 
zation. Tell him of the claim agents' index bureau and 
how a fraudulent claim was revealed through this organiza- 
tion, always emphasizing, however, your expressed opinion 
that his own claim is altogether a legitimate one and as- 
suring him that you are positively convinced that he is a 
reasonable and rightminded person who is going to be sat- 
isfied with fair compensation for actual injury. You have 
then paved the way, as I have upon occasion, to name what 
seems to you a fair amount in payment of his bill of dam- 
ages. If anything in his case is tinged with fraud, if he 
knows of any fact that may detract from the value of his 
claim, if in his conscience he realizes that he is not nearly 
as badly injured as he has represented himself to be. he is 
then warned against undertaking to follow in the footsteps 
of a fraudulent claimant who has come to grief. I believe 
that this deterrent effect of such an organization as ours 
is of far greater value than the actual benefits which accrue 
from fraud revealed. 

In the business world of to-day men are taken to a large 
extent at their own appraisement. If one holds himself out 
to be of a certain character and looks the part, he is ac- 
cepted, for the time at least, to be what he seems to be. Tin- 
application of this fact is this. In the ordinary jury hear- 
ing the evidence of the plaintiff's physicians and the evi- 
dence of the defendant's physicians are usually both passed 
over, and the jurors give preference to the plaintiff's own 



[Vol. XLII, No. 3. 

evidence concerning the extent of his injury or at least to 
such portion of it as they credit, when supported by his per- 
sonal appearance and general demeanor. But our index 
bureau is important in that it gives us a means of attacking 
this plaintiff's testimony itself. Having furnished a claim 
agent with an account of an injury suffered by a claimant 
on a railroad, it thereby affords the opportunity to submit 
the query to the claimant, "Did you suffer such an injury 
on such a date on such a railroad?" This gives the claim 
agent the "whip hand." If he follows up his advantage, his 
claimant, taken by surprise, is disconcerted and may not for 
the moment realize that this is the full extent of the claim 
agent's knowledge of him, and, having a "skeleton in the 
closet" to protect against the demoralizing effect of day- 
light, may sell his claim reasonably if not cheaply. 



Unreported accidents result from several causes, chief 
among which are : 

(a) The train crew often fail to observe many slight 
occurrences like the movements of the car and the conduct 
of passengers, not from a desire to avoid reporting acci- 
dents, but because their attention was diverted to some other 
part of the car or street at the critical moment. 

(b) The crew, seeing the accident, conclude that it is 
unimportant and unnecessary to report. 

(c) The crew are often misled because the injured 
party laughs about the accident, remarks that it was his 
own fault, refuses to give his name and says that nothing 
will be said about it. Often the injured party even requests 
the conductor not to report the matter. 

(d) The crew sometimes deliberately refrain from re- 
porting an accident in an attempt to cover up an occur- 
rence for which they are wholly to blame. 

(e) In rare cases the reason why the accident has not 
been reported is that a bold attempt has been made to 
"frame up" a case. 

( f ) Accidents sometimes result from defects in track, 
overhead or right-of-way about which the employee has no 

From whatever cause they arise, the first intimation of 
these unreported accidents generally reaches the claim agent 
from one of three sources — the claimant direct, an outside 
physician or an attorney. The last condition is the hardest 
to combat because it prevents, as a rule, the securing of a 
signed statement and the opportunity to obtain the many 
little details necessary to begin investigation, as well as to 
learn who the claimant is, whence he came and whether he 
tiad any prior injury. Such information may be used later 
to advantage in case of suit, or as an aid in settlement — 
which, after all, is about the only basis upon which these 
claims can be settled where a thorough investigation fails 
to bring to light any evidence that such an accident really 

The difficulty of investigating is obvious to all. The 
•trainmen are either absolutely ignorant of the alleged oc- 
currence or, having failed to do their duty in the first place, 
are very apt to deny all knowledge of the matter unless 
sufficient proof of their guilt is produced to break them 
down. Even then they are prone to distort the facts, leav- 
ing the claim agent "on the fence" as to what really 

Tf it were possible in some manner to impress on each 
individual trainman the desirability of telling the truth in 
order that the claim agent might judge whether he was 
dealing with a real or fake injury, it would be an undis- 
guised blessing. But no one thus far having advanced the 
proper solution, it is necessary to keep pounding away on 
the young student from the moment he is placed upon a 

car. Put him on with old men who not only know how to 
operate well but can be relied upon to drill into the new 
man the importance of reports. See that the instructors in 
the school cover accidents so thoroughly that when qualified 
to take a car out by himself the new man will feel it just 
as much a part of his work to report even the slightest 
accident as to stop or start his car on signals or collect his 
fares. Teach him how to approach people that he may se- 
cure their names as witnesses and to be unyielding to pas- 
sengers who clamor for the car to be started until he has 
properly protected the company and himself. Joint meet- 
ings between the claim and the operating departments at 
the different carhouses to discuss the accident situation have 
good effect. The point should be emphasized that simply to 
reduce the number of reports while still having the same 
number of accidents only adds fuel to the fire. The fact 
should also be impressed upon the trainmen's minds that the 
reporting of an accident is not charged against a man's 
record unless the investigation shows him to be at fault. 
Even then, such treatment should be accorded the men that 
they will not be afraid to make a full report even when 
they are at fault. 

The constant coming in contact with the trainmen at 
these meetings results in an acquaintance that creates in- 
creased interest in the subject of reporting cases whether 
the cases occur on the trainman's own car or on another 
car. Again, by the cultivating of this acquaintance be- 
tween the trainmen and the members of the claim depart- 
ment a trainman is less apt to be confused or afraid when 
called into the claim department or interviewed by an inves- 
tigator. Instead, he is cool and at ease and in better shape 
to give a statement. 

Another important way of instilling into the men the 
proper attitude toward these unreported cases is the safety 
committee. This is one of the best means to get men to do 
their full duty in the matter of reporting everything be- 
cause each trainman hopes some day to be appointed a 
member of the committee and all are aware that their rec- 
ords are carefully examined before appointments are made. 
After a man has served his six months on the committee, 
he has come into such close contact with the officials and 
attorneys of the company that his interest and his pride 
have been awakened and the possibility of his failing to 
report an accident is remote. There appears to be a better 
understanding between the claim and transportation officials 
than in times past, and this I believe to be the greatest fac- 
tor in reducing the "unreported accident" to the minimum. 

' As to the claimant who presents a claim based upon the 
blind accident, it is a problem just what to do. There are 
genuine claims of these kinds, and it is sometimes difficult 
to determine which are just and which are fraudulent. 
After all is said and done, each claim must stand on its 
merits — the individuality of the claimant and the peculiar 
circumstances surrounding the case. The claim agent who 
possesses the faculty of guessing his man, who from expe- 
rience and intuition can discern the fake from the just 
claimant, has to a great extent solved the problem. He is 
in a position to deal fairly with the just claimant, and also 
to impress upon the fraudulent claimant that his methods 
are known and that his attempt to extort money is not only 
futile but may ultimately land him behind prison walls. 



In almost every instance of an unreported accident the 
claim agent finds himself in a weak position and without 
his usual weapons of defense. Usually it is only by locat- 
ing eye-witnesses to the occurrence and developing evidence 
of a conflicting nature that he can hope to combat the asser- 
tions of an unjust claimant. 

July 19, 1913. 



There are, however, several well-known practical meth- 
ods that may be utilized to control and reduce the number 
of unreported accidents, and it is my purpose to discuss 
these briefly in this paper. 

Platform men are often informed by their superintend- 
ents that they must report all accidents and obtain witnesses 
solely with a view of protecting the interests of the com- 
pany. More beneficial results can be obtained if employees 
are convinced that by preparing reports of accidents or 
incidents occurring on or near their car they are protect- 
ing themselves. Supervising officials can materially assist 
in reducing the number of "blind" cases by showing a dis- 
position not to take drastic action in disciplining employees 
for minor accidents in which they are negligent. Every 
employee, however, who knowingly fails to report an acci- 
dent should be immediately discharged. 

In San Francisco we have met with unusual success in 
decreasing unreported accidents by fostering an intense 
rivalry among the various divisions, each one striving to 
outdo the other in having the lowest number of "blind" 
cases. Notices showing the number of unreported acci- 
dents charged against each division are posted monthly. 

Employees should be encouraged to report accidents, not- 
withstanding the fact that they were not in charge of the 
car involved. This precautionary act often protects the 
company in instances where the crew concerned knew noth- 
ing of the accident. 

A local newspaper clipping file of miscellaneous acci- 
dents to pedestrians and vehicles should be maintained, for 
sometimes claims are filed for casualties foreign to the 
operation of the cars. 

Friendly relations should be established with the local 
hospitals, the primary object of which is to enable the claim 
agent to keep informed of all railroad cases brought to such 

If a claim agent strives to cultivate the good will of 
physicians practising in his community, they will he dis- 
posed to reciprocate by advising him of any railroad case 
they are attending. This will enable the claim agent to 
make a prompt investigation of the facts. 



David Daly, manager, Houston Electric Companv, re- 
cently made a statement which was published in the papers 
of that city explaining the position of that company in re- 
gard to the T-rail. According to Mr. Daly, in 1903, the 
Council passed an ordinance compelling the use of the 
grooved girder rail in Houston, but subsequently on a few 
occasions has permitted the company to lay T-rail on cer- 
tain streets. The new administration has directed the 
company to abide by the terms of the original ordinance. 
The company feels that its present method of laying 80-lb. 
T-rail on a concrete foundation is a far better method of 
construction than that possible with the proposed grooved 
girder rail, that this is the consensus of opinion of street 
railway engineers throughout the country and that many 
cities in the East and Central West are adopting the T-rail 
as standard. When the new administration came into office 
the companv offered to pay the expenses of an impartial 
board of engineers to examine into the matter, but the 
Mayor and city commissioners declined to accept this offer 
and insisted on the grooved rail construction. In view of 
this fact Mr. Daly says that the company would agitate 
the question no further and that in its new construction it 
would place the grooved rail in all streets not now exempt 
from the terms of the ordinance. 

Number 5 of Special Libraries, published by the Special 
Libraries Association, Boston, Mass., contains an exhaustive 
list of material written on the subject of efficiency and 
scientific management. The classification covers all sources 
of information. 



Wm. Wharton, Jr., & Company, Inc. 

Philadelphia, Pa., July 15, 1913. 

To the Editors : 

From time to time we hear the statement made by the 
railroads that the manganese steel which is put into track 
work at the present time does not give such good results 
as manganese steel supplied ten or twelve years ago. To 
refute such statements and to obtain definite information 
on the subject, an exhaustive investigation has been made, 
resulting in evidence which proves conclusively that the 
manganese steel of to-day as made by the company which 
I represent is superior to that made ten years ago. It is, 
in fact, tougher and less brittle. This investigation also 
developed the following important data in regard to the 
increased severity of service to which the steel of to-day 
is being subjected: 

( 1 ) At the present time roadbeds are more substantial, 
and this results in a more solid back to the wheel impact. 

(2) The wheel impact is greater because the rolling stock 
and loads are heavier, speeds are higher and the service 
more frequent. 

(3) The weights of all kinds of electric railway passen- 
ger rolling stock have increased to such an extent that they 
now closely approach those of steam passenger equipment. 
The following tabulation sets forth clearly the increased 
weight of electric railway passenger equipment: 








Average Weight 
in Pounds of 

Light Loaded 







(- ars, 

-Per Cent Increase in Weight- 



68.190 88.740 




*Cars for city service in 1912 were lighter than they were in 1907. 

Average percentage of increase in weight,' from 1902 to 
1912 has therefore been as follows: 

Light cars, city. nj4 

Light cars, interurban '. 47.7 

Loaded cars, city 15.3 

Loaded cars, interurban 39.8 

From the above you will note a great increase in weight 
of both city and interurban cars between the years 1902 
and 1907. The light weight of city cars decreased slightly 
between the years 1907 and 1912. In this same period in- 
terurban cars increased in weight. In preparing the above 
data representative cars were selected, that is, cars that 
are conceded by car builders to be typical for the average 
city east of the Mississippi. 

(4) Notwithstanding all of the above aggravated con- 
ditions, the flange and wheel tread on electric railroad 
equipment has been increased but slightly in the width of 
the tread, so that the same unit of area is subjected to a 
greatly intensified pressure. 

(5) Railways have recognized the necessity of fortify- 
ing the roadbed, building stronger bridges and using heav- 
ier rails, yet to-day the metal sections specified for man- 
ganese special-work castings are in many cases 10 per cent 
lighter than corresponding pieces of ten years ago. 

Llewellyn W. Jones, Vice-president. 

The Detroit (Mich.) United Railway has applied to the 
industrial accident board to come under the State compen- 
sation law. 



| Vol. XLII, No. 3. 


The Denver & Interurban Railway, the electrical branch 
of the Colorado & Southern Railway, was one of the early 
single-phase interurban railways built in this country, and 
although it has not been extended, it has been operating 
very successfully since it was put in operation in 1908. The 
cars use 11,000 volts alternating current when on the in- 

Spools for Holding Banding Wire 

terurban sections and direct current when operating in 
Denver over the tracks of the Denver City Tramway Com- 
pany. The cars also use direct current over a short section 
of track at Boulder, the other terminal city, so that the 
usual combination a.c.-d.c. controller and equipment are 
employed. In one round trip a car operates for about 
55 miles on a.c. and 10^2 miles on d.c, and each car aver- 
ages from 350 to 400 miles a day. During week days an 
hourly service is run, and this requires three cars. On 
Sundays, during the excursion season, trains of four to 
six cars are run, made up of an even number of motor cars 
and trail cars. 

Altogether this company has eight passenger motor cars. 
These cars are 55 ft. 6 in. long, 10 ft. wide and seat sixty 
passengers. They weigh loaded 60 tons. The original 
equipment was described in the Electric Railway Journal 
for Sept. 5, 1908, when each car was equipped with four 
Westinghouse 148-A 125-hp motors with a.c.-d.c. control. 

Originally some motor troubles were experienced, but 
during the last two years the company has lost only two 
armatures in spite of the fact that the motors are run at a 
higher speed than that for which they were designed. This 
immunity from armature troubles is attributed by the com- 
pany to some extent to a number of changes made in the 
equipment. One of these is the method of applying banding 
wire. For this work the company has installed an auto- 
matic tension-regulating device so that the tension on the 
band wire, while it is being wound on the armature, can be 
kept continuously at any amount, that usually used being 
400 lb. With this device, also, the usual tension clamp, 
which presses on the wire, is not required. This eliminates 
the danger of breaking the tinning on the steel banding 
wire, a fault found with the usual device. 

The tension-regulating device consists of two grooved 
spools, each 4 in. in diameter and 6 in. long, held in a frame 
as shown in the first engraving. The wire is wound back 
and forth over these two spools, having about twelve turns 
on each spool. A leather washer fits between the end of 
the spool and the end plate in the frame in which the spools 
are mounted, and by means of a screw these end plates can 
be pressed down on the leather washer. In this way the 
power required to revolve the spools, and hence the tension 
on the wire as it leaves the spools, is regulated. 

The second engraving shows the method of using the 
tension device while the banding wire is being put on an 
armature. The tension device, with the wire wound on it 
as described, is suspended from above and is held at the 
back by a set of powerful springs to which are attached 
cords which pass over pulleys and are connected at their 
lower ends with weights. In this way any variation in size 

in the wire which would cause inequality in the tension 
when the wire passes over the spool is taken up. The band 
wire is fed to the spools from a reel overhead. The ten- 
sion is usually kept at about 400 lb. instead of the ordinary 
tension of about 300 lb. When this wire is wound on the 
armature tin clips are placed under the wire where it 
crosses each coil instead of under every fourth coil, as 
formerly. By these means the safe maximum speed of the 
motors has been increased from 1680 r.p.m. to from 1900 
r.p.m. to 2000 r.p.m. and the capacity of the motor has also 
been increased. 

Slight modifications have also been made in the construc- 
tion of the armature itself. The covering on the head at 
the commutator end is left off to secure better ventilation, 
and at the pinion end of the armature the overhanging 
flange of the end bell has been cut off. This leaves a sharp 
edge on the end bell which has been found to be a better 
protection against the creeping of oil from the bearing into 
the armature. With these changes the cost of motor main- 
tenance has been reduced to a minimum. Speer grade H 
brushes are used exclusively and give an average life of 
15,500 miles. 

In its switch groups and brake cylinders the company is 
using Emery lubricant and has not had to change a dozen 
leather washers in five years in the switch groups and has 
never had to make a change in the brake cylinders. The 
triple valves operate for a year with this lubricant. 

Tension Device for Banding Wire — Denver & Interurban 

For boring out armature bearings a clamp is used to hold 
the bearing. It is set in the lathe by dowel pins and no 
centering is required. 


The following are average lives of some of the motor 
parts obtained on the Denver & Interurban Railway: 
Life of Motor Parts in Motor Car Miles 

Motor Car 


Motor bearings, commutator end 68,000 

Motor bearings, pinion end 60,000 

Axle bearings 30,000 

Commutator life between turnings 120,000 

Carbon brushes 15,500 

Pantograph shoes (made of No. 16 galvanized rion) 12,000 

In the state of -Texas it is general practice to install 
electrolytic lightning arresters in the open, and it has been 
found that the heating of the sun's rays during the summer 
months is sufficient practically to destroy the value of the 
electrolyte. In order to overcome this the lightning arrester 
tanks have been painted white, with the result that a suffi- 
cient amount of heat is reflected to eliminate this source of 

July 19, 1913.] 




The benefits to investors and to operating officials which 
arise through the prompt publication of condensed statistics 
bearing upon the financial operation of electric railways 
have been generally recognized for a long time, and to this 
end the officers of the American Electric Railway Associa- 
tion are planning to inaugurate the collection and presenta- 
tion of such information in a series of monthly reports 
which will show the trend of earnings and expenses of the 
electric railway industry as a whole. 

The plan comprehends the publication in Aera of a 
monthly statement of much the same character as that 
issued by the Bureau of Railway Economics, an organiza- 
tion supported by the steam railroads of the country, which 
was formed for the express purpose of giving proper pub- 
licity to such statistical information about the steam rail- 
roads as would be useful to the public when expressed in 
concise and authoritative form. In this way such informa- 
tion, which is at present obtainable only through the re- 
ports of the Census Bureau issued at five-year intervals and 
through the financial annuals, would become available at 
once and would truly represent the conditions existing at the 
time when the statistics were published. 

The work involved in the new plan will be largely com- 
plementary to that of the proposed Bureau of Fare Re- 
search, an institution which is being planned by the asso- 
ciation for the purpose of investigating the general question 
of fares and which will include consideration of the service 
accorded to passengers for their fares, its cost to the rail- 
way, and the profits remaining for the investors in the 

Both proposed plans naturally require the support of the 
member companies of the association, and with this object 
a letter of explanation was sent out last month giving an 
outline of the procedure involved by the collection of the 
data. In this it was explained that all information which 
might be furnished by the railway companies would be 
treated as absolutely confidential and that the statistics de- 
veloped from the statements of the railways would be pub- 
lished in such a way as to avoid the possibility of identifica- 
tion of the source of information or the disclosure of the 
results of operations of any individual company. 

The part of the work required from the member com- 
panies is to consist in providing the association with copies 
of their detailed monthly statements as soon as these are 
prepared, promptness in furnishing the information being 
essential so that publication of the data can follow within a 
month of the period covered by the statements. A series 
of questions regarding the feeling of the member com- 
panies with regard to their approval of the plan, their 
willingness to co-operate, and the time at which the first 
statement might be expected, was also included in the let- 
ter. To these questions the replies already received have 
shown conclusively that sentiment is overwhelmingly in 
favor of the plan and that it will be strongly supported 
by practically every electric railway of importance in the 

The results which may be expected from the new plan 
cannot fail to be of immense advantage to the industry. In- 
deed the results which have been attained by the publication 
of steam railroad statistics through the Bureau of Railway 
Economics have been found to be so manifestly beneficial, 
after several years during which the bulletins have been 
issued, that the permanence of that institution is beyond any 
question of doubt; and the step is in consequence certain 
to be one of the most important ever taken bv the associa- 
tion as well as one of the most productive of benefit to elec- 
tric railways in general. The association believes that it is 
very well equipped for this work and that these figures will 
be a barometer of the industry and hence o ( value to rail- 
way companies and to the public. 


Marked improvement is shown in a new type of bracket 
which has just been brought out by the Electric Railway 
Equipment Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, for its combination 
street railway and lighting pole. Both single and double 
brackets of this new type have given satisfaction on ac- 
count of the provision which has been made for mounting 
the positive cut-out in the body of the bracket. When the 
cut-out is placed at this point it is not necessary to slot the 
tubular pole at the ground line, which has a tendency to 
weaken it at the point of greatest strain. In order that the 
cut-out can be operated quickly and without the necessity 
of using a ladder to A 
reach it, a small chain <f* 
has been provided with 
rings attached to the 

cut-out. The cut-out mF * PAN 

can be operated from 

Single Bracket Double Bracket 

the street level by the use of a small rod with a hooked end. 
The chain is carefully insulated from all current-carrying 
parts and there is no possibility of leakage at this point. 

The company has furnished single-light combination poles 
of this type for Edmonton, Alta., Keokuk, la., Negaunee, 
Mich., Milwaukee, Wis., Dixon, III, Columbia, S. C, and 
Fort Worth, Tex. The company has also furnished the city 
of Missoula, Mont., with no of the same type of pole with a 
somewhat different bracket. The city of Niagara Falls, 
N. Y., will be the first city to adopt the double-bracket de- 
sign, which is shown in the second illustration. 

In an article entitled "First Single-Phase Railway in 
Spain" published in the issue of May 3, an error was made 
regarding the types of apparatus installed. The A. E. G.- 
Thomson-Houston Iberica (Spanish A. E. G. -Thomson- 
Houston Company) advises that it furnished five double- 
truck cars with A. E. G. equipments and also built the entire 
low-tension and high-tension overhead construction. The 
predecessor of the present Spanish Siemens-Schuckert 
Company furnished four single-truck cars and one double- 
truck car. 


News of Electric Railways 

Detroit Company Cannot Accept Marx Plan 

In the formal answer of the Detroit (Mich.) United Rail- 
way to the proposed Marx ordinance, Attorney Charles D. 
Joslyn on July 14 asserted that the company could not 
agree to accept the plan. The attorney read the company's 
statement at the hearing. The company offers uncondition- 
ally to sell its lines to the city at a fair price or to operate 
on terms similar to those rejected by the voters when the 
Thompson-Hutchins franchise was voted down. 

The company's statement declares that the Marx plan 
provides a rate of fare which cannot pay the cost of opera- 
tion and maintenance and that it requires immediate con- 
struction of extensions under such terms and conditions 
that it would Lie impossible to raise the necessary capital. 
The company say-; that figures obtained under the account- 
ing system required by the Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion show that 3-cent fare operation of the Detroit lines 
would have resulted in a net deficit of $49,816 in 1912, and 
$20,429 during the first live months of this year. The com- 
pany avers that the paving required by the proposed ordi- 
nance would greatly increase the deficit and the universal 
transfer clause, by reducing the amount collected, would 
also lessen the net revenue. The company statement refers 
to the "unquestioned right the company has over the 
greater part of its system in the city to receive a higher 
rate of fare than is prescribed by the proposed ordinance," 
and says that this right and many others must be given up 
without consideration if the measure is agreed to. 

Extensions demanded by the Marx ordinance will cost 
$1,700,000, the statement says, and the company complains 
that the resultant operation would be at a loss, and the 
company might be compelled to cease operation at the will 
of the Council. Summing up the situation, the statement 
says that the Marx ordinance calls for impossible conces- 
sions and that the company under no circumstances can 
accept the proposal. 

Calling attention to section 19 of the street car ordinance, 
approved Dec. 4, 1894, the company declares that it is ready 
and willing to comply with the terms of that ordinance and 
maintains that the city of Detroit cannot violate the terms 
of that ordinance. The company makes two distinct pro- 
posals to the city, as follows: To operate all city lines under 
the terms of the ordinance of T894, known as the 3-cent fare 
ordinance; or to sell its lines to the city of Detroit for a fair 
price to be agreed on, or failing agreement, to be deter- 
mined in any reasonable way. 

The company offers, through General Manager Brooks, to 
open its books to the public to prove that 3-cent fares 
would result in a deficit. 

Following the presentation of the company's statement 
Mayor Marx said: 

"The proposal of the Detroit United Railway to agree 
to the terms of the old Detroit ordinance over the entire 
system is absurd and will not be considered for one minute. 
So far as I am concerned, the company will never receive a 
franchise in the streets of Detroit, nor will 1 ever sanction 
the submission to the people of any proposition involving 
a franchise. To do so after the people have, in numerous 
instances, expressed their will in a decisive and overwhelm- 
ing manner, would be an insult to their intelligence. 

"The purpose of inviting the officials of the company to 
these meetings of the committee was not to listen to a dicta- 
tion of terms by them. It was rather to give them as in- 
terested parties a chance to offer reasonable objections to 
the proposed ordinance. T am firmly of the belief that the 
city is the one to dictate terms, and I have no intention of 
receding from this position. If nothing else, the companv's 
statement should convince the people that municipal owner- 
ship is inevitable. No permanent settlement with the com- 
pany is possible, nor should it be considered. 

"1 am pleased to have the first official announcement from 
the company that it is willing to sell. And I intend that we 
shall with all possible haste take advantage of this offer. 
Within the next few days I expect to appoint the street 
railway commission, empowered to open negotiations for 
the purchase of the system. While I wish to consult with 

Corporation Counsel Lawson and Messrs. Lucking and 
Frazer before finally approving this proposal, 1 believe that 
the agreement to sell is worthy of consideration. However, 
I intend that the people of Detroit shall obtain some ad- 
vantage from the decision in the Fort Street case pending 
the negotiations for purchase of the system. The company 
is operating without authority on a part of its system. As a 
trespasser it cannot dictate terms. It must come to the 
terms which the city dictates or cease operation of its cars." 

A digest of the terms of the ordinance proposed by 
Mayor Marx was published in the Electric Railway 
Journal of July 5, 1913. page 38. 

Brake Order of New York Commission Upheld 

As noted briefly in the Electric Railway Journal of 
July 12, 1913, page 74, the Appellate Division of the Su- 
preme Court of New York by a unanimous vote upheld on 
July 10 the proceedings of the Public Service Commission 
of the First District in its order requiring the Brooklyn 
Rapid Transit Company to equip its cars with power brakes 
and geared hand brakes. The company had objected to 
the order and brought five separate writs of certiorari to 
the Appellate Division for review. The action of the Public 
Service Commission in each case is affirmed and the writs 
dismissed with $50 costs to the company. 

The Public Service Commission instituted proceedings 
and held a public hearing on July 20, 191 1, to determine 
whether the street railroad corporations and receivers 
should be ordered to equip all double-truck surface cars 
with power brakes of a type to be approved by the com- 
mission, and whether any other changes, improvements in 
or additions to the equipment then in use should be ordered 
as necessary to the effective and safe use and operation of 
brakes on the cars. On Oct. 10. 191 1, the commission 
adopted a resolution to the effect that after June 1, 1912, 
"all passenger double-truck surface cars in service weigh- 
ing over 27,000 lb. shall be equipped with power brakes and 
geared hand brakes." The order also provided that after 
June 1, 1913, all surface cars weighing over 25,100 lb. should 
be similarly equipped and all cars weighing less should be 
equipped with geared hand brakes. 

The Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company gave notice on 
Nov. 1, 191 1, that it would not obey the order, and re- 
quested a rehearing on the ground that the requirements 
of the order were not within the scope of the inquiry as 
stated in the resolution of the commission; that the evi- 
dence before the commission did not warrant the order, 
and that sufficient opportunity was not afforded the com- 
pany to give evidence with reference to the comparative 
efficiency of the geared hand brakes and staff and chain 
brakes. The rehearing was granted and further evidence 
offered on both sides, and on June 21, 1912, the commission 
made a final order requiring the installation of the brakes. 

Justice McLaughlin, who wrote the opinion, says that 
the Legislature clearly conferred authority upon the com- 
mission to make the order requiring a change with respect 
to the brake equipment of cars. He said: 

"The commission was authorized to institute the inquiry 
on its own initiative and the hearing and determination 
are deemed judicial or quasi-judicial proceedings, and are 
subject to review by the writ of certiorari. It appears that 
all the cars to which the order applies were equipped with 
brakes known as plain staff brakes. The first provision of 
the order relates to passenger double-truck surface cars 
weighing over 27,000 lb., and required that they be equipped 
with power brakes and geared hand brakes. The relators 
owned at the time of the hearing 564 cars which would be 
subjected to this provision of the order. The relator also 
owned at this time 637 cars weighing between 25,100 lb. 
and 27,000 lb. which by the terms of the order are required 
to be equipped with power and geared hand brakes. The 
number of cars owned by the relators at the time of the 
hearing weighing 25,100 lb. or less, and which were re- 
quired to be equipped with geared hand brakes, was 624. 
It also appeared at the hearing that the heavier cars on 
the lines were equipped with both power and hand brakes." 

July 19, 1913. 



Justice Laughlin says that the company did not seri- 
ously complain of the order in so far as it affected future 
purchases of cars, and that there was no evidence to show 
that the new cars were not equipped with both kinds of 
brakes. The company complained that the order com- 
pelling it to equip the cars on hand with both brakes was 
unnecessary, and that inasmuch as the installation of the 
brakes involved an expenditure of more than $500,000, it 
was unreasonable. All the other street railways in the 
city were affected by the same order, and they acquiesced. 
In conclusion, the opinion says: 

"The statement of the evidence is sufficient to show that 
it does not preponderate against the determination made 
by the Public Service Commission in ordering the change 
of equipment. In the interest of the convenience and 
safety of the public the Legislature vested the commission 
with broad discretionary powers, and it would require clear 
and convincing evidence that their determination on the 
facts was erroneous to warrant the court in annulling the 

Differences Between Ohio Vahey Electric Railway and Its 
Employees Adjusted 

The differences between the Ohio Valley Electric Rail- 
way, Huntington, W. Va., and its trainmen, in regard to 
wages and working conditions, have been adjusted without 
the company conceding recognition of the union or enter- 
ing into any written contract with the men. Some of the 
men organized on June 30 and on the morning of July 6 
attempted to present a list of demands to W. W. Magoon, 
general manager of the company, while he was addressing 
a meeting of employees of the company who were opposed 
to a strike. At this meeting Mr. Magoon told the men 
that the company would never recognize a union, and re- 
fused to accept the list of demands as coming from a 
union. He did, however, permit the demands to be read. 
They included a wage increase of t cent an hour, adjust- 
ment of certain working conditions, recognition of the 
union and the appointment of a temporary board of arbi- 
tration to settle all questions that could not be satisfac- 
torily adjusted by the company and the union. Mr. Magoon 
announced that the matter of a wage increase had already 
been considered and that a favorable verdict would prob- 
ably be reached within a few days. He added that he 
would receive any of the men individually and pledged him- 
self to adjust all just grievances at once. Four days later 
the union tried to induce Mr. Magoon to recognize "an or- 
ganization of the men" and permit a committee of this 
organization to treat with him. This request was denied. 

Meanwhile, Mr. Magoon announced an increase in wages 
of 1 cent an hour to date from July 1. At 5.30 a. m. on 
July 10, a few hours after this announcement was made, 
the men in the newly-organized union voted against a 
strike. They announced that this action was taken on the 
promise of Mr. Magoon to adjust all grievances except 
recognition. Seventy-five per cent of the men voted against 
a strike when the ballot was taken. 

In a very forceful statement of the position of the corn- 
pan v which he made on July 9 Mr. Magoon ^aid: 

"No man now in our employ, so long as he attends to his 
duties and obeys the rules of the company, need fear that 
he will be blacklisted or discharged for having joined the 
organization movement that I have been informally notified 
is under way. Moreover, every man who works for the 
Ohio Valley Electric Railway knows, or should know, 
that no man has ever been discharged from its employ un- 
less he was proved guilty of having broken one or more of 
its rules. In this connection I want to say that I have 
heard that it is being reported several men recently dis- 
charged were let go because they had been instrumental in 
passing around a petition for higher wages. That petition 
was never presented to me, although some of the men who 
had signed it asked me to erase their names, as they had 
signed it under a misrepresentation. 

"I cannot state too forcibly, however, that that petition 
had absolutely nothing to do with the discharge of the men 
in question. The reasons for their discharge are on record 
in my office and can be seen by any employee who is in- 
terested enough to want to allay his suspicions as to why 

the men were let go. 1 do not care to make these reasons 
public, as 1 do not want to do anything which might tend 
to mortify the persons most vitally interested. In conclu- 
sion 1 wish to say that so long as I am manager of the 
Ohio Valley Electric Railway the door of my office will 
always be open to my men. If they think they have any 
grievances I want them to come to me with them, and if 
they are just grievances f will see that they are .satisfac- 
torily adjusted. This company, however, will never recog- 
nize a union, f do not say this as a threat — merely a plain 
statement of fact." 

Strike in Lexington Settled 

The strike of the motormen and conductors of the Ken- 
tucky Traction & Terminal Company, Lexington, Ky., who 
walked out on July 11, following the trouble that the com- 
pany had with its linemen, as mentioned in the Electric 
Railway Journal of July 12, 1913, has been ended by an 
agreement reached on July 15 between the company and the 
representatives of the men. 

The company agrees not to discriminate against members 
of the union on account of their affiliation with chat body 
and also to arbitrate such differences as arise between the 
company and the employees. It is expressly stated that the 
open-shop principle shall prevail. No union emblems are 
to be worn by employees of the company. The agreement is 
to be in force for two years, and the present scale of wages 
is to be maintained during that time. 

The strike of the motormen and conductors was a direct 
result of the linemen's strike. On July 10 the motormen 
and conductors organized a union and appointed a commit- 
tee to communicate a proposal to the company looking to- 
ward a settlement of the linemen's difficulties. The com- 
pany refused to recognize the union and the strike resulted. 
Service was discontinued on both the city and interurban 
lines until July 13 when the company attempted to operate 
cars with strikebreakers brought from New York City. 
Strike sympathizers attacked the men employed to operate 
the cars. One car was burned, switches were broken, and 
the company abandoned its efforts in the evening. Police 
and deputy sheriffs were powerless to handle the situation 
and few arrests were made. An extended investigation is 
now being made by the Grand Jury into the question of 
whether county officials failed in their duty. Judge Kerr, in 
a very strong charge, said that "every citizen of this com- 
munity ought to hide his head in shame" on account of the 
strike outrages. 

Decision Against Tort Creditors in New York 

Special Master William L. Turner has rendered a deci- 
sion in the tangled litigation of the Metropolitan Street 
Railway, New York, N. Y., which is adverse to the tort 
creditors who did not accept the offer of the receivers to 
exchange their judgment claims for bonds of the New 
York Railways, the successor company. There are claim- 
ants to the amount of between $400,000 and $500,000 in 
this class, while tort claimants to the amount of $1,400,000 
accepted the receivers' offer. 

The point before the Special Master was the class of 
claims that could rank against a large fund derived from 
the unexpended income of the old New York City Railway- 
Before anything can be done with this money the operat- 
ing expenses must be paid out of it. The representatives 
of the tort claimants contended that the judgment claims 
for injuries received at the hands of the railroad were as 
much legitimate operating expenses as the claims of those 
who had supplied goods for the running of the road. Al- 
though they had authority for this claim jn the form of a 
decision by the Court of Appeals of New York, it was op- 
posed to a decision by the Circuit Court of Appeals and 
Special Master Turner was obliged to follow the ruling 
of the federal court. Consequently, the tort claimants who 
refused the receivers' offer must take their chance of get- 
ting their judgments settled out of whatever is left when 
the final settlement of the affairs of the New York City 
Railway is reached. It is expected that they will realize 
about 40 or 50 per cent of the amounts for which they 



[Vol. XLII, No. 3. 

obtained judgments. None of these legal complications 
affect the tort claimants who accepted the bonds of the 
New York Railways. Their judgment claims now belong 
to the New York Railways and it alone is now concerned 
with the value of these claims. These tort claimants have 
to consider merely the value of the bonds they received. 

Seventh Avenue Subway Route, New York 

The first step was taken on July 15 by the Public Service 
Commission of the First District of New York in the 
preparation of the Seventh Avenue route from Times 
Square to the Battery, which will be operated by the Inter- 
borough Rapid Transit Company. On Aug. 1 a public 
hearing will be held on the form of contract for this line, 
which is divided from the Battery to Times Square into six 
sections. The first runs from the Battery under Greenwich 
Street almost up to Vesey Street. The second is under 
Greenwich Street, West Broadway and Varick Street almost 
to Beach Street; the third runs under Varick Street and 
Seventh Avenue Extension to Commerce Street; the fourth 
under Seventh Avenue Extension and Seventh Avenue to 
about Sixteenth Street; the fifth goes as far north as 
Thirtieth Street, and the sixth carries the line onto its con- 
nection with the present subway, about 60 ft. south of 
Forty-third Street. 

On Aug. 1 there will be also a public hearing on the 
form of contract for the New Utrecht Avenue division of 
the Fourth Avenue, Brooklyn, line, which will be operated 
by the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company. 

The commission has awarded the contract for the con- 
struction of the section of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit 
Broadway subway from Bleecker Street to Union Square to 
the Dock Contractor Company, Hoboken, for $2,578,078. 

Mr. Whitridge's Apologia 

Frederick W. Whitridge, president of the Third Ave- 
nue Railway, New York, N. Y., in the report of the com- 
pany for the six months ended June 30, 19 13, referred to 
elsewhere in this issue, has presented a brief apologia to 
the security holders of the company who have been uneasy 
over the course he has pursued with respect to the public 
authorities. His remarks were prompted by the decision 
of the Appellate Division of the Supreme Court, sustaining 
the company's contention in respect to the franchise taxes 
still in dispute. Mr. Whitridge said: 

"I have said a good many things about the Board of 
Tax Commissioners and about the Public Service Com- 
mission which are not conventional and which are not 
pleasant to say, and I am aware that numbers of good 
people, who prefer the lines of least resistance and object 
to controversy, think that I have been 'unwise' and 'inju- 
dicious'; I am also aware that the public generally does 
not like its officials to be treated with apparent disrespect. 
But, in whatever I have said, I believe I have considered 
primarily only the interests of this property, and perhaps 
my critics may find comfort and justification for me in 
the fact that in all my litigations with the authorities, I 
have been invariably adjudged to be right. My course has, 
however, been deliberately chosen, because I have ventured 
to feel that in dealing with these subjects as I have, I 
was in some sense discharging a public duty. 

"The plain truth is, both in the State and Nation, it is 
seldom that we find a first-class man or a second-class man 
in any administrative office. It sounds unpatriotic, but the 
fact is indisputable. These men are honest enough, almost 
without exception, but their performances are incredible. 
Take this company for instance: For five years I have been 
engaged in rehabilitating the Third Avenue Railroad, and 
in a year or two more the job will be finished. The Public 
Service Commission has not helped me at all; it has de- 
layed me, put me to very great and wholly useless ex- 
pense, plagued me in a hundred ways, and among many 
other foolish suits against me, brought one which might 
have ruined me individually. It is a shameful thing that 
such a state should exist. I am bound to add that with the 
advent of a new chairman and the change of control the 
spirit of common sense appears to have breathed upon the 
commission itself, though it has not permeated its or- 

"Take also the case of this Board of Tax Commissioners 
at Albany: Twelve years ago they assessed the value of 
the franchises of the railroad. After nine years' litiga- 
tion their assessments were cut in two, and yet, during the 
next three years they continued to assess those franchises 
at the original figures fixed for them, as if the Court of 
Appeals never had spoken or did not exist. I submit that 
nothing more monstrous can be imagined. 

"The same sort of thing is going on in a different degree 
all over the country. We see everywhere small people en- 
trusted with enormous powers, and new powers and new 
functions are continually being loaded upon their poor, 
weak backs. The most of them have had to do with poli- 
tics, and 'politics' makes cowards of them, every one. They 
become, as representatives of the State and of the people, 
as they suppose, arrogant, vain, determined to construct a 
great bureaucracy, regardless of expense, and they adopt 
and try to force upon us every sort of fad and vagary 
which can be found in printed books. Here, for instance, 
is the Interstate Commerce Commission, which has foisted 
upon the country a 'valuation' of all the railroads in the 
United States. It will cost millions, and it is as senseless 
a folly as any scheme of George Law's, or of Cagliostro's. 
When it is finished — if it ever is — the only conceivable effect 
of it will be to addle more brains and provide more sloppy 

"As 1 perceive how the tendencies to interfere with cor- 
porations by regulation, which degenerates into mere med- 
dlesomeness, has grown, how the pathetic belief of the 
public in these regulations has increased and how little 
the regulators themselves have improved, I have felt it 
was the duty of ever man concerned with corporations to 
speak of these tendencies with candor. I have endeavored 
to do so, but never without full provocation. 

"I believe that these officials must be taught that cor- 
poration managers are as upright, as honorable, as keen 
tor the public welfare, and as interested in social justice — 
whatever that is — as any other set of people whatsoever, 
and that they cannot with impunity be talked about or 
written about as if they were anything else. I have felt 
also that if plain, accurate language could compel these 
officials to be amenable to reason, to keep within the law, 
to mind their own business, and to realize their true rela- 
tion to the universe, it was a duty to the State and a help 
to those officials themselves to see that plain, accurate 
language was used, for I firmly believe that if these ten- 
dencies are not checked we shall presently be thinking less 
of the new nationalism and the new freedom than of the 
new slavery and the various liveries in which it is sought 
to be disguised." 

Strike Broken in Phoenix 

The strike of the conductors and motormen of the 
Phoenix (Ariz.) Railway, which was begun on June 22, 
1913, as noted in the Electric Railway Journal of June 28, 
1913, has been broken. The strike was attended with con- 
siderable violence. On June 27 Samuel H. Mitchell, gen- 
eral manager of the company, in a statement which he 
tendered the Arizona Corporation Commission, agreed to 
arbitrate the question of wages and of seniority, two of 
the principal contentions of the men on strike, but he did 
not mention the question of recognition of the union or 
of the reinstatement of William Ward, who was discharged 
for threatening to make trouble. This offer was rejected 
by the strikers, whose places were promptly filled by the 
company with experienced men brought from Los Angeles, 
Cal. On July 1 the regular schedule was maintained on 
the Washington Street line and an intermittent schedule 
was maintained on three other lines, including the Glen- 
dale interurban. A considerable number of passengers were 
carried without molestation. In a statement which he is- 
sued recently in regard to the situation Mr. Mitchell said: 
"The men have turned down our proposition to arbitrate 
the questions of wages and seniority. Now we are going 
to raise wages voluntarily and I hope that when we do so 
many of our former employees will come back to work. 
The men from Los Angeles that we have put to work are 
experienced operatives and will stay until the present trou- 
ble is settled. Some may stay permanently." 

July 19. i9 J 3-J 



Cincinnati Arbitrators Submit Terms of Agreement 

The board of arbitration consisting of John P. Frey, rep- 
resenting the employees of the Cincinnati (Ohio) Traction 
Company; Walter A. Draper, secretary of the company, 
representing the company, and Walter A. Knight, which 
has been considering the difference between the company 
and its employees, reported its findings on July 15. The 
board organized on May 27, 1913. Among the subjects 
considered were the discharge of certain men prior to the 
recent strike, the questions of wages, hours of service, etc. 
The hearings held in regard to the reinstatement of men 
were not open to the public, although each man as his 
case was heard was present at the examination. The ses- 
sions of the board in regard to the general questions which 
were arbitrated were open to the public and the press. 
The board served without pay. The board named forty- 
two men to be reinstated, rejected the claims of sixteen 
men for reinstatement and still had under consideration 
on July 15 the cases of three men. The cases of three 
other men were withdrawn by the representative of the 
men without a hearing. The new contract between the 
company and its employees is to be considered as going 
into effect July 1, 1913, and is to continue until midnight 
June 30, 1916. The new scale of wages for motormen 
and conductors is to date from May 20, 1913, the day the 
men returned to work. Negotiations for a new agreement 
are to be taken up at least sixty days prior to the expira- 
tion of the agreement of July 1, 1913, and in case of the 
failure to reach an agreement ten days before the expira- 
tion of the contract on July 1, 1916, the matter of a new 
agreement is to be referred to a board of arbitration con- 
sisting of a representative of the men,' a representative ot 
the company and a third member to be selected by these 
two. The findings of the board in regard to the scale 
of wages follow: 

For the year from July 1, 1913, to midnight, June 30, 
1914: First six months, 20 cents an hour; second six 
months, 21 cents an hour; second year. 23 cents an hour; 
third year, 23 cents an hour; fourth year, 24 cents an hour; 
fifth year, 24 cents an hour; sixth year, 24 cents an hour; 
seventh year, 25 cents an hour; eighth year, 25 cents an 
hour; ninth year, 26 cents an hour; tenth year, 27 cents an 

For the year from July 1, 1913, to midnight, June 30, 
1915: First six months. 20 cents an hour; second six 
months, 21 cents an hour; second year, 23 cents an hour; 
third year, 23 cents an hour; fourth year, 24 cents an hour; 
fifth year, 24 cents an hour; sixth year, 25 cents an hour; 
seventh year, 25 cents an hour; eighth year, 26 cents an 
hour; ninth year, 27 cents an hour. 

For the year from July r, 1915, to midnight, June 30, 
1916: First six months, 20 cents an hour; second six 
months. 21 cents an hour; second year, 23 cents an hour; 
third year, 23 cents an hour; fourth year, 24 cents an hour; 
fifth year, 24 cents an hour; sixth year. 25 cents an hour; 
seventh year, 26 cents an hour; eighth year, 27 cents an 

The rate for overtime is to be time and one-third. 

Motormen and conductors transferred from the trans- 
portation department to operate other than regular pas- 
senger cars are to receive the following rates of pay: 
Sprinklers, 22 cents an hour; work cars, 22 cents an hour; 
mail cars, 24 cents an hour. 

Time and a half is to be paid for all time put in on snow 
sweepers, including the time after reporting spent in wait- 
ing in the carhouses to take out the sweepers. 

The regular rate is to be paid to men assigned to operate 
pay cars, sand cars, salt cars and special cars. 

The following provision was made for arbitration in case 
of any dispute in regard to the meaning of any of the 
findings of the board under the agreement of July 1, 1913: 

"In case of dispute concerning the meaning of any of 
che findings of this Board of Arbitration the disputed sec- 
tion or language shall be referred to this board for defini- 
tion and elucidation, and should any one of said arbitra- 
tors be unable to act, the side represented by the arbi- 
trator who may be incapacitated shall choose a third 
arbitrator, or in case the third arbitrator acting in the 
present arbitration shall be incapacitated, the two remain- 
ing arbitrators shall choose a third." 

Resumption of Service Ordered on Chicago Suburban Lines 

During the period of suspension of operation by the 
County Traction Company and the Suburban Railroad some 
of the Chicago suburbs reached by the lines have dis- 
cussed the purchase of the properties with the idea of pay- 
ing the wages demanded by the striking trainmen and thus 
securing resumption of service to the city. The City 
Council of Evanston, 111., finally rejected on July 16 the 
proposition that it take over the line of the County Trac- 
tion Company in that city as Corporation Counsel McNab 
said that the city had no legal right to own and operate the 
street railway system unless authorized by referendum. 
The sale of the Suburban Railroad, which is in the hands 
of a receiver, has been ordered by Judge Petit of the Cook 
County Circuit Court. Notwithstanding the statement of 
Emil G. Schmidt, receiver, that earnings will not permit 
the payment of the wages demanded by the striking train- 
men, Judge Petit takes the position that the road must be 
operated and declared that he would order the sale of the 
property. Several independent petitions seeking to compel 
restoration of service have been fiied. 

Action cn Through Routing in Chicago Deferred — 

Action on the proposed ordinance providing for through 
routes on the elevated lines in Chicago with transfers and 
the construction of a terminal subway in the business dis- 
trict was deferred by the City Council on July 14 until the 
meeting of July 21. 

Vallejo Wreck Results in Heavy Damage Suits. — Dam- 
age suits against the San Francisco, Napa & Calistoga Rail- 
way, Napa, Cal.j as a result of the collision and wreck of 
two e.ectric trains near Vallejo on June 19 last, will, it is 
estimated, amount to $500,000. In first large suit gross 
carelessness is alleged in the complaint, which asks for $75,- 
,000 damages. 

Underground Trolley Ordinance in Chicago. — Mayor 
Harrison of Chicago sent ordinances to the City Coijncil 
on July 14 requiring the railway companies to install the 
underground trolley in the district bounded by Thirty-first 
Street, Ashland Avenue, North Avenue and Lake Michigan. 
The ordinances were referred to the committee on local 

Massachusetts Public Service Commission Organized. — 

The Public Service Commission, appointed under the pro- 
visions of chapter 784 of the Acts of the General Court 
of Massachusetts for the year 1913, and consisting of Fred- 
erick J. Macleod, George W. Anderson, George P. Law- 
rence, Clinton White and George W. Bishop, has organ- 
ized by the choice of Frederick J. Macleod as chairman. 

Power Contract Rumors in Louisville. — T. J. Minary, 
president of the Louisville (Ky.) Railway, said recently that 
the matter of the Louisville Gas & Electric Company sup- 
plying the railway with power, has not come before him. 
It is stated that the Byllesby interests, which control the 
Louisville Gas & Electric Company, have investigated the 
power requirements of the railway and are prepared to 
offer a rate which they think will result in the railway 
purchasing current. 

America's First Safety Exposition. — The first inter- 
national exposition of safety and sanitation ever held in 
America will take place in New York City, Dec. 11 to 20, 
1913, under the auspices of the American Museum of Safety. 
Safety and every branch of American industrial life will be 
represented at the exposition. By a special act of Con- 
gress, exhibits from Europe and other foreign countries are 
to be admitted free of duty. All of the twenty-one museums 
of safety in Europe will contribute to the American exposi- 

Severe Windstorm. — W. C. Sparks, vice-president and 
general manager of the Rockford & Interurban Railway, 
Rockford, 111., reports that that company did not suffer 
any serious damage in the severe windstorm of July 8, 
although a few trolley wires were torn down when trees 
were blown on them. The telephone companies suffered 
very severely and as their wires were blown across the 
wires of the electric railway, it was necessary to suspend 
railway operation for a time on account of the possible 
danger to the public arising from the telephone wires. 



[Vol. XLII, No. 3. 

Municipal Ownership Advocates Heard in Detroit. — At 

the regular meeting of the Common Council of Detroit, 
Mich., on July 7, Henry Kumerford, president of the De- 
troit Federation of Labor, opposed the street railway or- 
dinance proposed by Mayor Marx. He said that the people 
favor municipal ownership and that the Council, as the serv- 
ant of the people, should report adversely on the ordinance. 
Several other advocates of municipal ownership spoke 
against the ordinance. Frank E. Hambarger, who is op- 
posed to municipal ownership, supported the ordinance. 

Meeting of State Railway Commissioners to Discuss Val- 
uation. — A meeting of the committee representing the 
National Association of Railway Commissioners was held 
in Chicago on June 27 to discuss the appraisal of interstate 
carriers, which is now under way by the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission. The following attended the meeting: 
Halford Erickson, Wisconsin; O. P. Gothlin, Ohio; Clifford 
Thorne, Iowa; George A. Henshaw, Oklahoma; Charles F. 
Staples, Minnesota; H. S. Martin, Kansas; Orville F. Berry, 
Illinois; C. L. Glasgow, Michigan, and H. T. Clarke, Jr., 

Maine Public Utilities Act. — As predicted in the Electric 
Railway Journal of July 15, 1913, page 42, the new Maine 
Public Utilities Act was rendered inoperative on July 12 
by filing a petition for a referendum, containing more than 
10,000 names. Governor Haines will announce the date, for 
a general election to decide on the matter. This elec- 
tion, however, cannot be held before Nov. 12. It is said 
that friends of the measure will test the right of proponents 
or opponents of a measure to purchase signatures to 
referendum petitions, as has been done in this case. Mean- 
while, the present railway commission will continue in 

Elevated Lines Suggested for Detroit. — Speaking before 
the city plan and improvement commission at Detroit on 
July 10, E. H. Bennett, a Chicago architect, suggested that 
an elevated railway be built on Woodward Avenue and that 
othe,r elevated lines be built later on, with cross-town lines 
at convenient places. He said that cities in foreign coun- 
tries have succeeded in eliminating the noise to a large ex- 
tent. Mr. Bennett had not made an exhaustive study of 
the transportation problem in Detroit and his suggestions 
were based upon plans he had made for beautifying the 
city. He has made a set of maps showing the changes and 
improvements which he thinks necessary to make the city 
what the commission desires and the plans for transporta- 
tion are incidental to the main idea. 

Buffalo Wage Arbitration. — Statistics showing the wages 
paid throughout the country by electric railways to their 
employees have been presented to the board of arbitration 
named to settle the question of wages and conditions of 
service between the International Railway, Buffalo, N. Y., 
and its employees. Officials of the company started to put 
its evidence before the board on July 15. For almost three 
weeks the employees have been introducing their evidence 
before the board and it is expected it will take the In- 
ternational Railway about as long. Burt L. Jones, vice- 
president and general manager of the Great Gorge Route, 
represents the International Railway on the board; Assem- 
blyman Edward D. Jackson appears for the men. Mayor 
Louis P. Fuhrmann, of Buffalo, is the third member. The 
sessions of the board of arbitration are secret. 

Progress of Kansas City Negotiations. — After the con- 
ference on July 2 between the representatives of the city 
of Kansas City, Mo., and the officers of the Metropolitan 
Street Railway in regard to the details of the terms of the 
proposed new franchise to the company Mayor Jost said 
that the city is contending for a single engineer of its 
own choosing to manage the property. The company de- 
sires two engineers. The Mayor also said that the ques- 
tion of possible conflicting authority between the two Kan- 
sas Cities and the public utility commissions in Missouri 
and Kansas was also causing the negotiators some anxiety. 
On July 3 the questions of charges to the operating and 
maintenance accounts were considered. The conferences 
were then put over for a period of ten days. Following 
this conference the Mayor said: "I feel that we are mak- 
ing good progress." A statement in regard to the matters 
considered is given out after each meeting. 

Erdman Act Amended.— On July 15, 1913, the Newlands 
bill, designed to broaden and strengthen the Erdman arbi- 
tration act, was rushed through both houses of Congress 
and signed by President Wilson. Instead of a board of 
arbitration of only three members, the amendment pro- 
vides for a board of six members. It also creates a com- 
missioner of mediation and conciliation, who, with two .'Kier 
Government officials to be appointed by the Pi . • dent, 
will constitute a board of mediation and conciliation. This 
board will name disinterested arbitrators to act v.'th arbi- 
trators chosen by employers and em-,loyees. The amend- 
ment relies upon voluntary arbitration. As a result of 
this action it is believed that the threatsneo strike of train- 
men and conductors on the Eastern railroads will be 
averted through the submission of then grievances to the 
board of arbitration which is provided for in the new law. 

First Municipal Car From Bay to Ocean.— San Francisco 
celebrated the completion of the Geary Street Municipal 
Railway on June 25. The Mayor, Comnn-sioners o { Pub- 
lic Works, Board of Supervisors and a few invited guests, 
among whom were the contractors who built the road, were 
passengers on the first car up Market Street ,.rm the 
ferries to the ocean. Under an agreement between the 
city and the United Railroads the cars of the Geary Street 
Municipal Railway and the cars of the Sutter Street line 
of the United Railroad operate over the s; me tracks in 
Market Street from the Ferry Building to Sansome Street. 
These tracks are on either side of the main United Rail- 
road tracks, making a four-track system for this portion 
of Market Street. Transfers are exchanged between cars 
of the United Railroads and the municipal cars at corners 
where the municipal line intersects various United Rail- 
road lines. 

Governor Dunne on the Illinois Utility Act. — In a state- 
ment which he issued at the time he signed the Illinois 
utility act, abstracted in the Electric Railway Journal of 
July 12, 1913, page 75, Governor Dunne of Illinois said in 
part: "The public utilities bill passed by the Legislature in 
the form in which it comes to me for approval, is in many 
respects the best measure of its kind that has found its way 
into the laws of a State, notwithstanding that there have 
been eliminated from it certain home-rule provisions which 
I earnestly supported and tried to have placed in the act. It 
is elastic: it is workable; provides ample authority for a 
public utilities commission when appointed to deal eff- 
ciently with all problems it may undertake. It is, in my 
judgment, better than the Wisconsin law, which has been 
regarded as a model, to wit: (1) Giving the commission 
control of public-owned utilities, and (2) giving private cor- 
porations indeterminate franchises." 

South Boston Service Improvement. — A new double- 
track surface car line will shortly be placed in service by 
the Boston (Mass.) Elevated Railway between the Boston 
South Station district and L Street, South Boston, forming 
a cut-off route between the city proper and the residential 
peninsula terminating at City Point. The route will in- 
clude the extension of Summer Street and L Street, and 
will probably save about one-half mile of distance and at 
least five minutes in running t'i-r over the present Dor- 
chester Avenue-Broadway route. Additional service will 
be given to new steamship docks and the line will be 
utilized by the company in operating morning and evening 
extras in and out of the business district, besides providing 
an attractive shore route for pleasure travel to and from 
the City Point Park district. It will also relieve traffic con- 
ditions on the Broadway lines, which serve a dense popu- 
lation lying within about 2 miles from the downtown sec- 
tion of Boston. 

Washington's Herdic Transfer Case Carried to Supreme 
Court. — The Capital Traction Company and the Washing- 
ton Railway & Electric Company, Washington. D. C, in 
separate actions filed in the Supreme Court of the District 
of Columbia, have taken steps to have that tribunal pass on 
the constitutionality of the law of Aug. 24, 1912, requiring 
reciprocal transfer agreements between the companies and 
the Metropolitan Coach Company. The District Commis- 
sioners, the Public Utilities Commission and the Metropol- 
itan Coach Company are named as defendants. While the 
proceedings are in the form of bills for injunction, they are 

July 19, 1913.] 



in effect an appeal from the order of the Utilities Commis- 
sion, passed on June 2, requiring the companies to issue and 
accept transfers to and from the Sixteenth Street herdic 
line under the penalty of $100 for each violation. The com- 
panies, under protest, agreed to obey the order pending a 
legal determination of the constitutionality of the enact- 
ment and have been issuing and receiving transfers from 
the Metropolitan Coach Company. 

Arbitration at Boston. — The issues pending between the 
Boston (Mass.) Elevated Railway and its car service em- 
ployees are to be arbitrated by a board of three members, 
as noted in the Electric Railway Journal of July 12, 1913, 
page 80. The company will be represented by James L. 
Richards, of the executive committee of its board of direc- 
tors, and the employees' union by James H. Vahey. The 
third member of the board will be James J. Storrow, presi- 
dent of the Boston Chamber of Commerce and a member 
of the banking firm of Lee, Higginson & Company. The 
questions which are to be considered are the wages to be 
paid by the company, the hours of labor of employees in 
the road and track departments, the establishment of uni- 
form hours in shops, free transportation for employees, 
abolition of piece work, and the establishment of a mini- 
mum wage for extra men not assigned to work to the 
extent of seven hours. The board of arbitrators sitting in 
the Boston Elevated Railway wage issue has held pre- 
liminary sessions at Boston and has announced that it will 
hold public hearings for the presentation of testimony and 
other data beginning about July 20. It is possible that the 
sessions of the board will be held at the State House. 

Proposal for Municipal Ownership in Seattle. — Scott 
Calhoun, one of the receivers of the Seattle, Renton & 
Southern Railway, Seattle, Wash., has proposed to the 
franchise committee of the City Council of Seattle, Wash., 
that the city purchase the property of the Seattle, Renton 
& Southern Railway within the city for $1,200,000, of which 
amount $350,000 is to be paid in cash or municipal street 
railway bonds and the remainder in 6 per cent public util- 
ity bonds to be issued for the purpose. Mr. Calhoun's 
offer, made as he explained at the suggestion of Judge A. 
W. Frater, of the Superior Court, is tentative, intended to 
end, if possible, the litigation in which the company is in- 
volved and take care of the creditors of the company. The 
proposition carries with it the immediate construction by 
the city of about 6 miles of extensions in the Rainier Valley 
through the sale of the remaining $150,000 of the $800,000 
of municipal street railway bonds authorized by the voters 
nearly three years ago. Mr. Calhoun explained that he had 
no authority to make a price on the line outside the city 
limits, but expressed a belief that the city could acquire 
it at a very reasonable figure. He said he would submit 
to the Council an offer covering the entire property of the 
Seattle, Renton & Southern Railway as soon as it could be 

New York Franchise Tax Assessments Ordered Reduced. 

— The Appellate Division of the Supreme Court has handed 
down a decision reducing the assessment of the State Board 
of Tax Commissioners on the special franchises of the 
Third Avenue Railway for 1910 from $7,920,000 to $5,493,695 
and the assessment by the same board on the special fran- 
chise of the Kingsbridge Railway from $759,000 to $629,301. 
Justice Gavegan, at Special Term, had found that, although 
the assessments as made represented the full value of the 
special franchises as found by the State Board of Tax Com- 
missioners, yet, as a matter of fact, the value of the special 
franchises of the Third Avenue Railway determined by the 
net earning rule, so called, was $10,863,806, and of those of 
the Kingsbridge Railway $1,033,513, and that, therefore, the 
assessment as made only represented about 73 per cent of 
the actual value of the special franchises. Counsel for the 
companies contended at Special Term and before the Ap- 
pellate Division that they were entitled to have the assess- 
ment reduced to 89 per cent of the value as determined by 
the State Board in order to equalize them with other prop- 
erty assessments, and Justice Laughlin, who wrote the opin- 
ion, in which all concur, said that it had been authorita- 
tively settled that the court should reduce special franchise 
assessments to the same percentage of valuation as has 
been followed generally with respect to the assessments of 
other real property on the same roll. 

Financial and Corporate 

Stock and Money Markets 

July 16, 1913. 

In the early trading on the New York Stock Exchange 
to-day the demand for stocks was brisk, contrasting strong- 
ly with the listless tone for several days past. Increased 
strength was shown in the trading after noon and further 
gains were made in the leading issues. Recessions were 
noted in the final dealings. Rates in the money market to- 
day were: Call, 2@2]/ 2 per cent; sixty days, 3>4@4 per cent; 
ninety days, 5(^5/4 per cent; four months, sV2@sVa per 
cent; five months, 5^i@6 per cent; six months, 6@6^ per 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit and General Asphalt issues 
led in the improvement in the Philadelphia market to-day. 
Trading was on a more normal basis than for some time 

The Chicago market was strong to-day. Chicago Elevated 
Railways preferred was an exception, falling six points to 

The Boston market was active to-day. Advances were 
scored throughout the list with large gains in several issues. 

United Railways issues were conspicuous in the trading 
in Baltimore to-day. 

Quotations of traction and manufacturing securities as 
compared with last week follow: 

July 9 July 16 

American Brake Shoe & Foundry (common) 87% 87% 

American Brake Shoe & Foundry (preferred) 126% 130 

American Cities Company (common).' 33% 37 5 /$ 

American Cities Company (preferred) 66 66 

American Light & Traction Company (common) 365 340 

American Light & Traction Company (preferred) 106% 104 

American Railways Company 38 38 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railroad (common) 40 39% 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railroad (preferred) 85 85 

Bqston Elevated Railway 87% 89% 

Boston Suburban Electric Companies (common) 7% yi/ 2 

Boston Suburban Electric Companies (preferred) 50 50 

Boston & Worcester Electric Companies (common) . . . . *8 *8 
Boston & Worcester Electric Companies (preferred)... 42 42 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company 86% 87% 

Canital Traction Company, Washington 114% 119% 

Chicago City Railway 165 165 

Chicago Elevated Railways (common) 26 *26 

Chicago Elevated Railways (preferred) 75 *75 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 1 95% 95 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 2 23% 25 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 3 7 7% 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 4 2% *2% 

Cincinnati Street Railway *110 110 

Cleveland Railway 102 103 

Cleveland, Southwestern & Columbus Ry. (common)... 6 6 
Cleveland, Southwestern & Columbus Ry. (preferred).. 29 29 

Columbus Railway & Light Company 12 18 

Columbus Railway (common) 60 69% 

Columbus Railway (preferred) 80 88' 

Denver & Northwestern Railway 107 107 

Detroit United Railway *70 70 

General Electric Company 137 139% 

Georgia Railway & Electric Company (common) 115% 115% 

Georgia Railway & Electric Company (preferred) 84 82*4 

Interborough Metropolitan Company (common) 14% 15^ 

Interborough Metropolitan Company (preferred) S4ii 56% 

International Traction Company (common) 30 *30 

International Traction Company (preferred) 95 *95 

Kansas City Railway & Light Company (common) 18 18 

Kansas City Railway & Light Company (preferred) .... 36 36 

Lake Shore Electric Railway (common) 9 9 

Lake Shore Electric Railway (1st preferred) 90 90 

Lake Shore Electric Railway (2d preferred) 25 25 

Manhattan Railway 125 125 

Massachusetts Electric Companies (common) 13% 1414 

Massachusetts Electric Companies (preferred) 68 '4 70 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co. (preferred).. 90 *90 

Norfolk Railway & Light Company 25 25 

North American Companv 65 67 

Northern Ohio Light & Traction Company (common).. 75 a 75 
Northern Ohio Light & Traction Company (preferred). 100 alOO 

Philadelphia Company, Pittsburgh (common) 39y 2 39 

Philadelphia Company, Pittsburgh (preferred) 39 39 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Companv 21% 21% 

Portland Railway, Eight & Power Company 58 58 

Public Service Corporation 109 107 

Third Avenue Railway, New York 30% 32% 

Toledo Railways & Light Company 2% a i2 

Twin City Rapid Transit Co., Minneapolis (common). . 101% 102'i 

Union Traction Company of Indiana (common) 4% 4y 2 

Union Traction Company of Indiana (1st preferred).. 80 " 80 " 

Union Traction Companv of Indiana (2d preferred).. 30 30 

United Rys. & Electric Company (Baltimore) 25% 26% 

United Rys. In v. Company (common) 17' ]g " 

United Rys. Inv. Company (preferred) 31% 32 

Virginia Railway & Power Company (common) 51 51 

Virginia Railway & Power Company (preferred) a92 89 

Washington Ry. & Electric Company (common) 89 89' 4 

Washington Ry. & Electric Company (preferred) 87 87 ! 4 

West End Street Railway, Roston (common) 70% 70% 

West End Street Railway, Boston (preferred) 85 " 85 

Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Company 57 59 

Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Company (1st preferred).. 104 106 

*Last sale, a Asked. 



[Vol. XLII, No. 3. 

Report of Third Avenue Railway 

Frederick W. Whitridge, president of the Third Ave- 
nue Railway, New York, N. Y., in a statement to the stock- 
holders of the company for the six months ended June 
30, 1 913, said in part: 

"From the statements of income for June and for the 
past six months it appears that the total increase in gross 
receipts amounts to $572,756 and that the surplus income 
for the system, after providing for the interest on the 5 
per cent adjustment bonds is $389,000 for the six months 
ending July 1. I accordingly recommend the payment of 
2.y 2 per cent on the adjustment bonds on Oct. 1. 

"These figures include receipts and profits of the Belt 
Line Railway Corporation from March 22, and are in a 
small degree estimated, but the total will not be substan- 
tially affected by any changes. 

"The Belt Line property was purchased at a total cost 
of $2,439,639. The Public Service Commission authorized 
the issue of 1750 bonds, bearing interest at 5 per cent, and 
ordered that they be sold at not less than 95. They have 
not yet been sold. The purchase has been carried on a 
note of the railway company, which falls due on Oct. 1. 
I have arranged for an extension of that loan together 
with an option on the bonds for a further period of six 
months from Oct. 1, and have agreed to pay on account of 
the principal of that note the sum of $500,000. I should 
add that the earnings of this property have exceeded my 
expectations. The interest upon the bonds authorized by 
the Public Service Commission has thus far been earned 
twice over, and so far as 1 can see the property promises 
to pay a handsome income on the total cost of the invest- 

"I also submit a statement showing the items of capital 
expenditure for which refunding bonds might under the 
terms of the mortgage properly be issued. I do not, how- 
ever, at this time, recommend that any application be made 
to the Public Service Commission for the issue of such 
bonds. The item for the New York City Interborough 
securities has been partly paid, so that the amount now 
due is only $1,000,000 and $500,000 will be paid on account 
of the Belt Line note on Aug. 25. We have cash enough 
on hand to pay for all of the budget expenditures men- 
tioned in my last report and for so much of these capital 
expenditures as will fall due during the current year, and 
if an application to issue the bonds were granted, I should 
not really know what to do with them, as a sale at the 
present prices is not to be thought of. In addition to these 
items, however, an application will be made to the Public 
Service Commission for the issue of a sufficient amount of 
bonds, first, to purchase the Mid-Crosstown Railway [a 
cash offer was made for that property on the lines of the 
decision of the Public Service Commission. The bond- 
holders of the Mid-Crosstown line would not even listen to 
it. Subsequently another offer for $500,000 of bonds, which 
the Mid-Crosstown people are willing to accept, has been 
made, which I have said to the Mid-Crosstown committee 
I do not believe the commission would permit us to carry 
out]; second, to arrange for a readjustment of the affairs of 
the Dry Dock road. This also is of such a character that 
the holders of the certificates of indebtedness have ar- 
ranged to undertake to get the assent of the commission 
for fhe new mortgage required. 

"I have also arranged with the Travelers Insurance Com- 
pany of Hartford for the issue of a policy of $1,000 on each 
employee of the company upon terms which I think highly 
favorable. In the meantime, the cost of free medical ad- 
vice, the sick pay and the club-room expenses are met by 
the association, and if a man does not wish to take out 
the $1,000 policy the association would still be able to pay 
the sum of $250 in case of death. 

"I am happy also to report that during the last week a 
sweeping decision in favor of the company has been ren- 
dered by the Appellate Division of the Supreme Court, sus- 
taining its contention in respect to franchise taxes still in 
dispute, and unless the authorities choose to prolong the 
litigation by appeal to the Court of Appeals, this will prob- 
ably enable me to pay the residuum of all the franchise 
taxes due, for which the cash is on hand in our interest 
and tax account." 

American Water Works & Guarantee Company, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. — Edmund S. Converse, Albert H. Wiggin and 
Charles F. Brooker at the request of holders of both com- 
mon and preferred stock of the American Water Works & 
Guarantee Company have agreed to act as a stockholders' 
protective committee and request stockholders to deposit 
their stock certificates with the Bankers' Trust Company, 
New York, N. Y. 

Belt Line Railway Corporation, New York, N. Y. — The 
Belt Line Railway Corporation has applied to the Public 
Service Commission for the First District for permission to 
issue $40,700 in stock to the Third Avenue Railway. 

Dry Dock, East Broadway & Battery Railway, New 
York, N. Y. — Judge Lacombe, in the United States District 
Court, has denied the application of Frederick W. Whit- 
ridge, receiver of the Dry Dock, East Broadway & Battery 
Railway, for authority to issue $149,000 of receivers' certifi- 
cates. Judge Lacombe said the matter was one that would 
have to be passed upon by a special master. Counsel for 
Receiver Whitridge and for creditors stated that the prop- 
erty of the railway company would have to be sold under 

Hudson & Manhattan Railroad, New York, N. Y. — Kuhn, 

Loeb & Company, and Harvey Fisk & Sons, New York, 
N. Y., and Robert Fleming & Company, London, Eng., 
have announced that as more than 98^ per cent of the 4^ 
per cent mortgage bondholders and more than 95^ per 
cent of the preferred and common stock owners of the 
Hudson & Manhattan Railroad have assented to the plan 
of readjusting the company's finances, the plan is declared 
effective. Shareholders have been called upon to pay their 
assessment of $8.50 per share by Aug. 1. 

Idaho-Oregon Light & Power Company, Boise, Idaho. — 
The State Bank, Chicago, 111., trustee for the holders of 
the $3,319,000 of bonds of the Idaho-Oregon Light & Power 
Company, the interest on which payable on April I, 1913, 
is in default, has filed suit in the federal court at Boise 
to foreclose the mortgage under which the bonds are se- 
cured. The company is controlled by the same interests 
that control the Idaho Railway, Light & Power Company. 

International Railway, Buffalo, N. Y. — In the depart- 
ment "Financial and Corporate" in the Electric Railway 
Journal of July 5, 1913, reference was made to reported 
plans for a merger to include the International Railway, 
the Buffalo & Lake Erie Traction Company and the 
Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester Railway to provide a 
through trunk line between Rochester, Buffalo and Erie. 
E. G. Connette, president of the International Railway, is 
quoted as follows in this connection: "One of the pro- 
visions of the new mortgage for $60,000,000 recently exe- 
cuted contains a clause which prevents the International 
Railway from consolidating or taking over other properties. 
The Buffalo & Lake Erie Traction Company is now in 
process of reorganization. It may be months before the 
matter is taken into the courts, if ever, and the present 
mortgage foreclosed. The reorganization committee may 
bid in the line, and then the consolidation with the Buffalo, 
Lockport & Rochester Railway could be effected. The only 
way in which the International Railway is interested or 
connected with the deal is in the fact that these two lines 
in order to operate through cars from Erie, Pa., to 
Rochester would have to run over the tracks of the Inter- 
national Railway from Buffalo to Lockport. Officials of 
both of these lines have taken this matter up with the 
directors of the International Railway in an informal way, 
but the matter as it stands now is only in a premature 
state, as it were." 

Lake Shore, Bowling Green & Napoleon Railway, Bowl- 
ing Green, Ohio. — C. G. Taylor, receiver of the Sandusky, 
Norwalk & Mansfield Electric Raiiway, has been appointed 
receiver of the Lake Erie, Bowling Green & Napoleon 
Railway by the United States District Court, Northern 
District of Ohio. Mr. Taylor succeeds B. C. Harding and 
A. E. Royce, who have been receivers of the property since 
May, 191 1. Mr. Taylor will continue to act as receiver 
and general manager of the Sandusky, Norwalk & Mans- 
field Electric Railway, and will divide his time between the 
two properties, having one office at Bowling Green and 
one at Norwalk, Ohio. 

July 19, 1913.] 



Manchester Traction, Light & Power Company, Man- 
chester, N. H. — Plans have been perfected for consolidat- 
ing the Manchester Traction, Light & Power Company and 
the Nashua Light, Heat & Power Company. The Man- 
chester Traction, Light & Power Company has an author- 
ized capital stock of $2,800,000, all of which is outstanding, 
and $2,000,000 of bonds, of which $1,750,000 is outstanding. 
The Nashua Light, Heat & Power Company has $600,000 
of stock and no bonded debt. The plan for the consolida- 
tion, which has aiready been approved by the directors of 
the Nashua light, Heat & Power Company, involves the 
exchange of one share of stock in that company for one 
share of full paid stock of the Manchester Traction, Light 
& Power Company and $40 in cash, provided that holders 
of at least 90 per cent of the stock of the Nashua Light, 
Heat & Power Company agree to the exchange. 

Medfield & Medway Street Railway, Westfield, Mass. — 
Eugene H. Mather, receiver of Medlield & Medway Street 
Railway and the Dedham & Franklin Street Railway, was 
authorized by Judge Hammond in Supreme Court on 
July 12 to sell the franchises and property of both com- 
panies at public auction at such time and place as he 
selects, unless $126,448 was paid to the Old Colony Trust 
Company on July 17 on behalf of bondholders of the Med- 
field & Medway Company for bonds and accrued interest, 
and $114,322 was paid to the Beacon Trust Company to 
be paid to bondholders of Dedham & Franklin Street Rail- 

Oakland, Antioch & Eastern Railway, Oakland, Cal. — 

The Oakland, Antioch & Eastern Railway has been granted 
authority by the Railroad Commission of California to 
issue $1,000,000 of bonds to provide funds to complete its 
railway between Bay Point and Sacramento. 

Public Service Company of Northern Illinois, Chicago, 
111. — The Public Service Company of Northern Illinois has 
sold to a syndicate composed of Lee, Higginson & Com- 
pany, N. W. Halsey & Company and Russell, Brewster & 
Company, $2,500,000 of three-year 6 per cent collateral gold 
notes, secured by $3,125,000 of its first and refunding mort- 
gage 5 per cent bonds. The notes are convertible into the 
first and refunding bonds at the buyer's option. They wiil 
be offered to investors on an income basis of 7 per cent. 

San Francisco-Oakland Terminal Railways, Oakland, 
Cal. — A plan which has been proposed for the re-organiza- 
tion of the San Francisco-Oakland Terminal Railways pro- 
vides for the organization of a new company with the same 
amount of capital stock as the San Francisco-Oakland 
Terminal Company, nameiy, $14,600,000 of common stock, 
$9,200,000 of A preferred stock and $1,000,000 of B pre- 
ferred stock. Holders of A preferred will receive an 
equal amount of new 6 per cent preferred cumulative after 
Aug. 15, 1918. Holders of B preferred will receive an equal 
amount of 6 per cent non-cumuiative second preferred, and 
holders of common will receive an equal amount of the 
new common. The new company will issue $4,000,000 of 
five-year 6 per cent notes, which, less the necessary ex- 
penses in carrying out the plan of reorganization, will be 
used to refund the $2,500,000 past due notes and to pay 
floating indebtedness of the San Francisco-Oakland Term- 
inal Railways. Of the notes $2,000,000 additional will be 
reserved to be sold, if necessary, in the future to provide 
funds for betterments and extensions of the properties. To 
pay the $1,100,000 notes of the Oakland Terminal Company, 
which will mature on Aug. 20, 1913, it is planned to issue 
new 5^-year notes to be secured by the same collateral 
as the present notes. At a meeting of about fifty minority 
stockholders of the San Francisco-Oakland Terminal Rail- 
ways and Oakland Traction Company, a committee of three 
was appointed to prepare a list of the minority stockhold- 
ers and call a second meeting for the purpose of levying 
an assessment to defray expenses of having an expert 
accounting made of the books of the companies. 

South Shore Traction Company, Patchogue, N. Y. — The 
assets of the South Shore Traction Company were sold on 
July 11 before Judge Chatficld in the United States Circuit 
Court in Brooklyn for $16,725. They consisted chiefly of 
franchises, tracks and ties. They do not constitute a con- 
tinuous road, as the building was done in sections, as fran- 
chises were obtained. Arthur Nosworthy, a Brooklyn con- 
tractor, who built some of the lines for the company, bid 

in two sections of the road for $12,550. Robert D. Ireland 
bought in for the Babylon Railroad another section against 
which it holds a lien of $8,500. He paid $1,150 for it. Two 
other sections went for $1,000 and $2,000 respectively, and 
a franchise on which no construction had been done was 
sold for $25. 

Southwestern Traction & Power Company, New Orleans, 

La. — The Southwestern Traction & Power Company has 
filed notice of an increase in its authorized capital stock 
from $1,500,000 to $3,000,000. 

Toledo, Ann Arbor & Jackson Railroad, Toledo, Ohio. — 

The Public Service Commission of Ohio has authorized the 
Toleda, Ann Arbor & Jackson Railroad to issue to Lewis 
E. Ingalls, president of the company, as a full and final 
consideration for the assets and property of the company, 
its capital stock of the par value of $300,000 and to issue its 
5 per cent bonds of the total principal sum of $850,000, the 
proceeds to be used to reimburse Mr. Ingalls for moneys 
advanced by him and used in the construction and im- 
provement of the railway. 

Dividends Declared 

Chippewa Valley Railway, Light & Power Company, Eau 
Claire, Wis., quarterly, 1% per cent, preferred; quarterly, 2 
per cent, common. 

Columbus (Ohio) Railway, quarterly, V/^ per cent, pre- 

East St. Louis & Suburban Company, East St. Louis, 111., 
quarterly 1*4 per cent, preferred. 

Jacksonville (Fla.) Traction Company, quarterly, per 
cent, common. 

New Hampshire Electric Railways, Haverhill, Mass., 2 
per cent. 

United Traction Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., 2.y 2 per cent, 



Gross Operating Net Fixed Net 

Period Earnings Expenses Earnings Charges Surplus 

lm.. May, - 13 $60,280 *$28,087 $32,198 $17,136 $15,062 

1 12 53,790 *24,018 29,772 16,498 13,274 

12 13 736,500 *334,240 402,260 204,228 198.032 

12" " '12 643,612 *295,175 348,437 174,380 174,057 



lm., May '13 $123,315 *$67,42S $55,863 $24,607 $31,256 

1 " " '12 88,888 *50,359 38,529 21,684 16.845 

12 13 1,148.956 *688.675 460,281 280,045 180,236 

12 12 984,516 *582,641 401,875 249,781 152,094 



lm., Mav, '13 $175,866 *$100.501 $75,365 $57,293 $18 072 

1 12 166,126 *96,538 69,588 52,839 16,749 

12 13 2,199,570 *1,223,574 975,996 670,215 305.781 

12" " '12 2,067,554 *1,267,166 800,388 595,880 204.508 

12" " '12 2.067,554 *1,267,166 800,388 595,880 204.508 


lm., May, '13 $221,798 *$123,572 $98,226 $50,552 $47,674 

1" " '12 196.824 *1 14,262 82,562 48,286 34.276 

12 13 2,553,497 *1,411.160 1,142,337 585.174 557,163 

12 " " '12 2,327,593 *1,294,196 1,033,397 560,736 472.661 


lm.. May, '13 $107,572 *$63,029 $44,543 $14,963 $29,580 

1 12 102,627 *53,1S7 49,440 14,497 34,943 

12" " '13 1,259,545 *727,589 531,956 176,690 355,266 

12 12 1,202,320 *671,154 531,166 177,172 353,994 


lm., May, '13 $54,957 *$33,408 $21,549 $15,493 $5,056 

1" " '12 49,814 *31,143 18,671 14,447 2.224 

12 13 646,616 *395.298 251,318 174.554 76.764 

12" " '12 613,772 *382,855 230,917 172,277 5S.640 

12 12 613,772 *382,855 230,917 172,277 58.640 


lm., May, '13 $184,147 *$1 12,124 $72,023 $37,877 $34,146 

1 " " '12 173,675 *100,228 73,447 36,200 37,247 

12" " '13 2,130,057 *1,225,735 904,322 446,203 458,1 19 

12 12 2,006,607 *1,155,895 850,712 413,162 437.550 



lm., May, '13 $549,852 *$269,709 $280,143 162,174 $117,969 

1" " '12 543,813 *264,906 278,907 148,392 130.515 

12 13 6.697,304 *3.296,138 3,401,166 1.829,287 1,571,879 

12" " '12 6,446,311 *3, 197,588 3.248,723 1,618,748 1.629.975 


lm., Mav, '13 $79,691 *$61,299 $18,392 $10,729 $7,663 

1" " '12 77,570 *55,467 22,103 10.206 11.897 

12" " '13 1,003,694 *708,435 295,359 123,995 171,264 

12" " '12 968,160 *724,957 243,203 115,936 127,267 
* Includes taxes. 

1 18 


[Vol. XLII, No. 3. 

Traffic and Transportation 

I. C. C. Decision in Indianapolis-Louisville Freight Case 

The Interstate Commerce Commission rendered a deci- 
sion July 9, 1913, ordering the Indianapolis, Columbus & 
Southern Traction Company, the Louisville & Southern In- 
diana Traction Company, the Louisville & Northern Rail- 
way & Lighting Company, the Indianapolis & Louisville 
Traction Company and the Interstate Public Service Com- 
pany to establish on or before Sept. 15, 1913, and to main- 
tain for a period of not less than two years thereafter, 
through rates and joint rates for the transportation of 
merchandise of less-than-carload lots from Louisville to 
Indianapolis and intermediate points. The decision was 
rendered in the case of the Louisville Board of Trade and 
others against the Indianapolis, Columbus & Southern 
Traction Company and the connecting lines previously 
mentioned. In deciding the case the commission said in 

"From Louisville, on the south bank of the Ohio River, 
to Indianapolis, the Pennsylvania Railroad is paralleled for 
its entire distance of about 117 miles by a through route 
composed of the interurban electric railways operated by 
the Louisville & Southern Indiana Traction Company be- 
tween Louisville and Jeffersonville, a distance of 3 miles; 
the Louisville & Northern Railway & Lighting Company, 
the lines of which extend a distance of 11 miles to Sellers- 
burg; the Indianapolis & Louisville Traction Company, 
the lines of which extend some 41 miles to Seymour, where 
they connect with the Indianapolis, Columbus & Southern 
Traction Company, which operates from Seymour to In- 
dianapolis, a distance of 61 miles. 

"The last named line is now operated by the Interstate 
Public Service Company under a 999-year lease. The latter 
company, together with the two lines first mentioned, which 
form the route northward out of Louisville to Sellersburg, 
are owned or controlled by the Middle West Utilities Com- 
pany, commonly referred to as the Insull lines. The In- 
dianapolis & Louisville Traction Company, from Sellers- 
burg to Seymour, however, is an independent company. 
In other words, the two lines running north out of Louis- 
ville, and the line extending south from Indianapolis are 
under a common control, while the connecting link between 
them is independently owned. 

"A network of interurban lines extends from Indian- 
apolis in every direction, with an aggregate of nearly 2000 
miles of track, reaching practically all the eastern, north- 
ern and western portions of Indiana and to southern Michi- 
gan and western Ohio. Some twenty of these companies, 
with lines in Indiana and Ohio, are named as co-defendants 
herein. All of them, including the lines from Louisville 
to Indianapolis, while primarily carriers of passengers, par- 
ticipate in handling less-than-carload freight business; and 
many, if not all, of them have tariffs on file with this com- 
mission naming their local freight or express rates, and in 
some cases showing also joint rates with connecting elec- 
tric lines. 

"The Louisville commercial interests in this proceeding 
asked for an order establishing through routes for less than 
carload traffic to points north of Seymour, and more par- 
ticularly to Indianapolis and to places on interurban lines 
reached through Indianapolis. Over such routes, when 
established, they asked for joint rates that would not ex- 
ceed the present rates of the steam railways on the same 
articles to the same points. The local rates of the various 
defendants now in effect are. in a general way, the same 
as the rates of the competing steam roads between the 
same points. 

"The testimony of manufacturers and jobbers at Louis- 
ville indicates that in the sale of their merchandise at local 
points in Indiana and western Ohio where they meet the 
competition of Indianapolis, the need of a package freight 
service over the through routes here demanded is keenly 
felt, and that Indianapolis with such an expeditious and 
efficient service at its command and with routes in effect 
over which the rates are the same as or less than the 
freight rates of the steam railroads, has a distinct advan- 
tage in soliciting the business of retailers and consumers 
in that territory. The testimony also fairly established the 

contention of the complainants that a schedule of express 
rates for this service as distinguished from freight rates 
would practically prevent the use of the proposed through 
routes. It is shown also that in proportion as the rates 
over these routes may exceed the rates of the steam roads 
the value of the routes will be reduced. 

"The lines beyond Indianapolis took no active part in the 
hearing and they seemed not to be opposed to the estab- 
lishment of through routes. Physical through routes al- 
ready exist and are in actual use. The four defendants 
operating the route between Louisville and Indianapolis 
conduct a through passenger service of six limited trains, 
running daily in each direction, for which through tickets 
are sold. The northern link in the routes conduct a local 
package freight service between Indianapolis and Seymour. 
The three lines forming the other three links in the route 
not only conduct a local freight service over their respec- 
tive rails, but join in through rates from Louisville as far 
north as Seymour. For a short time in 1908 there was 
joint through class rates in effect from Louisville, or from 
New Albany, just across the river, to Indianapolis. They 
were cancelled at the instance of the Indiapolis, Columbus & 
Southern Traction Company and it is this company that 
objects to their restoration. The traffic now moves be- 
tween Seymour and Indianapolis, a one-line haul, and goes 
on through rates between Seymour and Louisville, a three- 
line haul. Certain perishable freight, such as berries, 
moves all the way from Jeffersonville to Indianapolis on 
joint through rates. All that is necessary to satisfy this 
complaint with general traffic is the withdrawal by the 
line of its insistance upon a transfer of traffic at Seymour. 
As a matter of fact the lines north of Indianapolis appar- 
ently stand ready to participate in through movements 
from Louisville." 

All the electric railways centering in Indianapolis were 
defendants in the case. Speaking of the properties south 
•of Indianapolis the commission said: 

"In the history of these properties there is one fact of 
significance, although we have attached little importance to 
it in reaching the conclusions here announced. When the 
promoters planned the electric railway previously referred 
to as the independent link in the physical route between 
Indianapolis and Louisville, the Indianapolis, Columbus & 
Southern Traction Company, formerly known as the Irwin 
line, had its southern terminus at Columbus, Ind. The 
promoters of the independent line proposed to start at 
that point and build south to Sellersburg, but the owners 
of the Irwin line objected to this and an understanding 
was reached by which the Irwin line was to extend its rails 
south from Columbus to Seymour and the independent line 
was to commence at that point and build south to Sellers- 
burg. This agreement is embraced in written contracts 
offered in evidence, which upon their face contemplated 
the subsequent establishment not only of the through pas- 
senger service between Louisville and Indianapolis but of 
a joint through freight service. The passenger service has 
long been in effect, but the establishment of the freight 
service has been blocked by the objections of the Irwin 

The order of the commission follows: 

"It is ordered that the defendants, Indianapolis, Colum- 
bus & Southern Traction Company, Louisville & Southern 
Indiana Traction Company, Louisville & Northern Rail- 
way & Lighting Company, Indianapolis & Louisville Rail- 
way and Interstate Public Service Company, be, and they 
are hereby notified and required to establish, on or before 
Sept. 15, 1913, and for a period of not less than two years 
thereafter to maintain, through routes for the transporta- 
tion of merchandise or less-than-carload freight from 
Louisville, Ky., to Indianapolis, Ind., and to other points 
on their lines intermediate to Indianapolis. 

"It is further ordered that the said last-named defend- 
ants, be, and they are hereby notified and required to estab- 
lish, on or before Sept. 15, 1913, upon notice to the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission and the general public by 
not less than five days' filing and posting in the manner 
prescribed in section 6 of the act to regulate commerce, 
and for a period of two years after said Sept. 15, 1913, to 
maintain, reasonable joint rates for the transportation of 
merchandise or less-than-carload freight over such through 

July 19, 1913.I 


routes, which said rates in cents per 100 lb. shall not exceed 
these amounts between Louisville and the following cities: 

Class 12 3 4 

Columbus, Ind 18 16 14.5 11 

Edinburg, Ind 20.5 19.5 18 12 

Franklin, Ind 23 21 18 13 

Greenwood, Ind 25 23 20 13.5 

Indianapolis, Ind 26 23 20.5 13.5 

"The commission having found that any rates in excess 
of these rates will be unreasonable." 

Report on Sanitation in Chicago 

A report from G. B. Young, commissioner of health of 
Chicago, 111., on the subject of sanitation in street railway 
cars, has been presented to the City Council of Chicago 
by the local transportation committee. 

One man was detailed by the commissioner of health in 
March, 1912, to inquire into the methods used by the com- 
panies in cleaning their cars and maintaining them in a 
sanitary condition and to study the matter of suggested 
improvements. The report continues in part: 

"In general it may be said that the cars as a rule are 
well cleaned at stated intervals. Little, if any, provision 
is made for additional cleaning in exceptionally bad 
weather, and practically no provision whatsoever for any 
cleaning while the car is in operation. It frequently hap- 
pens that cars leave the carhouse after being thoroughly 
cleaned and are very dirty before the end of the first run. 
In many of these cases it would not be at all difficult to do 
a certain amount of cleaning at the end of the run. At 
any rate, the widely distributed expectorated matter and 
the mud could be got rid of very easily in a few minutes. 
In other cases, cleaning the cars while in operation presents 
difficulties which in all probability are almost insuperable. 

"With respect to the enforcement of that portion of the 
ordinance prescribing an average temperature not lower 
than 50 deg. inspections made during the winter of 1912-13 
showed it was the exception to find a car with a missing 
or broken thermometer, whereas hitherto this had been 
quite common. Some prosecutions were brought on vio- 
lations discovered, and these resulted in convictions and 
assessment of fines. 

"During the fall of 1912 and early months of 1913 quite 
extensive observations demonstrated that in cars equipped 
with ventilating fans the operation of the fan should be 
independent of the control of the conductor. Current 
meters on the cars equipped with fans have shown that the 
cost of continuous operation is negligible when compared 
with the advantage resulting therefrom. 

"Investigation of the near-side cars showed that it was 
impossible to operate them as they were originally de- 
signed without an intolerable amount of dust. This find- 
ing was duly reported to the company concerned and to 
the city authorities. 

"During the winter a considerable number of observa- 
tions were also made in regard to the amount of carbon 
dioxide present in the air in street cars and a number of 
suits are now pending for violation of the ordinance. It 
is understood, however, that these cases will be carried 
up on appeal. 

"There are several matters in connection with the trans- 
portation ordinance in which the health department has an 
interest and upon which it would like to be heard before 
any final revision of the present ordinance." 

The Council has ordered the report to be published and 

Ccmmutation Fares of New Haven Railroad Not 

According to a report of the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission handed down June 19, 1913, the commutation fares 
of the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad from 
points in the State of Connecticut into New York City are 
not unreasonable, except as to certain stations specifically 
named in the report. The report says in part: 

"The record presents two questions for determination: 
1. Are the increased commutation fares of the New Haven 
Railroad from points in Connecticut into New York City 
just and reasonable? 2. Is the New Haven Railroad, by 

its refusal to sell fifty-trip family tickets between Con- 
necticut points and New York City, unjustly discriminating 
against the Connecticut commuters? 

"While we have not made a minute examination of the 
fares within the State of New York, as fixed by the state 
commission, apparently the fares, fixed by the company 
itself, from points in Connecticut within the 25-35-mile 
zone from New York City are out of line with those fares. 
They are out of line, also, with the fares from points in 
Connecticut beyond that zone. They are also unreasonable 
when tested by the facts of record and by the schedule of 
fares into New York City that we have fixed on the Penn- 
sylvania and on other carriers in New Jersey. The 
averaged fare at this time from points in that zone on the 
New Haven is $10.30. This, we think, is excessive, and 
we so find. Using Riverside, 30.26 miles from New York 
City, as a typical point in the zone, we find that a fare for 
the future in excess of $9.25 for a sixty-trip monthly ticket 
from that point to New York City will be excessive and 
unreasonable. The defendant will also be expected to scale 
its fares for the future in this zone in a proper relation to 
the fare of $9.25, here found as a reasonable maximum 
fare from Riverside. 

"A careful examination of all the other fares in the New 
Haven commutation schedule fails to reveal any that is 
fairly open to criticism, when tested either by the fares of 
the Pennsylvania for similar distances or by the fares of 
any other of the New Jersey carriers, or when tested by 
any other matters shown of record. When the fares from 
points within that zone shall have' been reduced to the basis 
here suggested the New Haven schedule as a whole will 
be slightly lower than the Pennsylvania schedule, the dif- 
ferential ranging from 25 cents at the nearer points to $1.15 
at the more distant points." 

In reference to the fifty-trip family tickets the com- 
mission says: 

■ "In the exercise of a broad policy and from a broad point 
of view the respondent, in our judgment, ought to sell a 
fifty-trip family ticket from points in the State of Con- 
necticut so long as they are sold from points in the State 
of New York either voluntarily or under the order of the 
state commission. Such tickets are in use on all other 
railroads furnishing commutation service between New 
York City and practically all points located within the so- 
called New York City commutation territory reached by 
their respective lines. They are in use almost universally 
where a commutation service is maintained. We regard 
it as unreasonable and discriminatory under the circum- 
stances not to accord their use to Connecticut commuters." 

Pennsylvania Commission on Responsibility for Shipments 

The Northwestern Pennsylvania Railways, Meadville, 
Pa., has been notified by the Railroad Commission of Penn- 
sylvania that it is not justified in requiring the payment 
of an insurance fee in order to make the company re- 
sponsible for the safe transportation of packages consigned 
to its care. The matter was brought to the attention of 
the commission by E. J. Swanson, Edinboro, who advised 
that this company has a published rate on shipments from 
Erie to Edinboro, but if the rate is not prepaid an extra 
charge of 10 cents is assessed. It is called a billing or 
insurance charge. The position of the commission is that 
the company has no right to require the insurance of pack- 
ages intrusted to it for delivery at agency points, but that 
it is its duty to deliver these packages according to the 
contract, and the responsibility for the loss of a consign- 
ment cannot be avoided by any insurance requirement. 
The letter of the secretary of the commission to the com- 
pany in this connection follows: 

"I have been directed to advise you that it does not ap- 
pear to the commission that you are justified in requiring 
the payment of an insurance fee in order to make yourself 
responsible for the safe transportation of packages com- 
mitted to your care. You cannot avoid the responsibility 
in that way, and by accepting packages for delivery you 
become responsible for any negligence or lack of care, 
whether delivery is insured or not, and it is your duty to 
deliver all such packages accepted by you for transporta- 

"The case of your company and that of the government 



[Vol. XLII, No. 3. 

respecting the parcel post system are entirely different, as 
the government is not responsible for anything unless 
it makes itself voluntarily liable, but that is not the case 
with transportation corporations. 

"The commission, therefore, concludes that you have no 
right to require the insurance of packages intrusted to you 
for delivery at agency points, but that your duty is to de- 
liver these packages according to the contract, and you 
cannot escape the responsibility for the loss thereof occa- 
sioned by your own negligence by any insurance require- 

New Twin City Placards 

A. W. Warnock, general passenger agent of the Twin City 
Rapid Transit Company, of Minneapolis, Minn., has had 
placards reading as follows posted in all stations, club rooms 
and places where the 2000 employees of the company con- 
gregate : 

"Those engaged in railroading cannot fill responsible po- 
sitions acceptably if they fail to practice the principles of 

"That courtesy is essential to those who desire advance- 
ment must be accepted as a fact. Without it, men with 
other talents and qualifications seemingly sufficient have 
failed. With it, those lacking in many other ways have 
been successful. 

"Questions must be answered carefully and correctly, and 
with a cheerfulness that does not repel or discourage the 
questioner. They may seem irrational, or even silly, but 
always should be answered pleasantly and kindly. 

"Every employee has many opportunities to increase the 
value of his services with a little personal effort that costs 
him nothing and wins smiles of approval that are more de- 
sirable than frowns. 

"For his own personal good, and the strengthening of his 
character, every railroad employee should give the 'soft 
answer that turneth away wrath,' and cultivate the art of 
smoothing things out — truly more satisfactory than to end 
'the run' or day with some unnecessary altercation with a 
patron rankling in his mind, of filling a part of his hours 'off 
duty' with the worry of such incidents. 

"Every victory over discourtesy is well worth the effort, 
and makes a man bigger and stronger and a more desirable 
employee. It brings him nearer promotion and raises him 
in the esteem of his family and friends. It pays to be good 
humored! Let us suggest that you try it." 

Safety Crusade Card Now in Use in Chicago 

As a feature of its safety crusade the claim department 
of the Chicago (111.) City Railway is making an effort to 
keep attractive safety hint cards before the public at all 
times. The latest card to be displayed in the cars is printed 
in red and black, the two Maltese crosses appearing on all 
cards are red, and the words "Safety Hints" and the initial 
letters of each line of the six hints for safety are also in 
red. These initial letters spell the word "safety" and the 
lines are as follows: 

"Safety requires watchfulness. 

"Always look both ways before crossing track. 

"Face forward when alighting. 

"Enter and leave car only when it stops. 

"The arm should not be put out of the window. . 

"Your co-operation is necessary." 

These cards are 18 in. by 22 in. in size and are placed 
in the glass panel between the entrance and exit doors in 
the bulkheads at each end of the car. The cards are 
printed on both sides so that they can be reversed when 

Front Exits Impractical in Minneapolis. — The City Coun- 
cil of Minneapolis, Minn., has decided that it is not practical 
to use the front exits for street cars until all streets are 
paved and a proposed ordinance in regard to the use of the 
front exits has been tabled. 

Fifty-Ride Commutation Tickets Withdrawn. — The Puget 
Sound Traction, Light & Power Company, Tacoma, Wash., 
has filed with the Public Service Commission of Washing- 
ton, a supplemental tariff canceling the fifty-ride commuta- 

tion tickets between Tacoma and American Lake which 
sold for $5. 

Advertising the New Albany Chautauqua. — The Louisville 
& Northern Railway & Lighting Company and the Louis- 
ville & Southern Indiana Traction Company, operated 
jointly by the Middle West Utilities Company, Chicago, are 
now exploiting the Chautauqua held at Glenwood Park, 
owned by the company, and located near New Albany, Ind. 
The cars all carry signs advertising the event, and placards 
are posted in the stations and elsewhere. The Chautauqua 
is operated under lease. 

Los Angeles Railway Ordered to Reduce Fare. — A de- 
cision has been rendered by the Railroad Commission of 
California upon complaint of the city of Inglewood against 
the Los Angeles (Cal.) Railway and the Los Angeles Rail- 
way Corporation. A reduction has been ordered in the 
fare between Los Angeles and Inglewood from 15 cents 
to 10 cents, with transfer privileges. The price of the 
thirty-ride commutation ticket has been ordered reduced 
to $1.50, with transfer privileges. 

Completing Work on Pittsburgh Cut. — After four 
months' work on the second half of the cut through the so- 
called "Hump" in Pittsburgh cars of the Pittsburgh (Pa.) 
Railways are to be re-routed soon to run over the affected 
streets. The first half of the cut was completed last fall 
and the cars have been using these streets since. When 
the second year's work began, the cars were taken off 
the streets to be cut and routed over the others, which 
made traffic heavy in Fifth Avenue and other prominent 
thoroughfares. The principal street affected by the sec- 
ond year's work was Sixth Avenue. 

Increase in Wages in Dubuque. — The Union Electric 
Company, Dubuque, la., advanced the wages of its train- 
men on July 1 to the following scale: First six months, 
17 cents an hour; six months to one year, 20 cents an hour; 
second year, 22 cents an hour; third year, 24 cents an hour; 
fourth year and after, 25 cents an hour. The scale for- 
merly in effect follows: First six months, 16 cents an 
hour; six months to one year, 19 cents an hour; second 
year, 21 cents an hour; third year and after, 23 cents an 
hour. All over time is paid for by the company at 5 
cents an hour additional. 

Special Twin City Pamphlet. — The Twin City Rapid 
Transit Company, Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minn., is dis- 
tributing a pamphlet in regard to Minnesota's new prison at 
Stillwater, 20 miles from St. Paul, in order to increase traffic 
on the interurban line to Stillwater. Twenty thousand 
copies of the pamphlet have been published and placed in 
all hotels, railway stations and department stores in the 
Twin cities. All the railroads which operate into St. Paul 
and Minneapolis have also promised to distribute the 
pamphlets on their trains. The state authorities are aiding 
the company in advertising the prison, which is one of the 
most complete in the country. 

Conference in Regard to Transfers in Cincinnati. — Walter 
A. Draper, secretary of the Cincinnati (Ohio) Traction 
Company, addressed the committee on street railways of 
the City Council of Cincinnati on July 11 in regard to the 
proposed ordinance to require universal transfers. He sug- 
gested that the committee prepare a list of the places where 
transfers are desired and said the company would consider 
them one at a time, but he opposed the universal transfer 
idea. The committee thought it would be impossible to 
make up such a list without canvassing the passengers on 
each car for some time in order to find out where trans- 
fers are desired. Arrangements were made for a confer- 
ence with W. Kesley Schoepf, president of the company. 

Written Examination for New Albany Employees. — The 
Louisville & Northern Railway & Lighting Company and 
the Louisville & Southern Indiana Traction Company, as- 
sociated companies with offices in New Albany, Ind., held 
their regular semi-annual examination of employees in the 
operating division of the service at New Albany on July 9. 
The examination was based on the "Book of Rules" issued 
by the companies, covering not only the mechanical details 
of the operation of cars, but dealing largely with the fea- 
tures of the "safety first" campaign undertaken by these 
companies. One hundred and four of the trainmen took 
the examination, which was written, and forty questions 

July 19, 1913.] 



were answered by each man. The papers are to be graded 
and the results announced. The examination was held 
under the direction of James Harmon, claim agent of the 

Co-Operation Requested in Los Angeles. — W. E. Dunn, 
vice-president of the Los Angeles (Cal.) Railway Corpora- 
tion, has addressed the following communication to the 
patrons of the company: "The duty and business of this 
company is to furnish Los Angeles with the best service 
possible under the congested conditions now existing on 
the streets, and to relieve this congestion wherever possible. 
Also continuously to extend our lines to keep pace with the 
growth of the city. To make these betterments and exten- 
sions millions of new money will be required constantly. 
Upon our relations with the city and the underlying con- 
ditions in our franchises will depend our ability to raise 
the necessary funds. We ask that you who are interested 
with us in the growth of the city and the betterment, of our 
service do your part to aid in working out tht problems 
that arise every time new lines are to be built and the fran- 
chises for their construction are required. Co-operation — 
that is the answer." 

Resumption of Service Ordered. — Operation of interur- 
ban cars between Williamsville and Batavia, N. Y., was 
resumed on July 16 by the Buffalo & Williamsville Railway 
as the result of an order of the Public Service Commis- 
sion of the Second District of New York. Service between 
these two points was suspended some time ago as officials 
of the company declared that they were losing from $4,000 
to $10,000 each year .in the operation of this line. Resi- 
dents of Batavia appealed to the Public Service Commis- 
sion and Devoe P. Hodson, one of the commissioners, held 
a hearing in the court house in Batavia recently. Godfrey 
S. Morgan, secretary of the Buffalo & Williamsville Rail- 
way, appeared for the company. He said that while the 
rights of the public are to be recognized, the interests of 
the stockholders of a losing public utility should be safe- 
guarded. Mr. Hodson said the officials of the company 
secured the franchise for nothing and that the contract 
stands as an obligation of the company. 

Serious Accident on Pacific Electric Railway. — In an 
acccident on the evening of July 13 on the Pacific Electric 
Railway at Vineyard station ten persons were killed and 
more than 100 were injured. Three trains loaded with 
excursionists from the beach at Venice, 16 miles from Los 
Angeles, had stopped at a curve where a switch is turned. 
The last train began moving forward, while the two fore- 
most trains remained at a standstill, and the motor car of 
the last train drove into the rear of the center train. It is 
said that some youths pulled the whistle of the center 
train and that this was interpreted by the motorman of 
the last train to indicate that his leader was under way. 
The curve in the tracks at Vineyard Station is held re- 
sponsible for the failure of the motorman of the last 
train to see the stationary cars in time to bring his train 
to a stop before colliding with the standing train. No 
formal statements in regard to the responsibility for the 
accident had been issued by the officials of the company 
up to July 15. 

Prosecution in Ohio for "Knocking Down." — The North- 
ern Ohio Traction & Light Company, Akron, Ohio, has 
successfully prosecuted the first case against a conductor 
for "knocking down" that has been brought for a long time 
in Ohio. John W. Bernhart, a conductor, was arrested on 
the technical charge of larceny, which was subsequently 
changed to embezzlement. The evidence against him was 
so conclusive that on the advice of his attorney Bernhart 
pleaded guilty. Judge O. E. Lytle, in passing sentence, 
said: "I should like to impress it upon every employee 
everywhere that stealing from a corporation is no less a 
crime than stealing from an individual. The offense is of 
far too frequent occurrence and I should like to see the 
prosecuting attorney of the county take vigorous measures 
to break it up." County Prosecutor H. F. Castle said he 
would do this. Bernhart was fined $100 and costs and was 
sentenced to ten days in jail. Subsequently the $100 fine 
was suspended during good behavior, Bernhart being or- 
dered to report weekly to the court officers concerning his 
conduct. This is the first action by the company in a cam- 
paign of prosecution for offenses of this kind. 

Personal Mention 

Mr. O. H. Bernd has been elected secretary of the Des 
Moines (la.) City Railway. 

Mr. W. C. Sparks, who has been treasurer and general 
manager of the Rockford & Interurban Railway and the 
Rockford City Traction Company, Rockford, 111., has been 
elected in addition third vice-president of the company. 

Mr. T. C. Morris has been appointed acting purchasing 
agent of the United Railroads, San Francisco, Cal., to suc- 
ceed Mr. Thomas Finigan, whose election to Pierson, Roed- 
ing & Company was announced recently in the Electric 
Railway Journal. 

Mr. F. D. Gabriel has been appointed claim agent of the 
Chicago, South Bend & Northern Indiana Railway, South 
Bend, Ind., to succeed Mr. F. O. Jellison. Mr. Gabriel has 
also been elected claim agent of the South Michigan Rail- 
' way to succeed Mr. Jellison. 

Mr. W. A. Haller has been elected president of the 
Springfield (Mo.) Traction Company to succeed Mr. C. C. 
Chappelle, who has been elected vice-president Mr. Haller 
was formerly vice-president of the company and Mr. 
Chappelie was formerly president. 

Mr. George F. Storms has been appointed auditor of the 
P'ort Smith Light & Traction Company, Fort Smith, Ark., 
to succeed Mr. N. I. Garrison, who was recently appointed 
auditor of the Western States Gas & Electric Company 
with headquarters at Stockton, Cal. 

Mr. A. C. Ham has been appointed general manager of 
the Marquette Gas & Electric Company, Ishpeming, Mich., 
to succeed Mr. W. J. McCorkindale, who resigned from 
the company some time ago to become connecter with the 
C. H. Geist Company, Philadelphia. 

Prof. Henry H. Norris has resigned his position as head 
of the electrical engineering department at Cornell Uni- 
versity and will devote a part of his time to editorial work 
on this paper. He will have the title of associate editor 
and at present will make his headquarters at Ithaca, N. Y. 

Mr. J. J. Murphy has been appointed general auditor and 
purchasing agent of the Chicago, South Bend & Northern 
Indiana Railway, South Bend, Ind., to succeed Mr. J. G. 
McKee. Mr. Murphy has also been elected general audi- 
tor and purchasing agent of the South Michigan Railway 
to succeed Mr. McKee. 

Mr. T. W. Riley has been appointed superintendent of the 
Norwich & Westerly Traction Company, Norwich, Conn., to 
succeed Mr. S. J. Kehoe, whose resignation from the com- 
pany to become superintendent of the Norwich Gas & 
Electric Company was announced in the Electric Railway 
Journal for May 31, 1913. 

Mr. Robert I. Todd, president and general manager of 
the Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction Com- 
pany, Terre Haute, Ind., has been elected president of the 
Indiana & Northwestern Traction Company, Ind., which 
is leased to the Terre Haute. Indianapolis & Eastern Trac- 
tion Company. 

Mr. Foster Hannaford has been appointed assistant su- 
perintendent and operating engineer of the Galesburg Rail- 
way & Light Company, Galesburg, 111., to succeed Mr. 
E. M. Wharff, whose resignation to become connected with 
the Automatic Devices Company was noted in the Electric 
Railway Journal for May 10. 

Mr. J. A. MacDonald has been appointed superintendent 
of transportation of the Michigan United Traction Com- 
pany with offices at Battle Creek, Mich., to succeed Mr. 
E. M. Raver, who as noted in the Electric Railway Journal 
of June 14, 1913, has become superintendent of trans- 
portation of the Lincoln (Neb.) Traction Company. 

Mr. Charles S. Mellen, president of the New York, New 
Haven & Hartford Railroad and affiliated companies, which 
include the Connecticut Company, operating the electric 
railways in Connecticut controlled by the New Haven Rail- 
road, presented his resignation at a meeting of the board of 
directors on July 17 to take effect at their pleasure, but in 
any event not later than Oct. 1. 

Mr. Arthur E. Sherman has been elected treasurer of the 
Shore Line Electric Railway, Norwich, Conn., to succeed 



[Vol. XLII, No. 3. 

Mr. E. C. Winchester, New London, who has resigned to 
become secretary and treasurer of the Griswold Company. 
Mr. Sherman was formerly with Porteous & Mitchell, 
Westerly, R. I., later with the Thames Loan & Trust Com- 
pany, and was auditor of the Norwich & Westerly Traction 

Mr. A. L. Drummond has been retained by the Philadel- 
phia (Pa.) Rapid Transit Company to make a special study 
of traffic conditions in Philadelphia in connection with the 
plans of the company for re-routing its cars and improv- 
ing its service. In addition Mr. Drummond will study 
the possibilities of establishing an electric railway freight 
system to extend to the agricultural districts of Eastern 

Mr. Charles J. Pleming has succeeded the late Leon Fen- 
der as treasurer of the Knoxville Railway & Light Com- 
pany, Knoxville, Tenn. Mr. Pleming's first position with 
the company was that of a stenographer to Mr. Charles H. 
Harvey, president of the company. Later he was made 
private secretary to Mr. Harvey. On the death of E. R. 
Roberts, Mr. Pleming was made park manager and con- 
tinued as private secretary to Mr. Harvey. During the 
illness of Mr. Fender he acted as treasurer of the company 
for several months. Mr. Pleming will continue as park 

Mr. C. F. Blondell, formerly assi